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CSUanmgs m Mtt (Unltnvt 

Published by The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

H. H. Root Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A* I. ROOT, Editor Home Department J. T. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postoffice. Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



JANUARY 1, 1911 



NO. 1 



Editorial 



The Canadian Bee Journal is growing 
better with every issue. Editor Hurley is 
putting some good work on it. 



General, reports indicate a snug winter 
over most of the northern States. The 
ground is covered with snow and has been 
covered in this locality for the last six 
weeks. An abundance of clover was re- 
ported last fall, and if the snow will only 
continue throughout the winter we shall 
have a bumper crop next year. 



EXTRA -FANCY PRICES ON EXTRA -FANCY 
COMB HONEY. 

We believe the time is coming when ex- 
tra-fancy comb honey will be put up in car- 
tons, and the cartons put in shipping-cases 
having corrugated paper, top and bottom. 
When honey is put up in this way it is al- 
most sure to go through in good order. Deal- 
ers and consumers, as a rule, do not object 
to paying a fancy price providing they get 
the goods that correspond ivith the price. 



IN FAVOR OF THE TEN-FRAME HIVE. 

We are getting not a few endorsements 
of the editorial in our Nov. 15th issue, page 
712, urging the use of the regular ten-frame 
hive rather than the eight-frame. The fol- 
lowing letter is a sample of what is coming 
in from large producers: 

I must say. after reading your editorial. Nov. 15, 
you have at last got on the right road, except the 
deeper frame hive you mention, which you will 
find to be a mistake in later years, 

Colo, Iowa. Delbert E. Lhommedieu. 

We also have assurances from some of the 
manufacturers that they propose to co-op- 
derate with us in working toward standards. 



OHIO STATE bee-keepers' CONVENTION 
AT CINCINNATI. 

As will be seen by Convention Notices on 
page 26, arrangements have been made by 
Secretary Henry Reddert, to hold the next 
Ohio State Bee-keepers' Convention at Cin- 
cinnati with headquarters at the Grand 



Hotel, Halls Xos. 1 and 2, on Feb. 16 and 17 
nex'. A good program will be announced 
later. As there are a large number of bee- 
keepers in the vicinity of Cincinnati, there 
will doubtless be a large attendance. Bee- 
keepers from all over the State should make 
an effort to go, this year. Chief Inspector 
Shaw will be present and deliver an address 
on the foul-brood situation in Ohio. Other 
announcements will be made later. 



THE COLOR SENSE OF THE HONEY-BEE; 
CAN BEES DISTINGUISH COLORS? 

We have received, with the compliments 
of the author, a very interesting booklet, 
the subject matter of which is reprinted 
from an article in the November issue of 
the American Naturalist, by .John H. 
Lovell. Our readers will remember the ar- 
ticle on the bee's sense of color by Mr. 
Lovell, in our Sept. 1st issue, 1909. In this 
new treatise on the subject this original ar- 
ticle is incorporated, and with it a complete 
history of a large number of exceedingly 
interesting experiments. Mr. Lovell is an 
original investigator, and his patient and 
painstaking work is helpful to all students 
of apiculture. His conclusions follow: 

Bees plainly distinguish colors, whether they are 
artificial (paints, dyes, etc.) or natural ("chloro- 
phyll ") colors. 

Bees are more strongly influenced by a colored 
slide than by one without color. 

Bees which have been accustomed to visit a cer- 
tain color tend to return to it habitually — they ex- 
hibit color fidelity. 

But this habit does not become obsessional, since 
they quickly learn not to discriminate between 
colors when this is for their advantage. 



BEE-KEEPING FOR WOMEN, VERSUS POUL- 
TRY-KEEPING FOR WOMEN. 

At the last Ontario convention, a paper 
by Miss E. Robson, of Ilderton, Ont., on 
the subject, "Can women run an apiary?" 
attracted more than ordinary interest. In 
speaking of the advantages of bee-keeping 
for women she said: 

Now for some of the advantages for a woman in 
bee-keeping. In the first place, unlike poultry- 
raising, all the work can be done in fine weather — 
in fact, has to be done. Even in summer, unless 
during the busiest season, there will be a fair mar- 
gin of time for other pursuits, and all the winter is 
free: the work is heathful. taking one into the open 
air, and keeping him constantly in touch with the 
great world of nature. It will yield a good profit 
for a comparatively small ovitlay. The chief capital 
required is brains and persistence: and. perhaps 
most important of all. the work is Interesting, even 
absorbing. Can you imagine any thing more sug- 
gestive of peace and contentment than to stand in 
the midst of a bee-yard — one's own bee-yard— the 



^ 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



sun beating down warmly, the air heavy with the 
fragrance of blossoms, sunshine glinting on flash- 
ing wings, and the air lull of a steady hum which 
rises to a subdued roar? Then it i.s, indeed, that we 
know what a goodly thing it is to be alive. 

Even for the woman who does not wish to go into 
bee-keeping on a large scale, it can be made in most 
localities the source of quite a Ifttle income — espe- 
cially desirable where there is a large family of girls, 
as well as pioviding a wholesome sweet for the ta- 
ble. I have in mind two friends who keep from ten 
to a dozen hives of bees, v>^hich on an average net 
them about 8100 a year. They winter outside, and 
leave the packing around the hives all spmmer, 
thus saving themselves much heavy lifting. 

It is emphatically true that all the work 
necessary to be done with bees during the 
warm period of the year can be done in fine 
weather. 

We wish to emphasize one other point, 
made by Miss Robson, that, in order to 
make bee-keeping a success, "brains and 
persistence" are required. She is emphati- 
cally right. We need more of both of these 
commodities in all walks of life. 



THE CANADIAN BEE JOURNAL ON EIGHT 
VERSUS TEN FRAME HIVES; IS THE TEN 
TOO HEAVY FOR WOMEN AND ELDERLY 
MEN? 

Editor Hurley, in the November issue 
of the Canadian Bee Journal, gives his 
cordial support to our plea for standardiza- 
tion, and in particular the ten-frame L. hive; 
but he says that, in his experience, an eight- 
frame super filled with honey is about all he 
cares to lift; that a large number of bee- 
keepers are women and elderly men, and 
that the ten-frame hive is too heavy for that 
class. He thinks, therefore, it would be dif- 
ficult to eliminate the eight-frame hive. 

While we admit that the eight-frame is a 
little easier to handle, so far as lifting is 
concerned, than the ten-frame, the relative 
difference is very small. According to mod- 
ern methods of handling bees in connection 
with a wheelbarrow or cart, there need not 
be very much lifting, but, rather, of sliding. 
Frankly, it is our opinion that even the 
eight-frame full -depth Langstroth body 
when filled with honey is too heavy for the 
average woman or elderly man. Such j^eo- 
ple can hire for this heavy lifting a man at 
$1.50 a day, and that lifting can be confined 
mainly to the time of taking off the honey. 
All other lifting that will be necessary can 
be accomplished by means of a light block 
and tackle, and a small tripod, such as we 
recently described in these columns. 

Well, then, if all the important lifting 
can be accomplished by means of a light ma- 
chine or a $1.50 man, why not start out with 
the right hive in the first place — a ten-frame 
one? In putting on empty supers, one can 
handle ten-frame size as easily as eight. In 
the production of comb honey the supers will 
be only half depth; and that leads us to the 
point that a large number of extracted-hon- 
ey producers are using half-depth ten-frame 
bodies for extracting. If these women and 
elderly men do not care to hire a cheap man, 
or fuss with a lifting-jack, they should by 
all means use half-depth extract! ng-supers. 



It is well known that in a light honey-flow, 
or where the flow is very limited in dura- 
tion, it is better to give a colony a half-depth 
super than one full depth. 

Well, friend Hurley, taking it all in all, it 
seems to us that the ten-frame hive still has 
the advantage of the argument, both going 
and coming. 

FOUL BROOD, BOTH AMERICAN AND EURO- 
PEAN, AND ITS EXTENT OVER TH^! 
UNITED STATES. 

The following has been given out for 
publication by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Division of Publications, 

Jos. A. Arnold, Editor and Chief. 

WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ON 
BEE DISEASES. 

The honeybee annually produces a crop of 
honey valued at (at least) 820,000,000. and there are 
vast opportunites for increasing this output. The 
most seriovis handicap to bee-keeping in the Unit- 
ed States is the fact that there are contagious dis- 
eases which attack the brood of the honey-bee. 
There are now recognized two such diseases, known 
as American foul brood and European foul brood. 
From data recently obtained by the United States 
Department of Agriculture, it is known that Amer- 
ican foul brood exists in 282 counties in 37 States, 
and European foul brood in 160 counties in 24 
.States, and it is estimated conservatively that 
Ihf se di.seases are causing a loss to the bee-keepers 
of the United States of at least S;i,000,000 annually. 
This estimate is based on the probable value of the 
colonies which die, and the approximate loss of 
croij due to the weakened condition of diseased col- 
onies. The States in which the diseases are most 
jjrevalent are California, Colorado, Illinois, Indi- 
ana. Iowa. Kansas, Michigan, Missouri. Nebraska, 
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, 
and Wisconsin: and it is unfortunate that these 
are the States in which honey production is most 
profitable, making the future outlook of the bee- 
keeping industry so much the worse unless active 
measures are taken to control the diseases. Fur- 
thermore, the distribution of these diseases is by 
no me.ins fully known, and they are constantly 
spreading. 

The cause of American foul brood has been found 
by the Department to be a specific bacterium, and 
enough is known of the cause and nature of Euro- 
pean foul brood, which is also a bacterial disease, 
to make it possible to issue reliable recommenda- 
tions concerning treatment for both diseases. Both 
attack the developing brood; and as the adult bees 
die from old age or other causes, the colony be- 
comes depleted since there are not enough young 
bees emerging to keep up the numbers. When the 
colon.v becomes weak, bees from other colonies en- 
ter TO rob the honey, and the infection is siiread. 

Both of these diseases can be controlled with 
comija^ative ease by the progressive bee-keeper; 
but the chief difficulty encountered in combating 
these diseases is the fact that the majority of bee- 
keepers are unaware that any such di.seases exist; 
they therefore often attribute their losses to other 
sources, and nothing is done to prevent the sijread 
of the infection. It is, therefore, nece.ssary in most 
cases to point out the existence and nature of the 
diseases, as well as to spread information concern- 
ing the best methods of treatment. Several States 
have ijassed laws providing for the inspection of 
apiaries for disease, and the bee-keepers in other 
St-ifes are asking for the same protection, so that 
careless or ignorant bee-keepers can be prevented 
from endangering their neighbors" bees. This in- 
spection is a benefit in the spread of information 
concerning disease, in so far as the inspectors can 
cover the territory. The Department of Agricul- 
ture is helping in this work by sending out publi- 
cations to the bee-keepers in Infected regions by 
examining samples of brood suspected of disease, 
and by sending out information concerning the 
i>resence of disease, so that bee-keepers will be in- 
formed that their apiaries are in danger. The co- 
operation of agricultural colleges. State bee-keep- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



ers' associations, and other similar agencies is be- 
ing urged. 

In view of the fact that these diseases are so 
widespread, every person interested in bee-keeping 
should find out as soon as possible how to recognize 
and treat these maladies, and be on the lookout for 
them. A publication containing a discussion of 
the nature of these diseases and their treatment 
will be sent on request to the Department of Agri- 
culture. 

Washington. D. C, Dec. 6, 1910. 

The facts here given will be very interest- 
ing and valuable. Our Uncle Sam is doing 
bee-keepers a great service by the energetic 
way into which he is going into this. 



NOMENCLATUEE OF HONEY; SHALL WE 
"STAND pat" on "EXTRACTED"? 

There has never been any question in re- 
gard to the terms "comb honey" or "can- 
died honey;" and "bulk comb honey" 
seems to find favor with more bee-keepers 
than the less dignified and less accurate 
term, "chunk honey." But "extracted 
honey," as used to designate honey throwTi 
out of the combs, has been open to criti- 
cism. Not a few bee-keepers, perhaps, in an 
effort to shorten terms, speak of "extract " 
honey, and we have even seen it on quite a 
number of letter-heads. This is bad policy 
in more ways than one, for it is suggestive 
of an article that contains some honey, pos- 
sibly, but that is more in the nature of an 
extract — honey extract, etc. But, is the 
term "extracted honey " very much better? 

Remembering that in the American Bee 
Journal, a number of years ago, this same 
question was discussed quite freely, we turn- 
ed back and found in the year 1887 a large 
number of suggested terms, all of which 
were advanced by the various correspon- 
dents as being more suitable than the term 
"extracted." We give herewith a list of 
the adjectives that were suggested, some of 
which would be more appropriate for a fun- 
ny paper than a bee-journal. Here is the 
list: 

Combless, slung, uncombed, divorced, 
separated, centrifugal, free, squeezed, nec- 
tar, divided, clear, excomb, liquid, fluid, 
drained, expelled, extricated, extruded, 
strained, emitted, evolved, thrown, thrash- 
ed, rendered, bulk, loose, discharged, ex- 
comated, and selected. The number of com- 
munications on the subject, even at the 
start, almost overwhelmed the editor, Mr. 
Thos. G. Newman, and he suggested, after 
using two or three, that perhaps nothing 
would be gained by changing the term, and 
that the space might better be used in 
another way. The volley of letters did not 
cease, however, and so a little later Mr. 
Newman emphatically stated that he could 
not take space in the journal to prolong the 
discussion. We can imagine his dismay in 
finding that it was impossible to keep it 
down; for almost every issue from then on 
toward the close of the year contained one 
or more articles, each in all seriousness 
sounding the praises of one of the terms 
given in the list above. Quite a good many 
felt that the term "extracted" was good 
enough, and another class insisted that ex- 



tracted honey should be known simply as 
"honey." In desi^eration the editor kept 
trying to call off the fight, saying that the 
matter should be dropped until it could be 
submitted to the National Convention in 
the fall, but his pleading apparently had no 
effect. We assume that the Convention, 
after considering all the terms, decided ei- 
ther that "extracted " was the best, or else 
that it had become so firmly fixed as to be 
impossible of change. 

One of our subscribers recently suggested 
the terms "separated" and "separator," 
and these really appeal to us much more 
than "extracted" and "extractor." We 
give herewith his letter in full: 

At home here we have fallen more or less into the 
habit of saying "separated " honey, and calling the 
extractor the " separator." The suggestion is offer- 
ed for what it may be worth. The cream-separator 
is almost universally known and understood, and 
there is no prejudice against it. Centrifugal force 
does the work in each case, and the honey is just as 
truly Separated from the wax as the cream is sep- 
arated from the milk. 

P. W. Richards. 

Mast Yard, N. M., Nov. 19, 1910. 

We find that on page 476, American Bee 
Journal for 1887, Mr. T. Pierson suggested 
the same words and gave the same reasons 
for their use. Also, a little later in the 
year, another correspondent suggested these 
terms. We do not know that a change 
could be made, and we are not even sure 
that it would be advif^able, although of one 
thing we are certain: However well fixed 
the term "extracted honey " is among bee- 
keepers, the average consumer of honey is 
unfamiliar with it-^the less dignified term, 
"strained honey," being more popular, be- 
cause it is really more used by the buyers 
of honey. Even in the advertisements of that 
glucose product Karo Corn Syrup, this "as- 
good-as " phrase appears: " Clear as s^rom- 
ecZ honey." 

All this goes to show, we think, that, to 
the average person, "extracted honey" 
means little or nothing. As a suggestion, 
would it pay all producers and dealers to 
have printed on their labels the following: 
"Pure extracted honey: (Honey thrown 
from the comls by centrifugal force)"? 
We realize that this might not find favor 
with perhaps a majority of producers, and 
it is very possible that our suggestion is not 
a wise one. However, of this much we are 
sure: In spite of all that has appeared in 
bee-journais during the last thirty years, 
say, comparatively nothing has gone out 
before the consumer s of honey, to indicate 
that extracted honey means the same hon- 
ey as that in the comb, the only difference 
being that it is separated from the comb. 
Some effort ought to be made to disabuse 
from the popular mind the implication that 
"extracted honey" means an "extract" of 
honey. This is not a point that is vital 
when the question of selling one individ- 
ual's honey is considered, for the one indi- 
vidual may have no trouble with his par- 
ticular class of educated customers; it is a 
point that concerns the whole bee-keeping 
fraternity. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



Stray Straws 

By De. C. C. Miller, MareDgo, 111. 



As POSTSCRIPT to that entirely correct 
answer, p. 769, to Mr. Hansen, let me add 
that a queenless colony is just the one with 
the most pollen, because for a time the bees 
continue to carry in pollen for which there 
is no market. 

Mrs. Acklin does well to urge State laws 
against adulteration, p. 749. The United 
States laws come in only when bogus goods 
go from one State to another. A man can 
mix glucose and honey, and sell all he likes 
in his own town, and no law can touch him 
if there is no State law to do it. 

G. M. DoOLiTTLB, p. 788, if you think the 
hexagonal plan for an apiary the best, you 
might change your laying-out a little and 
make it hexagonal. Instead of moving 
your line ahead ten feet each time, move it 
8 feet 8 inches. You will get more hives on 
the same area, and no hive will be less than 
10 feet from any other hive. 

My humble apologies to E. M. Gibson 
and N. M. Chap, p. 754. If I lived where 
there is cold weather every night, I don't 
suppose I should want the big entrances 
that are all right here. Every now and then 
I wake up to the idea that the whole world 
is not located within lyi, miles of Marengo. 
But now, after eating this much hiimble 
pie, I want to say to you, E. M. G., if you 
ever meet me out on the desert in a dark 
night, don't you dare speak to me in a 
friendly way. I have it in for you on anoth- 
er score. 

"The size of entrances will depend on 
the character of the cellar" leaves one 
guessing. In what character of cellar is 
there danger from too large entrances ? 
[Say, doctor, you should not ask such 
questions. Frankly, we do not know; but 
we do know that the cellar or the means of 
ventilation have something to do with the 
size of the entrances. We observe this, that 
authoritiesditfergreatly in their recommend- 
ations. You belong to the large-entrance 
crowd. We belong to the school that favors 
a smaller entrance. At all events, we have 
secured better results in a better-ventilated 
cellar where the entrances are about the 
size they are in the spring or late fall. — Ed.] 

W. H. ISIessenger says. Review, B(i5, 
"When you air-slack liriie in a bee-cellar 
you ventilate.'" Chemical action sets free a 
lot of oxygen. [Is there not some mistake 
here? The chemical name for common 
lime is calcium oxide, with the symbol 
CaO. When it is air-slacked, as, for exam- 
ple, in a damp cellar, it will take on or ab- 
sorb water from the air in the cellar, and 
any carbonic-acid gas that may be present. 
We then have the symbol CaCO'. If we 
understand the chemistry of the proposi- 



tion, no oxygen is given off; but when lime 
is put into a bee-cellar, in the process of 
air-slacking, moisture and carbonic-acid 
gas are absorbed. While this of course pu- 
rifies the air it does not do it by adding 
oxygen, but by removing the products of 
corobustion — that is, carbonic-acid gas from 
the breath of the bees. If we are wrong in 
our chemistry we should be glad to be set 
right. — Ed.] 

Whenever improvement in bees is sug- 
gested, such as breeding for non-swarming, 
the cry comes, "Oh! you can't control the 
drones." Isn't that objection a little over- 
worked? True, drones can not be directly 
controlled. Indirectly they can be and have 
been. I grant you, much quicker work 
could be made with direct control of drones; 
but do you believe that you can persistent- 
ly select queens with any one object in 
view and not in time have the drones af- 
fected thereby? Look at color. Couldn't 
control drones; but there are your bees, 
golden from tip to tip. I can't directly con- 
trol drones; but I have bred from biggest 
yielders, and have thereby bigger crops. 
Do you think my drones are not improved? 
"They'll revert." Let 'em revert. Keep 
breeding against reversion. A perfect non- 
swarming bee may never be; but a practi- 
cal non-swarmer, just as well as a practical 
non-swarming hen. So long as my record- 
yields come from colonies that make no at- 
tempt at swarming, I'm going to keep up 
the chase. [Good for you! We grant that 
something can be accomplished; but a strict- 
ly noQ-swarming strain — well, we will wait 
for it. — Ed.] 

Mr. Editor, you've made a good job of 
your "tentative propositions," page 779 — 
might put more emphasis on pure air. Ev- 
ery year I think more of it, and am begin- 
ning to think almost any thing else may 
be wrong if the bees only have good food 
and good air. — [We submitted these propo- 
sitions with the idea of having them criti- 
cised, so that, if they are accepted as cor- 
rect by bee-keepers generally who winter 
their bees in the cellar, we may put them 
in p?>rmanent form in our ABC and X Y Z 
of Bee Culture and other literature. Per- 
haps some of our readers can add some oth- 
er propositions to the list. More and more 
as time goes on it is being demonstrated 
that pure air is very important in winter- 
ing, either outdoors or in. At one time the 
whole fraternity went to the other extreme 
of putting in too much fresh air, or, rather, 
cold air, in a way that disturbed the bees. 
Then there came a time when it seemed to 
be accepted that bees did not need any air 
in the cellar — at least no more than would 
percolate through the walls; but the fallacy 
of that has now been shown up conclusive- 
ly. While bees can be wintered in a good 
cellar where the temperature is maintained 
imiformly at 45, they will come out in much 
better condition if, with that uniform tem- 
]ierature, they can have plenty of fresh air. 
—Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Bee-keeping in Southern 
California 

By Mrs. H. G. Acklin, Gi.endoka. Cal. 



Comb-honey production jseems to be go- 
ing out of fashion in our part of the State. 

4?- 
In hunting for pastures new, "look a 
leetle out " for Redlands. By actual count 
we found 5000 colonies on two sides of the 
town. Many of these are too far from, 
groves to store much orange honey. 

A bee-keeper told me recently that fifty 
swarms were caught near his apiary in one 
season. There are several live-oak trees 
near, and "bait hives " were kept out. He 
thought none of them were his own bees. 

There is an old saying that hope long de- 
ferred maketh the heart sick. I wonder 
how many bee-keepers feel that sickness 
when watching for the gentle showers that 
have not come up to this time — December 8. 

My ! what a crowd I pages 726, 727, Nov. 
15. But those vacant steps at the rear and 
sides look bad. Bring the National out to 
California in the near future and we will 
furnish enough more bee-keepers to fill a 
vacant space like that. 

How about that pledge the State associa- 
tion gave the president of the Los Angeles 
Chamber of Commerce to put on exhibition 
a fresh supply of honey ? If it has not been 
redeemed, how can we have the audacity to 
ask him to welcome us at our next meeting? 

In answer to Mr. Crane, page 716, Nov, 
15, I will say that many of our bee-keepers 
would not take the time or trouble to di- 
vide, but they do take care of swarms and 
do not want after-swarms; hence the " natu- 
ral-swarm" man may benefit by my item 
on page 546, Sept. 1. 

4f- 

I got track of a man the other day who is 
actually getting rich on what other people 
throw away. He drives around to different 
apiaries and buys slumgum, takes it home, 
and, by an ingenious process, gets a fine 
grade of wax from it, and always has first- 
class beeswax for sale. 



One of the happy surprises is the gentle- 
ness of the average bee in this climate. I 
have passed among the hives of many api- 
aries, and never yet had a following of 
"mad" bees. Sometimes half a dozen of 
us will be scampering around to find the 
best place from which to get a view, but 
never a bee bothers. Perhaps they realize 



the importance of "looking pleasant" on 
such occasions. 



I have been talking recently with differ- 
ent bee-keepers regarding a honey exhibit, 
from our section, at the State Fair. Some 
think it is too far to send honey, and oth- 
ers say it can not be sold to advantage after 
the fair is closed. I admit it is a long way 
from the southern portion of our State to 
Sacramento — about two-thirds the length, I 
believe; but I really believe it would pay to 
put in an exhibit up there. Let the whole 
southern part of the State unite in selecting 
fine honey, both comb and extracted, plen- 
ty to fill whatever space we could have, and 
then put some competent person in charge. 
If the premiums are as large as in some 
other States they will pay all expenses. 
Each bee-keeper should have his honey la- 
beled; and among the thousands inspect- 
ing it daily there will surely be some buy- 
ers. I had considerable to do with State 
fairs for many years before locating here 
two years ago, and know whereof I speak. 
Let us be public-spirited, even if it does 
make us some extra work, and help out the 
fair officials with a fine honey exhibit the 
coming season. 

■^ 

How to keep extracting-combs in good 
condition when not in use is a question 
which has racked the brains of bee-keepers, 
north, south, east, and west, for many years; 
and in this climate, where Jack Frost sel- 
dom comes, it is a continual question. Mr. 
B. Ct. Burdick, of Redlands, president of 
the State association, has solved this prob- 
lem to his own satisfaction. Almost any 
kind of building will answer the purpose 
if the roof does not leak and the sides are 
sufficiently open to admit of a free circula- 
tion of fresh air. If the building is light, 
screen wire will have to be used to keep 
flies from entering and soiling the combs. 
Comb-racks, securely fastened to the beams 
on roof, can run the entire length of the 
building. They should be a trifle narrower 
than the length of a top-bar so the ends of 
the top-bais can rest on them. There can 
be as many racks on the first tier as the 
width of the building will admit. More 
racks can be placed under the upper row if 
the strength of the supports above is suffi- 
cient. Hang the combs in these racks far 
enough apart to admit of a free circulation 
of air, and also far enough apart so moths 
can not nest between them. Mr. Burdick 
claims he brought through several hundred 
combs one season, in perfect condition, by 
this method. He also leaves combs in su- 
pers outside, slacked up so as to allow a 
circulation of air all around them, and far 
enough apart so they will not be attractive 
to moths for nesting-purposes. The nights 
being so cool here may be one reason why 
moths do not flourish under all conditions. 
If this simple method proves as effective 
with other bee-keepers as with Mr. Burdick 
it will be a great help to all of us. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



Bee-keeping Among The 
Rockies 

By WESI.EY Foster, Boulder, Colo. 



Dr. Miller, I fear that even the editor has 
missed it this time in saying that Oliver 
Foster has been spoken of by me as "my 
father," p. 646, Oct. 15. Now, I have a fa- 
ther whose name is A. F. Foster, and he is a 
brother of Oliver Foster, so you may figure 
out the relationship. The Foster family 
have been bee-keepers since 1861, when 
father bought a hive of bees in a patent 
hive (with county rights to make them and 
sell them) of Edwin France. Father, in his 
first season of bee-keejiing, got something 
like 140 pounds of honey from two colonies, 
and sold it all at about 25 cents a pourd. 
My uncle Oliver, however, has been a bee- 
keeper for a longer term of years than any 
of the rest of the Fosters. I think legend 
has it that he got his start in bees by dig- 
ging out a bumble-bees' nest in a red-clover 
field, putting the nest, bees and all, into a 
cigar-box and bringing them home to occu- 
py a position on the window-sill of his room 
where he could watch their actions more or 
less by lifting the lid of the cigar-box and 
taking a peek. Any way, this swarm of 
bumble-bees now has increased (oh the mar- 
vel!) into something like two thousand col- 
onies of bees located in various places of the 
irrigated West. 

UNITED EFFORT TO FIGHT THE GRASS- 
HOPPER PEST. 

A movement is on foot to get something 
like ten or twenty thousand dollars appro- 
priated by the State of Colorado with which 
to fight the grasshopper pest, which was the 
main cause of the honey failure in North- 
ern Colorado this past season. The bee- 
keepers are letting their influence be felt 
along with the farmers and gardeners and 
fruit-growers. If we work concertedly for 
an adequate appropriation we shall get it, 
and the use of this fund under the direction 
of the Agricultural college will mean the 
difference between success and failure in 
years to come. When one sees orchards en- 
tirely shorn of their leaves and fruit, and 
the bark of many of the limbs and twigs 
eaten off, it makes him feel that our real 
enemies are insect pests and not some for- 
eign nation. We are recognizing very fast 
where our danger lies, and, as a people, are 
overcoming obstacles that will make for bet- 
ter and worthier living. 

REQUEENINQ. 

Not long ago I was talking with a bee- 
keeper who never clips his queens nor 
spends much time in looking after the age 
of his queens. He trusts to the bees for all 
this. He told me that no doubt he could 
get a higher average yield of honey, but that 
this work would require the time he would 



spend in caring for a hundred hives of bees, 
so that if the extra hundred hives of bees 
make the difference in yield, he had lost 
nothing, and has kept his work in a simpler 
form. I am not sure this policy would do 
for all of us; but this bee-keeper makes it 
go very well; and as long as he can succeed 
better than the average lie is not very like- 
ly to change his course. 

BEES NEED WATER, EVEN WHEN HALF- 
AND-HALF SYRUP IS FED. 

Why do bees visit watering - troughs, 
streams, etc., when feeding a sugar syrup 
made half and half, and this in August and 
September? One would think that they 
would have a great abundance of water 
from handling this comparatively thin syr- 
up. The bees went in search of water this 
year after feeding commenced, whereas up 
to the time feeding began they were not no- 
ticed (to speak of) around the watering- 
troughs. But can the bees extract any 
amount of water from this syrup"^ Might 
it not be necessary for them to carry the 
syrup some distance before any water could 
be made available for the use of the bees in 
the hive? The syrup stimulated brood-rear- 
ing; and, in order to care for the young 
brood, water froni outside had to be brought 
in. This brings up some interesting ques- 
tions. 

"JUMPING" THE PRICE TO LARGE BUYERS 
RESULTS IN NO SALES. 

I believe that bee-men are as fine a class 
of people as we have; but, in common with 
other rural and semi-rural dwellers, we have 
some "queernesses." For instance, when a 
buyer writes, asking quotations on a large 
amount of honey — perhaps as much as or 
more than we have, so that, in order to sell 
to him, we would have to buy of our neigh- 
bor bee-keepers — we think because he is in 
a large city, and has a good market, he will 
pay a higher price than the merchants near- 
er home, so we ask him a price higher 
than what we have been getting from local 
merchants in single-case lots. Of course, 
ordinarily we do not sell to the large buyer 
when adopting these tactics, for the large 
buyer figures on buying as cheap as others 
if "not cheaper. So we keep our honey 
that we have jumped the price on, and con- 
tinue to sell it a case at a time for the same 
old figure, and very likely the large buyer 
would have taken the whole crop at the fig- 
ure, and saved us all the bother of small or- 
ders; but, no! we have not got over the idea 
that, if a man comes in search of an article 
in large quantity, we can jump the price up 
and get away with a little extra money. 
The man who lists his house for sale, and 
then every time a prospective buyer comes 
to look at it jumps the price, generally nev- 
er sells. It's better to have one uniform 
price, and not try to get a little extra mon- 
ey from a man because he wants what we 
have. The chances are that he knows the 
rock-bottom price better than we do. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTUllE 



Notes from Canada 

By R. F. HOLTERMANN 



PINCHING BEES. 

Doctor Miller, page 748, Dec. 1, I believe 
a pinched bee throws off poison scent, and 
excites the other bees in the hive, possibly 
for a long time, until they are ready to at- 
tack every thing suspicious. 

IN A CHEERFUL MOOD. 

The editor must have been in a particu- 
larly cheerful mood (shall I say optimistic 
spirit?) when he penned that editorial in 
regard to my pictures, page 747, Dec. 1. 

[We are always cheerful when we have 
stolen a march, or, rather, " got the laugh" 
on an old friend. — Ed,] 

EXAMINATION OF FOUI.-BROODY COLONIES. 

The British Bee Journal, page 463, after 
drawing attention to some lawsuits in Ire- 
land, refers to one case as follows: "In this 
case there is no objection raised to the Bee- 
pest Prevention act; but the bee-keepers ob- 
ject with considerable reason that their col- 
onies should be inspected during the height 
of the honey-flow when the bees are in full 
work. The act provides that the bee-inspec- 
tor should be allowed to come to examine 
the hives at 'all reasonable times,' and the 
regulations were taken by the county coun- 
cil to mean 'any time between April 20 and 
Oct. 31 inclusive, when the bees are flying.' 
The defendants contended that this was not 
a reasonable time, and that it would be a 
serious loss if the bee-inspector disturbed 
their bees when in full work, as they would 
lose three or four days after being thus dis- 
turbed. Of course, one can easily under- 
stand that bees disturbed at such a time 
must be impeded in their work; and a bee- 
keeper having a large number of hives 
would naturally suffer some loss. We do 
not see that there is any necessity for med- 
dling with bees at such times; and the in- 
spection can just as well be made either 
before or after the harvests so as not to in- 
terfere with the work in supers." 

The above is so diametrically opposed to 
what we hold in Canada that I confess I 
never came nearer pinching myself to see if 
I was awake or dreaming when I read this. 
In this province (Ontario) the desire of bee- 
keepers, and their contention, has been to 
have the inspectors out only when a tioney- 
flow is on; that at other times the bees are 
likely to rob and distribute diseased honey; 
and if the colony requires treatment then, 
it can be treated successfully with less trou- 
ble during the honey-flow, but robbing is 
the great objection. I fully agree with that 
contention. As to losing three or four days 
after an examination, ttie result of a mere 
examination can surely not be that. I 
would not be willing to admit even three 
or four hours' loss of time, particularly if 



the combs were returned to the hive in the 
order found — no, not an hour would I admit 
lost. 

4>- 
SHOULD A BEE-KEEPER HELP HIS NEIGH- 
BORS TO START WITH BEES? 

Our well-known friend G. M. Doolittle, 
page 752, Dec. 1, has an article on the above 
subject which contains a good deal of sound 
sense. I find that, from a business stand- 
point, to say nothing about a Christian 
standpoint, it pays to be honest and frank. 
It is neither honest nor kind to magnify or 
minimize the difficulties in connection with 
bee-keeping. To withhold all information 
and to refuse to answer a question which 
can be answered briefly by even a busy man 
is petty. However, I do feel that there are 
bee-keepers who have spent much money 
in gaining experience, traveling to conven- 
tions, and experimenting. For instance, I 
do not feel called upon to sit down when I 
can not do all my own work fully, and edu- 
cate some one else for nothing; neither 
would I allow any one else to do this for 
me. For years I have felt very strongly 
that it pays a man who wishes to specialize 
in bees to learn the business from a special- 
ist and not acquire every thing by dearly 
bought experience; and I for one have not 
felt like teaching some one my business 
and allowing him any more than actual ex- 
penses while doing so. Bee-keeping is a pro- 
fession. A man does not secure an educa- 
tion at considerable expense, and then 
charge nothing for instructing others. The 
bee-keeping industry has been brought to 
its present condition, not by governments 
and government help, but by individuals 
giving out what they have learned. The 
safeguard against undue competition in bee- 
keeping lies not so much in keeping meth- 
ods of success secret, but in the fact that 
not many will carry out those methods. 
Those who realize that their crop has been 
produced as a result of money invested, as 
well as of thought, time, experience, and 
labor, should be willing to share their 
knowledge; but they have a right to consid- 
er it worth all that can be secured for it in 
the market. 

NOTES FROM CANADA. 

With these notes I expect to withdraw 
from this department. To conduct such a 
department properly requires a good deal of 
general reading, and for over a year my 
plans have been in the direction of having 
entire liberty during the winter months for 
gospel and Christian meetings, and to be 
able to accept invitations in scattered and 
needy sections where not much financial 
aid could be given to Christian work or spe- 
cial help secured for special meetings. 

[We are very sorry to lose our correspon- 
dent. His extensive experience, coupled 
with his habit of close observation, has en- 
abled him to give to his brethren of the 
profession not a few tricks of the trade. We 
wish him God-speed in his new work. — Ed.] 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodino 



TIERING SECTION SUPERS. 

In one of the papers I see that some of our best 
bee-keepers tier supers of sections by raising the 
first super (on the hive) and putting the second 
one under. Then, later, if more are needed, the 
third is placed under the second, and so on to the 
end of the season. Last summer I tried the plan, 
being told that the bees would almost Invariably 
flu the top super before commencing in the lower 
one, and that the top one, when completed, could 
be taken away, and a third put under the second, if 
the season held out favorably. But the end of the 
season proved that the bees had filled the second 
super put on, doing very little more in the first. 
Can you tell me wherein I failed? 

Undoubtedly you failed from not having 
your colonies strong enough when you put 
on the first super; for it is evident that the 
bees never occupied that first one before you 
raised it up and put the second super un- 
der. Or, if strong enough, there was no 
nectar coming in from the fields, or, at least, 
not enough so that the bees were inclined 
to draw the foundation and store their hon- 
ey there. But your greatest failure came 
from not knowing just what you "were at." 
In other words, you did not work in the 
right way to succeed in what you desired to 
accomplish. Had your second super been 
placed underneath at the proper time — that 
is, when the sections in the hrst super were 
about two-thirds completed, the bees, if the 
colony was in suitable condition to receive 
more room, would have taken to the lower 
sections at once, and commenced to draw 
out the foundation ; and if the yield of 
nectar kept on, they would have continued 
to work without interruption, storing and 
finishing the sections in the first or upper 
super the same as if the other had not been 
placed under. 

Frequently it will be found that, where 
the colony is strong and the season extra 
good, from one-half to two-thirds of the sec- 
tions in the lower or second super will be 
also ready for removal. Now, if those not 
fully completed at the sides are placed in 
the center, and a third super put under, 
the work will go forward in the same man- 
ner as with the first, and so on to the end of 
the season. It is natural for bees to build 
comb downward, and to extend it gradually 
in a lateral direction. For this reason they 
almost always commence drawing out the 
foundation in the center of the super, where 
the hive below is filled with brood centrally; 
and, as they progress, honey is stored in 
these center combs, and at the tops of the 
sections on either side; therefore the center 
combs, and the tops of those further out, 
are sealed first, and this is why it is well to 
change the sections from the center to the 
outside, and the outside sections to the cen- 
ter, where there is plenty of time for such 
work. However, if "bait" sections are 
properly used in the first super ])ut on, with 
a colony running over with bees when the 



harvest commences, there is little need of 
this exchanging of sections till near the 
close of the season, as, with bait sections 
placed two-thirds of the way from the cen- 
ter toward either side of the super, all sec- 
tions will be sealed at so nearly the same 
time that it will not pay any one whose 
time is worth $2.00 a day to fuss with the 
changing of sections in the early part of the 
honey-flow. 

Some bee-keepers prefer to put the second 
super on top of the first, and I myself am 
quite inclined that way; but I shall have to 
admit that the majority of section-honey 
producers usually raise the partly filled su- 
pers and place the empty one between these 
and the hives. One of the reasons given 
for this is that, in this way, swarming is 
more readily delayed, if not entirely pre- 
vented, as by this plan room is also given 
for the bees, so that they do not become 
overcrowded. 

Another reason why the supers are moved 
up is that, when sections are finished close 
to the brood, they become soiled, or what is 
often called "travel-stained," by the bees 
walking over the darker brood-combs be- 
low, and from these immediately on the 
nice white sealed sections above. But when 
the supers are tiered, the white sealed sec- 
tions are so far away from the brood-nest 
that they remain in their beautiful condi- 
tion until the whole super can be removed. 
However, I find that the size of the hive or 
brood-nest used has very much to do with 
this matter. Where a small hive is used so 
that the queen breeds clear to the top-bars 
of the frames, and continues thus to the 
end of the season, this reason will hold fair- 
ly good with all colonies having old combs; 
but where the hive is large enough to insure 
a liberal allowance for winter stores, there is 
generally an inch or more of sealed honey 
along the tops of the combs below the su- 
pers, in which case this travel-stain is large- 
ly a myth. 

There is one part of this tiering-up process 
(usually not spoken of) which I consider of 
very great importance. The tiering should 
be done with a view to the greatest success. 
With such a view, no empty supers will be 
placed underneath those partly full toward 
the end of the season, for, if so done, the re- 
sult will be, nine times out of ten, nothing 
but a whole lot of lean and unfinished sec- 
tions at the end of the season. When the 
season is drawing toward the close, and yet 
there is a possibility that the bees may need 
more room, always place the empty super 
over the one the bees are at work in, and in 
this way catch the "overflow," should such 
happen to come; and if it does not come, or | 
the season stops more abruptly than usual, j 
then the larger part of the sections the bees i 
have commenced work in are salable. How \ 
may we know just when the flow of nectar < 
will stop? No one can foretell; and this is I 
the reason that some prefer to be always i 
prepared for a sudden stop in afi"airs by r 
placing all empty supers over those in which 
the bees are at work. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 




ENGLISH METHODS OF WINTERING. 



Absorbent Coverings Preferred with a Dead-air 

Space Around the Side Walls Instead of 

Packing Material. 



BY D. M. MACDONALD. 



The subject is a complex one, yet I think 
we have solved it in these islands in the 
only possible way for us, and we will vote 
almost unanimously in favor of absor- 
bents. But then your State of Ohio cen- 
ters on 40° north latitude, while we here 
in Banff are about 57.5°! It is very 
Interesting to add that the British Isles 
stretch from 50° to 60° N. .Just fancy — a 
fact not often realized — the south of Eng- 
land is on the same parallel as Winnipeg 
and the north of Ontario, Quebec, and New- 
foundland, while our parallel runs through 
the south of Greenland, the center of Hud- 
son's Bay, and the very north point of Sas- 
katchewan and Alberta. Judging by the 
degrees north of the equator, we should 
be almost in the arctic circle compared 
with Medina. But from several interest- 
ing causes which I need not dwell on we 
really differ little in climatic conditions 
from you. We would never dream in this 
country of wintering in clamps or cellars, 
and all our bees are wintered on their sum- 
mer stands with very little packing in addi- 
tion to that used in the heat of the season. 
Our success, I think, depends a good deal 
on two very important points, if not three. 
Perhaps it might be considered presump- 
tuous in me to assert that in these respects 
we are ahead of you, so I will let the facts 
speak for themselves. 

The main point, I think, to be attended 
to in securing safe wintering is the top of 
the brood-frames. There is the chief point 
of weakness. Heat is generated by the bees 
in the hive; and to give the colony the best 
chance of living in comfort, and surviving 
the rigors of our severest winters, we must 
preserve the internal heat by every means in 
our power. No draft may play through the 
brood-nest escaping upward and conveying 
the life-giving heat. We generate animal 
heat in our own bodies unconsciously; but 
to preserve it on nights of zero cold, we 
must wrap up snugly beneath Marm woolly 
blankets over linen sheets. Here is our 
ideal for the bees. Cover the tops of frames 
with a calico quilt, then over that place 
from three to six layers of warm woollen 
cloth, and you have just what the bees re- 
quire to keep them in the best heart in an 
arctic cold. Too heavy a pile of blankets 
tends to make mankind uncomfortable; too 
many heavy coverings incommode the bees, 
and fail to secure the ends we are striving 
for. The nearer you go to "hermetically " 
sealing up the body under a press of heavy 



coverings, the nearer you get to defeating 
the very end you are striving to attain. The 
body becomes bathed in perspiration, and 
discomfort follows. Bees breathe all over 
the body, and if their primary and seconda- 
ry organs can not get full play they are not 
wintering under favorable circumstances. 

Now, here is just where the nature of the 
roof of the British hives scores against those 
generally used in America. I know your 
chaff-hive roof has a clear space above the 
packing; i. e., the roof does not press down 
the planer shavings, forest leaves, or cut 
straw generally used. But it lacks the 
depth of our span roofs, and, moreover, in 
general we are not content with even that 
depth, but employ a lift of about six inch- 
es. That affords a large space of nearly 
dead air above the covering, affording am- 
ple means of ventilation. Further, to aid 
this essential to safe wintering, our hives 
have auger-holes pierced in the gables, back 
and front, to act as ventilators, and they 
thus afford an opportunity for the vitiated 
air to escape. These two points, the deep 
space over the covering and the ventilating- 
holes, covered, by the way, with perforated 
zinc, or with cone escapes as a general rule, 
mean more than at first sight might be 
supposed. 

The ample covering over the frames pre- 
serves the heat of the hive, yet it does not 
prevent a gentle percolation of the heated 
atmosphere through the porous coverings. 
The vitiated air thus finds a way out over- 
head, and fresh air is introduced in such 
measure as the bees deem necessary. Their 
keeper, of course, aids them by contracting 
the entrance by means of slides in zero 
weather, or by enlarging it when the tem- 
perature is high. A fairly large actual en- 
trance is provided on the approach of win- 
ter; but it is contracted partially to prevent 
snow drifting in and hinder the ingress of 
vermin by perforated zinc being tacked on 
above the slides, affording only about one 
inch by Y?, in. as the space left open for the 
bees' exit and entrance. The nature of our 
packing overhead, and the ample "attic" 
space, are the two points I specially speci- 
fied at the start. The third is the open 
space between the outer and inner bodies of 
our hives. Take a W. B. C. as a typical 
one. The wood employed might, perhaps, 
be deemed too thin for our rigorous climate, 
being only half-inch boards; but practice 
proves theory wrong here, for even in our 
northern latitude we are content with the 
dead-air space between the outer and inner 
body boxes, and never think of packing be- 
tween the walls. Elaborate experiments 
were formerly made to test this, and all 
kinds of material used; but the end of it is 
that now the dead-air space is deemed suf- 
ficient. It must be granted that two half- 
inch boards, with a space of two or three 
inches between, will prove warmer, and in 
several other respects more desirable than a 
single board one inch thick. Yet another 
point deserves notice. A deep bottom space 
is favored by many on your side. Well, 



10 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



this hive has a three-inch eke placed be- 
neath the inner or brood-frame box, allow- 
ing that amount of aerating space below the 
winter cluster. 

Condensed moisture settling on the inner 
ceiling, or even on the walls, of such a hive 
as I have described, is rarely if ever observ- 
ed; and, indeed, I think it is next to an im- 
possibility, during even a continuance of 
zero weather, or in course of a prolonged 
snowstorm, when the hives are buried in 
snowdrifts for weeks together. Some add a 
bottom ventilator capable of being opened 
or shut when desired; but I have never yet 
discovered any need of its use, although in 
a moister climate with a higher temperature 
at times it might work for good. Neither 
do I use a Hill or any other device for the 
tops of frames, as there is a tendency to 
draft unless coverings are extra carefully 
attended to; but I leave on all brace-combs 
above frames during the winter to provide 
winter passages for the shifting cluster to 
work around to new sources of nectar if they 
require it when long confined. 

I do not adopt an antagonistic attitude 
toward sealed covers, as I have wintered 
bees here safely in my own Langstroth hive, 
but not with such an ideal measure of suc- 
cess; and I have now provided a lift, and 
practice the more successful plan with it. 
I tried American oilcloth unsuccessfully. 
Boards placed close over packing proved an 
evil. So did such materials as old maga- 
zines used liberally. Glass quilts overhead 
had a fair trial. Bees came out fairly fresh 
and strong; but the expense as well as the 
worry entailed taught me to discard them 
as inferior all around. Convinced as I am 
that the three points I have touched on all 
tend toward successful wintering I submit 
them to your readers, and trust something 
may be done to test their value on your 
side. The wintering problem is a trying 
one at best, and every one who provides 
some food for thought advances the solution 
one step further. 

Gleanings advocates a vestibule or out- 
er chamber in connection with cellar win- 
tering, whereby the chill outer air is modi- 
fied before it reaches the inner room in 
which the hives are deposited. In general, 
bee-cellars are below dwelling-houses, or 
have some workroom above; consequently 
these apartments are ideal winter recepta- 
cles, because the inner sanctuary is aerated 
gradually, pure air being permitted to enter 
only after its severe temperature has been 
raised to something approaching 45°. Most 
consider this works most successfully for 
the bees' well-being. 

Now, here is this W. B. C. hive with a 
layer of pure air above, below, and all round 
on every side of the inner body boxes. The 
chill is taken off the fresh air previous to 
its entrance, so that no rude lowering of 
temperature attends the entrance of the 
volume of air carried into the hive interior. 
The dead air all round the brood-nest body 
secures an equable temperature, while the 
deep space overhead, aided by the ventilat- 



ing cover, allows the vitiated air to be dis- 
sipated almost insensibly. The idea of a 
"lukewarm" air-space around the brood- 
nest body already exists with you in a crude 
elementary form in the system practiced by 
some bee-keepers in Northern States where 
they "clamp" their hives, and, to a cer- 
tain extent, in a modified form when they 
enclose their hives in winter cases. 
Banff, Scotland. 



NATURAL SELECTION AND DISEASES OF 
BEES. 



The Meaning of Immunity; Why Certain Strains 
of Bees Become Immune. 

BY G. W. BUIiliAMORB. 



The majority of bacteria obtain the nutri- 
ment necessary for the carrying-on of their 
vital functions from dead animal or vegeta- 
ble matter which they break up into simple 
compounds. Some of them are found in 
the cavities of living animals where they 
lead an apparently harmless existence with 
no power of invading the living tissues. 
Others have developed this power and can 
attack living protoplasm. This latter class 
are the pathogenic or disease-producing 
bacteria. 

Some pathogenic bacteria are capable of 
leading a harmless existence on dead mat- 
ter, but set up disease when they gain an 
entry to the living body. Others are incapa- 
ble of growth apart from the host except 
under highly artificial conditions; and as 
their object is to live and multiply, it is ob- 
vious that the death of the host, although 
caused by the bacteria, is a misfortune 
which tells against them. 

The power to resist bacterial invasion is 
an attributewhich varies with the individu- 
al; and, when i^resent to a marked degree, 
constitutes immunity. 

It must be clearly understood that im- 
munity and vigor are not the same thing. 
Although the breakdown of health may 
mean loss of immunity, no amount of vigor 
will protect a susceptible individual if the 
right germ comes along. 

Immunity is of two kinds. An attack of 
disease often renders the individual immune 
to that disease for the future. This is ac- 
quired immunity. The other kind is pres- 
ent without such stimulus, and is transmis- 
sible to offspring. In the study of bee-dis- 
ease it is the latter kind with which we are 
interested. 

When a disease visits a district for the 
first time, all the very susceptible stocks 
are killed. The immune (if any) and those 
capable of recovery perpetuate the species. 
Successive epidemics will weed out those 
who revert to susceptibility, and a balance 
is at last established in which the disease, 
although propagated at the expense of the 
stocks, is not sufficiently virulent to inhibit 
the production of honey and swarms. The 
bee and the bacilli become mutually adapt- 
ed, and the disease becomes endemic. If 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



11 



exported to hitherto unvisited districts it 
will still manifest itself as a serious epidemic. 

According to Mr. T. W. Cowan, the senior 
editor of The British Bee Journal, foul 
brood is endemic in Italy, and the exposure 
of diseased combs to robber bees is not fol- 
lowed by any serious consequences in that 
country. In some parts of England also, a 
form of foul brood is endemic. It is prob- 
ably i^resent in all large apiaries, and can 
best be detected in spring. Later in the 
year, in normal seasons, the combs are 
cleaned up. Affected colonies sometimes 
swarm, and the surplus yield is often up to 
the average. 

The exiieriences of American bee-keepers 
go to i^rove that the immunity of Italian 
bees to one form of foul brood is greater than 
that of the black bee. Brother craftsmen 
in Switzerland find that the susceptibility 
of the yellow bee is greater than that of the 
black with regard to the type of foul brood 
present in their district. I understand that 
these Swiss yellow bees are natives of the 
district, and it would be interesting, there- 
fore, to know what micro-organism is con- 
cerned in the trouble. If it is the one to 
which the ordinary Italian bee has a partial 
immunity, then the explanation is that the 
disease has recently arrived in the valley. 
On the other hand, the trouble may be due 
to the bacillus of a disease which has "run 
its course" for ages among black bees, and 
is now starting a natural-selection campaign 
among the yellows. 

We can best understand the present state 
of affairs by supposing that different races 
of bees in the past have developed their own 
endemic diseases. These diseases have been 
kept distinct by the natural boundaries that 
have kept the races of bees from intermin- 
gling. Although the endemic disease of the 
black bees {B. larvcef) may have been pres- 
ent in the original skeps brought to Ameri- 
ca, its mild character would not bring it in- 
to notice. In crossing the continent, how- 
ever, the swarms escaped for many genera- 
tions from the selective influence of the dis- 
ease, and the consequence has been a rever- 
sion to greater susceptibility. 

With the introduction of Italian bees 
came the endemic disease of Italy, and this 
started an epidemic among the non-immune 
blacks. Naturally the trouble would be- 
come modified when Italian blood was sub- 
stituted for the black strain, although both 
races would suffer severely from B. larvce. 

The literature of bee-keeping in England 
leads me to suppose that foul brood has long 
been present in this country, although over- 
looked by the early writers. With the in- 
troduction of the frame hive it was found 
to be far more common than was suspected. 
The explanation is that, in the old days, 
only the epidemics were recorded. When 
movable combs became general the endemic 
cases were also included. The "black " bee 
of England is now a mongrel, and the vary- 
ing accounts of the disease on this side are 
probably due to the variable resistance of 
the bees, and to the fact that the term "foul 



brood" is applied indiscriminately to all 
varieties and mixtures of foul-brood trouble. 

At a meeting of bee-keepers, some of the 
audience were much amused when I stated 
that, in the struggle with disease, it was ad- 
visable to procure queens from districts, 
where disease was known to exist. Many 
bee-keepers are obsessed with the idea that, 
if we could but find some island, some dis- 
trict, where bees are plentiful and foul brood 
unknown, it would be a grand thing to im- 
port stocks and queens from such a source. 
There is no fact in our experience of disease 
which warrants such a conclusion. Dr. 
Dzierzon's loss of 500 colonies, and Delia 
Rocca's description of the introduction of 
foul brood into the island of Syra, will illus- 
trate the terrible mortality which results 
from a first epidemic; and it can make no 
difTerence whether we take the disease to the 
bees or bring the bees to the disease. 

Mr. Beuhne, the Government Inspector 
for Victoria, Australia, informed me that 
the same fallacy prevails there. When 
paralysis was sweej^ing through the colony 
he advertised for queens from an apiary 
where paralysis had run its course. He 
hoped by this means to confer some mea- 
sure of immunity on his own bees; but the 
advertisement was considered a joke, and 
no queens were forthcoming. 

I think this question of relative suscepti- 
bility can be well illustrated by some facts 
relating to human disease. The Anglo-Sax- 
on has been exposed to consumption from 
time immemorial. It is estimated that in 
England 80 per cent of those attacked recov- 
er from the disease. In the cases which 
terminate fatally, often many years elapse 
before it incapacitates. The aborigines of 
America, Australia, Afrria, etc., broken up 
into hostile tribes, by this means preserved 
a strict quarantine against the spread of 
such a disease. When communicated to 
any of them it often takes the form of an 
illness which terminates fatally in three 
weeks. In the search for immune individ- 
uals, are we not more likely to find them, 
among the healthy inhabitants of a crowd- 
ed city than among these hitherto unvisit- 
ed colored races? 

Again, there are districts in India where 
100 per cent of the school children have the 
malarial parasite in the blood. The relative 
immunity to malaria of a native of such a 
district and of an Anglo-Saxon would not. 
be difficult to gauge. The native would 
suffer no inconvenience. The white mark 
would be kept alive only by regular dosing 
with quinine. So it is with bees and their 
diseases. The most susceptible bees will 
come from districts that have never experi- 
enced trouble of the kind under considera-- 
tion. 

Although I have suggested that the Ital- 
ian bee may owe its exemption from disease' 
to inherent powers of resistance, there is. 
another way in which they may have the 
advantage. Black bees which have strug- 
gled for generations in cold northern cli- 
mates against long winters and unfavorable 



12 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



summers have often been put to queer shifts 
in order to survive at all. As a con*=equence 
they readily resort to the fluids excreted by 
aphides, to damaged fruits, etc. These un- 
wholesome substances may either set up ac- 
tive gastric trouble or cause such a lowering 
of vitality that an organism hitherto quies- 
cent is able to commence active interference 
with the life activities of the bee. The free- 
dom from disease shown by the Italian bee, 
therefore, may be partly the result of clean- 
er living, as they are far less inclined to 
gather these noxious honey-substitutes. 

The theoretical parts of the foregoing are 
put forward as an explanation of the facts 
as they are at present recorded. I quite re- 
alize that, with increase of knowledge, the 
theory may require considerable modifica- 
tion. To the primitive astronomers the 
theory that the earth was fixed and the sun 
moved sufficed as an explanation. With 
increase of knowledge we hear of a fixed sun 
and a moving earth. At the present time 
it is postulated that both the sun and the 
earth are moving. In our knowledge of 
bee diseases I fear we are only at the fixed- 
earth stage. 

Albury, Herts., England. 



SELLING HONEY AT HOME. 

Better Prices Secured than by Shipping to the 
Cities, 



BY C. W. PHELPS. 



Of late a good many are recommending 
the sale of honey at home, and this I am 
glad to see, for I believe in developing the 
liome market. In 1879 I commenced keep- 
ing bees in the country, and I had hard 
work selling the few pounds of honey that 
resulted from my efforts the first season. I 
soon had one hundred colonies, and in 1882 
or '3 I sold 1650 lbs. of honey to eight fami- 
lies — poor people at that. 

After this I began putting up my honey in 
butter-firkins and selling it for $12.00 a fir- 
kin,, which consisted of 150 lbs., or 8 cents a 
pound. For what I sent to the city at the 
same time I received only 7 cents, and I had 
to pay all expenses myself. Furthermore, 
the honey had to be very light and of good 
quality, while that which I sold at home 
was off grade or dark. If I remember cor- 
rectly I received 10 cents a pound for the 
small lots sold at home at that time. 

Remember, all this was in the country. 
The way I sold the honey was to prove that 
it was the cheapest of any thing my cus- 
tomers could buy of like nature. I gener- 
ally took my pay in any thing the custom- 
er had to sell that I would have to buy any 
way. For instance, of one man I took lum- 
ber for hives; of others, meat, butter, pota- 
toes, etc. Of course, I also took pay in 
money as well. 

At the present time we haye a different 
market, for we sell in a small city. We put 
up the honey mostly in dollar packages, 
eleven pounds for one dollar. We make a 
reduction of a few cents for 60-lb. cans. 



We always sell our honey as fast as we 
extract it, and in this way we have no can- 
dying, no melting, and no bother. We tell 
our customers if tiiey want our honey they 
will have to take it when we are ready to 
sell it, and they know that our honey is 
pure. We are now booking orders for next 
year, and we could sell a number of tons 
more if our bees produced it. 

We have a friend near us who deals in 
honey, usually at the same prices. He says 
he can not sell honey until fall, and he 
commences to sell about the time we leave 
off. We send him what trade we can after 
our honey is sold. We sell much more than 
he does, although we tell people his honey 
is as good as ours. The difference is, we 
have bees, and produce all our own honey, 
so that people know what we are talking 
about. 

If bee-keepers would follow a few simple 
rules, honey markets would never be over- 
stocked. 

Give good weight. 

If you have poor honey, say so; never lie 
about your own goods nor about your neigh- 
bor's. 

Explain that your honey is pure, but 
never joke about it. Do not argue about 
other honey, and never run it down. 

Never sell one pound of honey to a cus- 
tomer who is able to buy more. 

Binghamton, N. Y. 



CAN SOUR AND SWEET HONEY EXIST TO- 
GETHER IN THE SAME CAN? 



BY STEPHEN ANTHONY. 



On page 479, Aug. 1, Mr. Holtermann, in 
substance, asks the above question. Some 
years ago I was asked to set aside fifty pounds 
of liquid honey for a party who would call 
for it later. I used a kerosene-tin, covered 
only with a cloth, as the top had been cut 
out, and added small amounts of honey to 
the can from time to time until the right 
amount was reached, and after that it stood 
for about six months. When I removed 
the cloth I found about a cupful of sour liq- 
uid honey on top in a sort of hollow in the 
candied honey. This I poured off and scrap- 
ed the rest clean, the cup-like hollow espe- 
cially, as a portion of the honey near it was 
quite soft. I found that the remainder was 
excellent. 

A lady who seems to be pretty good at 
raising sour honey once gave me about 25 
or 30 pounds of it which she had been keeji- 
ing, thinking it might improve in the two 
years that had elapsed. Upon digging out 
the honey with a spoon to put it into the 
vinegar-cask I came upon some very clear 
amber honey that was still liquid and per- 
fectly sweet. This I strained in order to get 
all of the sour honey out of it, and filled 
three quart jars. In these jars this honey 
has been standing for seveial months, and 
it continues to be perfectly sweet and entire- 
ly liquid. 

Waitete, Amodeo Bay, Auckland, N. Z. 



14 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 




FIG. 2. — MIGRATORY BEE-KEEPING IX HOLiLAND. 

The bees are sent by rail to the station nearest the buckwheat-flelds, and then transported to the de 
sired location by rail. 



MIGRATORY BEE-KEEPING IN HOLLAND. 



BY HANS MATTHES. 



EXTRACTING HONEY AS SOON AS 
COMBS ARE REMOVED FROM 
THE HIVES. 



THE 



In the Oct. 1st issue, 1908, was an illus- 
trated article showing my apiary, and I now 
take pleasure in submitting some new views 
which will, perhaps, be of interest. Fig. 1 
is a portion of my home apiary, the hives 
being sheltered in the winter time by the 
low roofs. My dwellinghouse appears back 
of the bees, 

!• ig. 2 shows the colonies being unloaded 
from the cars to be transported to the buck- 
wheat-fields, as was mentioned in the above- 
named article. Early in the season I go 
with my bees to the cabbage, mustard, and 
white-clover fields, transporting the whole 
outfit in a launch. The distance to the 
buckwheat-fields being rather considerable, 
I have to use the railroad, which brings the 
bees to the nearest station, and then they 
are brought to the fields by wagon. 

I am also sending a view showing the in- 
terior of my house, which may, perhaps, be 
interesting, because at the table a box of 
my honey appears ready for the cakes. 

Breukelen, Nederland. 

[We are glad to present this brief though 
interesting communication, for it shows 
that our Dutch friends can probably teach 
us a number of things in regard to migra- 
tory bee-keeping. We should be glad to 
have further particulars, especially in re- 
gard to the details of moving to the cabbage 
and mustard regions by launch. — Ed.] 



Honey which Stands in Dark Combs Away from 

the Bees Becomes Injured in Flavor; the 

Gravity Strainer Criticised. 



BY GEO. SHIBER. 



If black or dark brood-combs are uncapped 
quite deeply, so that some of the black cells 
are cut off with the cappings and a few of 
such cappings put into a bottle of fine clover 
honey, and allowed to remain for 24 hours, 
the delicate clover flavor of the honey will 
be gone, and in its place a rank dirty flavor 
left. It is not necessary to have more than 
a very small amount of the cappings in pro- 
portion to the honey. 

This unmistakably dirty flavor may be 
noticed in honey that is set away for a day 
and a night in the honey-house in dark 
combs. A few years ago I had my extract- 
ing all finished with the exception of ten or 
twelve stories, and for some reason or other 
I was unable to extract these for several 
days. If I had known then what I have 
learned since, I would have placed these 
stories back on the hives again. Well, when 
we did extract the honey, about three days 
later, the flavor was simply awful although 
the body and color were all right. For this 
reason INIrs. Shiber and myself (and she is 
more strenuous than I, if any thing) have 
laid down this rule: After combs are re- 
moved from the bees in the yard the honey 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



15 



must be extracted, and placed in the cans, 
with the caps screwed on tight, in the short- 
est possible time. With this process, and 
with sealed combs in the first place, we get 
"quality honey " every time. 

From the above it will be seen that I do 
not favor allowing bits of black comb to 
float on top of the honey in a settling-tank. 
In other words, we want to get the honey 
away from the black comb or any part of the 
comb at once, as our experience shows that 
it is safe to allow good honey to be in con- 
tact with black combs only when such combs 
are covered with bees in the hives. 

THE GRAVITY STBAINER TRIED. 

We tried the float plan of separating the 
honey as described by Mr. Townsend in the 
Bee-keepers'' Review and also in Glean- 
ings, page 402, July 1. I made the wooden 
disc of >^-inch stuff, about % inch smaller 
in diameter than my forty-gallon tank, and 
drove staples around the edge of the float to 
equalize the 
space between 
it and the in- 
side of the 
tank. I start- 
ed the "ball 
rolling" one 
afternoon, 
and soon had 
the tank full, 
when I had to 
stop. After 
drawing out a 
pailful or so 
of honey, and 
pouring it 
back on top, 
so as to re- 
move the sed- 
iment still re- 
maining i n 
the bottom 
from the first 
honey poured 
in, according 
to Mr. Town- 
send's in- 
structions, we 
then put the 
rest in cans 
until there 
was only 
about a foot 
left in the 
tank. We did 
not dare draw 
off any more. 
The next day 
we commenc- 
ed extracting 
again, and I 
did not want 
to draw o ff 
that foot of 
honey and 
then pour it 
back in again; 
butldid.draw 
it out and 



kept it out until I washed and dried the 
tank, then I rigged up our old strainer. 

The strainer that we use is an improve- 
ment on an old idea. The whole plan, as 
we used it this year with so much success, 
is one that has lain dormant in my mind 
for perhaps twelve years, it being described 
in Gleanings long ago by the late John H. 
Martin, otherwise known as ' 'The Rambler. ' ' 

Over the top of my tank I place a sheet of 
wire cloth, same as that used on windows, 
and tie it tightly around the top with strong 
cord, at the same time pressing it down in 
the middle. Over this I put one end of a 
five-yard length of white cheese-cloth, the 
part not in use rolled up at the side of the 
tank. Warm honey will go through this 
rapidly when the cloth is clean, but, of 
course, it soon gets clogged. Just as soon 
as this happens we pull the cloth along, 
bringing a new clean surface over the tank, 
and then roll up the clogged portion on the 




FIG. 3. — A DUTCH DINNER-TABLE, SHOWING THAT HONEY APPEARS ON 
THE "REGULAR BILL OF FARE." 



16 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



other side of the tank. 
When one five-yard 
piece is used up we 
put another one in its 
place. We never 
bother with the old 
cloth again, nor try to 
clean it for further 
straining — we use a 
new piece instead. 
What is the use of 
wasting five dollars' 
worth of time to save 
twenty-five or thirty 
cents' worth of cheese- 
cloth? The cloth that 
has been used once, 
we simi^ly put in wa- 
ter to soak; and when 
it is washed and dried 
we cut it up for use in 
the house for wiping 
dishes, etc. With us 
time is a big factor in 
extracting. We aim 
to leave the honey 
with the bees until 
the last possible mo- 
ment; and then on, 
until the last of it Jis 
extracted, we do very 
rapid work, making 
no false motions to 

hinder our progress. Buckwheat is always 
due August 5, so we have to keep out of the 
way of it. 

BUCKWHEAT BEING SOWN MORE EXTEN- 
SIVELY EACH YEAR. 

Buckwheat is being planted here more 
and more, and probably this is true in most 
dairy regions, as the great question with a 
dairyman is what feed gives the most pounds 
of milk "at the condensory "? I was talk- 
ing with a farmer who had a ten-acre field 
of buckwheat across the valley, and he said, 
"Last year I made a fool of myself by sell- 
ing my buckwheat for $1.20, and then turn- 
ing around and paying $1.50 for feed. I 
should have had the buckwheat ground with 
corn or oats, and saved the 30 cents per hun- 
dred." Many dairymen are thinking the 
same, and on this account more buckwheat 
is being sown each year, but the increase 
will go to increase the dairy ])roducts instead 
of being made into buckwheat flour for 
"flai)jacks." However, the blossoms are 
what the bee-keeper is after any way, and 
so the dairyman and bee-keeper will fill the 
land with milk and honey. 

Randolph, N. Y. 




WASPS BUILD CELLS IN A SECTION OF 
HONEY. 



BY S. N. HATHAWAY. 



Last season I found a curiosity in the 
shape of four cells built by wasps in a sec- 
tion of honey. The illustration shows this 
quite plainly. This .section was a middle 



A CASE WHERE BIRDS NOT OF A FEATHER FLOCKED TOGETHER. 

one in the front row, and this is the only 
reason I can think of why the bees let the 
intruder enter the hive so many times; for, 
besides building the four cells, which in it- 
self would necessitate many trips, the cells 
had to be filled with tree-spiders as food for 
the young wasps in the larval stage. 

A HANDFUL OF BEES THAT DEVELOPED IN- 
TO A NORMAL COLONY. 

The question has often been asked, "Do 
bees carry eggs?" Those who doubt this 
would have some difficulty in solving the 
following: My neighbor has two hives full 
of combs — one of the two containing a little 
honey and a handful of bees. These few 
bees remained in this condition a month or 
more, when, as there were no more bees to 
put into the hive, the entrance was closed. 
Early in October my neighbor looked into 
the hive, and to his surprise found the bees 
still alive, with a fine yellow queen. There 
were also young bees, some sealed brood 
nearly ready to hatch, and quite a space of 
comb filled with eggs. 

Waldron, 111. 

[We assume from what you say that nei- 
ther of the two hives Contained a full colony 
of bees, and neither one a queen, when the 
first examination was made, although the 
one mentioned had a little honey and a 
"handful " of bees. While we believe that 
bees under some circumstances may steal 
eggs, still this case that you cite is not con- 
clusive proof. We regard it as probable 
that a swarm from some other apiary, or 
perhaps even from a bee-tree, might have 
taken possession of this hive shortly before 



J911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



17 



the entrance was closed; or it looks to us as 
though there was some opening in this hive 
even after the entrance was closed, so that 
the swarm might have come afterward . You 
do not say how long it was before October 
that the entranca had been closed. If a 
month or more we should hardly expect 
that the colony would be in a normal con- 
dition if there were absolutely no opening 
from which the bees might fly, for the larg- 
er number of bees would certainly starve. 
It looks very much as though there were 
some entrance through which bees could 
pass; and if this was the case it seems quite 
clear to us that a swarm unbeknown to your 
neighbor selected this hive and took posses- 
sion. We do not know just how many bees 
there were originally, for a "handful" is 
rather indefinite. However, even if a queen 
had been reared it is doubtful if she could 
have built up a normal colony with so small 
a start. — Ed.] 



HOW APPEARANCES AFFECT SALES. 



An 



Insight into the Deceptions Practiced 

some of the Bottlers of Food Products; 

what is the Best Shape and Size for 

a Honey-jar? 



by 



BY WESLEY FOSTEB. 



The appearance of food products has 
more to do with their sale now than ever 
before since stock packages have so largely 
taken the place of the bulk products. This 
has been brought about by a number of rea- 
sons, among them being that the manufac- 
turer wishes to derive some advertising 
through the sale of his goods. For instance, 
if he put out rolled oats in barrels, no one 
but the wholesaler, or perhaps the retailer, 
would know who the manufacturer was; 
hence the neatly labeled package, which 
not only advertises the particular brand, 
but is a better protection for the goods, 
keeping them free 
from dust, and sav- 
ing the retailer the 
trouble of weighing 
out the packages, the 
weight being guaran- 
teed by the manufac- 
turer. 

This stock-package 
business has spread 
until it takes in al- 
most every kind of 
food; but with it has 
come the chance for 
deception. Perhaps 
one manufacturer 
puts out a gallon can 
of peaches. A dozen 
others soon do like- 
wise, and competi- 
tion becomes so strong 
that some sharp can- 
ner gets up a can hold- 
ing 3yi quarts. This 
looks as large as the 



gallon can; and unless a close compari- 
son is made the difference does not ap- 
pear. Any way, even if the grocer does no- 
tice the difference the customer is not like- 
ly to; so that this particular canner has the 
advantage, for he can put out the smaller 
can perhaps 50 cts. a case cheaper, so that 
his sales are larger and larger. Thus this 
thing has gone on until we have gallon 
cans holding only three quarts, and so-call- 
ed quart cans holding a little more than a 
pint. There is the greatest anxiety on the 
part of all canners and preserve concerns to 
put out a package that will look the largest 
and hold the least. If any one wishes to go 
into this matter more in detail, let him pro- 
cure a bottle catalog from some glass com- 
pany and note the hundreds of different 
styles and shapes; or one can get almost as 
good an idea by looking over the shelves of 
the nearest grocery store. 

There are several ways of making a jar 
hold less than it appears to hold, or, in oth- 
er words, of making it appear to hold more 
than it does. Perhaps the trick originated 
by brewers in having beer-bottles made with 
the bottom blown an inch or more up into 
the body of the bottle in a bulb of very 
thick glass. This alone takes out about 
one-third of the real capacity of the bottle. 
Another scheme that works well so far as 
fooling the customer is concerned is to use 
very thick glass. The long-necked jar 
should also be mentioned, the neck being 
covered with a paper label; and if the neck 
is almost as large as the body of the jar the 
delusion is all the greater. Moreover, this 
gives space for the label without covering 
up any of the goods in the main part of the 
container. 

A pint jar having a small base, which 
gets larger toward the top and then draws 
in abruptly at the neck will have the ap- 
pearance of holding as much as a quart jar 
if the latter is short and stubby. This large 
appearance of a bulb-shaiied jar is well 




HOW DIFFERENT-SHAPED JARS ARE DECEIVING AS TO THE 
AMOUNT THEY HOLD. 

No. 1 holds one quart of honey; No. 2, one pint; No. 3, seven to eight 
ounces; No. 4. one pound; No. 5, seven to eight ounces: No. 6, quart 
measure. 



18 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



known to food manufacturers, and it is real- 
ly an attractive jar that sells well. In the 
same way the 4X5 section of honey looks 
larger than a 4^ square section, and there- 
fore the tall section, like the tall jar, is the 
better seller than the smaller - appearing 
square one. I myself have been fooled into 
thinking that a pint jar held a quart be- 
cause the pint jar was thin and tall, and 
had a neck that took the tall cap. When 
we consider the thick glass, the bulb-shaped, 
tall, large-necked jars with large capacious 
caps to hold air, it is really wonderful how 
small a quantity we can be satisfied with 
for 25 cents. 

To overcome these matters some States 
(Nebraska, for instance) have passed laws 
requiring the actual net weight placed on 
every label of a food package. The time is 
coming when there will be a change in the 
matter, for people are now ceasing to be 
fooled by mere appearance. The looks as a 
sole criterion have failed to make a perma- 
nent impression; and the simple straight 
jars with plain caps are cheaper, and the 
jars more serviceable when empty; and so, 
while I have decided opinions as to the ne- 
cessity of providing the most attractive pack- 
ages for our honey, I do not think we need 
to resort to air-packed necks and caps, nor 
to glass bubbles in the bottoms of our jars. 

All this reminds me of the way assess- 
ments are made on property for taxation. 
The assessing has kept falling from real 
value until we have it down to about one- 
fourth of the full value, and, of course, the 
mill tax goes up with each drop in the rate 
of assessment. In the same way we get pack- 
ages that appear large for the price, or per- 
haps for a little less than the price of the 
original standard -sized packages. Now, 
would it not be well to have a general read- 
justment all around and put things abso- 
lutely on the square and open basis? If a 
jar holds a pint, let it be labeled in that 
way, or perhaps the weight-mark would be 
better. So many goods are sold by the can 
that no one knows how much he is really 
getting. 

To illustrate the points I have referred to, 
I have made a photograph of several differ- 
ent glass packages, most of which have been 
used for honey. No. 1 is a quart Mason jar 
and No. 6 a quart measure. The quart 
measure being short, and made of thin tin, 
does not appear as large as the Mason jar. 
The size of the package is easily seen to be 
less apparent when the dimensions run hor- 
izontally than when the change is on a per- 
pendicular line. Of course the cap on the 
Mason jar, and the fact that the glass is 
thicker than the tin, makes the quart jar 
larger than the quart measure, though it 
holds no more. Now, does not jar No. 2, 
which holds a pint, look more than half 
as large as No. 1? This shows that the 
smaller packages look larger when on the 
shelf than the larger packages do in com- 
parison with their real capacity. I believe 
that this is one of the reasons for the grad- 
ual reducing of the size of packages for food 



products. A pint jar at 25 cts. will sell 
much quicker than a quart jar at 40 cts., 
and I do not think the smaller amount of 
money required is the real reason for its 
greater sale, although, of course, it is a big 
factor. 

Now, take jar No. 7 — the small black one 
toward the left of the picture, which holds 
just one-fourth of a pint. One would hard- 
ly suppose that it would require four No. 7's 
to fill one of the No. 2's. The thick glass, 
and the fact that the jar is tall, are the 
principal reasons why No. 7 looks large. 
This is a jar that sells for ten cents, gener- 
ally, when filled with honey. It is a rapid 
seller, too, for it holds enough honey for the 
average family at one meal — provided the 
average family does not have too many 
children who are inordinately fond of hon- 
ey. No. 7 holds almost one-half less than 
No. 5, which holds just the same amount as 
No, 3. By the way, this No. 3 shows the 
effect produced by thick glass and the bulb- 
shaped bottle with a rather tall neck. It is 
one of the most attractive jars for honey 
that I have seen, even if it does hold only 
seven or eight ounces of honey. There is 
room on the neck for a label which will 
cover up the empty space in this part of the 
bottle. Of course, the neck might be filled 
with honey; but what would be the use of 
doing so if the jar sells just as well with the 
ounce and a half of honey left out? 

No. 4 is perhaps the most deceiving of all 
in regard to the amount of honey or other 
material which it will hold. This bottle 
had sweet pickles in it up to the bottom of 
the gilt label around the neck, the label 
being wide to cover the tall neck. The jar 
holds one pound of honey or just two-thirds 
of the amount that could be placed in No. 
2. Jars No. 3, 4, and 7 are the most attrac- 
tive on the shelves; and with the net weight 
plainly marked on the label there would be 
no deception. 

Perhaps this packing of food in expensive 
glass bottles that are useless when empty, 
and that are deceptive in the amount that 
they hold, is in part responsible for the 
high cost of living. The consumer pays 30 
cts. a pound for honey in No. 7; and the 
bee-keeper who furnished the honey in 60- 
Ib. cans received not over 8 cts., and possi- 
bly not over 6. I may be wrong in some of 
ray conclusions, but not so very far off 
when taking my position as a whole. 

Boulder, Colo. 

[From what you say we believe that you 
would regard it as ideal if all glass pack- 
ages could be plain and similar in shape; 
but as long as this (at present) seems im- 
practicable, you would adopt the most at- 
tractive and economical shape for all glass 
honey-containers, but state plainly on the 
label the real amount contained. 

We believe that you are very nearly cor- 
rect in your statement as to the high cost of 
living. There is certainly a vast difference 
between the amount that the producer re- 
ceives and the amount that the consumer 
pays for a food. The middlemen may not 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



19 




FIG. 1. — AN IDEAL COMB TO FOBM A WINTER NEST. 



be getting rich; but if they are not, it is be- 
cause there are so many of them. Certain 
it is that we all demand expensive contain- 
ers, not only for our honey, but for most of 
our different kinds of food. Recognizing 
this, bee-keepers and honey-dealers can well 
afford to select attractive containers, thus 
furnishing what is demanded, but taking 
care, always, to i^ractice no deception, for 
deception sooner or later kills sales. — Ed.] 



THE WINTER NEST OF A COLONY, 



How the Bees will Form it if Not Disturbed by 
their Owner. 



BY E. R. ROOT. 



A year ago, it will be remembered, there 
was some discussion as to whether bees ac- 
tually form a winter nest. Our good friend, 
the editor of the Canadian Bee Journal, 
while not doubting the existence of such a 
nest, yet like the Missourian of old wished 
to be "shown." After we had presented 
our proofs our contemporary very generous- 
ly acknowledged that he was "almost con- 
vinced." 

What do we mean by "winter nests " ? 
We mean a space of empty brood-cells in 
one or more combs, such space approximat- 
ing the form of a hemisphere in ordinary 
Langstroth brood-nests. These empty cells 
surrounded by sealed stores constitute the 
winter nest where the bees cluster when con- 
ditions are ideal. As the stores are consum- 
ed, the number of empty cells increases 
either backward or forward, but always up- 
ward. As a general thing we find the ball 
of bees located near the front of the hive 
and regularly over the entrance. As the 
stores are consumed they move upward and 
backward; but the cluster in no case extends 



over the sealed honey when the bees can 
have their own sweet will. 

Very often a well-meaning ABC scholar 
finds three or four combs in the center of 
the hive, having a space of empty cells as 
large as the hand spread out. He thinks 
this is all wrong and will remove the combs 
containing such spaces, and put in their 
place solid cards of honey. What has he 
done? He has compelled the bees to cluster 
upon sealed honey. The cluster is broken 
up into slabs approximately y?, inch thick, 
each slab of bees separated by approximate- 
ly an inch of solid honey, instead of hav- 
ing one solid cluster separated by only the 
midrib of the combs, he has made a series of 
clusters, each within itself trying to main- 
tain its own body heat but at a very great 
disadvantage. 

Let us illustrate: Two people on a cold 
winter's night require less bed clothing than 
one person would in that same bed. Now, 
then, suppose that, instead of having those 
two bed-fellows separated from each other 
by only their night clothing, we have a slab 
of metal or even wood between them. If 
they are compelled to place their warm 
bodies in contact with that cold surface they 
lose a great deal of their body heat because 
the cold surfaces carry away (that is, dissi- 
pate) the warmth. 

We have exactly that condition when we 
insert combs of sealed honey into a bunch 
of bees. We compel them to divide up into 
four or five clusters. The result is, that col- 
onies tampered with in this manner perish 
or come out in the spring very weak because 
of their inability to maintain the requisite 
temperature. Where outside bees become 
stiff with cold they can not long endure 
that condition. 

We show herewith two illustrations of 
combs showing an ideal winter nest which 
bees under normal conditions will form if 



20 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURP: 



.Ian. 1 




FIG. 



-COMBS FOR MAKING UP A WINTER-NEST FOR A MODERATE-SIZED COLONY. 
Note the center comb Is placed upside down. 



allowed to carry out their own sweet will 
without molestation from their well-mean- 
ing owner. In Fig. 1 note the hemispher- 
ical shape of the winter nest as the bees 
form it under ideal conditions. The combs 
next opposite in the brood-nest will show a 
smaller half-circle, and those next to them 
a relatively smaller circle still, until there is 
just a mere spot of perhaps an inch or two 
in diameter in the outer comb. This makes 
up a complete hemisphere in the Langstroth 
brood-nest or a perfect sphere in a cubical 
brood-nest. While one does not by any 
means always find this form of winter nest 
it is the ideal condition. 

If one lifts off the cover of a colony when 
the temperature is about 45 outside he ought 
to find, if conditions have been favorable, 
the cluster of bees in a space about the shape 
shown in the winter nest of the frames here 
shown. On the next two combs the half- 
circle of bees will be smaller until there will 
be a little patch of bees on the outermost 
combs or comb. As it becomes colder this 
hemisphere of bees shrinks in size. When 
the temperature goes down below zero a 
large strong colony will be compressed into 
a space about equal to that of the doubled- 
up fist. It may not then occupy more than 
two combs. 

In Fig. 2 we show two combs having an 
ideal winter nest already formed. For a 
moderate-sized colony this will make a good 
winter nest. We would then place on the 
outside two solid cards of honey, as shown 
in the two end frames. Colonies not over 
strong we would contract down to the space 
they will occupy in mild weather by putting 
in thick division-boards, or packing of some 
sort to fill up the empty space. If, on the 
other hand, the colony is a strong one it 
may require three or four and possibly five 
combs in which there are winter-nest cells. 

If a colony is fed gradually during Octo- 
ber and November they will form this win- 



ter nest. If, however, they are on the verge 
of starvation, and they are fed 30 lbs. in a 
single night toward the last end of the fall, 
or when it is quite cold, they do not have 
the opportunity of forming this nest. They 
will carry the syrup down while it is hot; 
then for a few daysafcer that, if it is so they 
can fly, or, rather, so the cluster can move 
freely about the brood-nest, they may or 
may not rearrange the stores. The cluster, 
when it actually forms up for winter, will 
be practically one homogeneous mass of 
bees separated by only thin cell walls and 
the midribs of the combs. 

If anybody doubts that bees try to have a 
winter nest, let him break into several clus- 
ters of bees when the temperature is down 
to about 5 above zero, in an outdoor colony. 
We have done this repeatedly. If the ar- 
rangement of combs has not been disturbed 
in the fall, we will probably find the bees 
tightly jammed into the cells. And, again, 
we will often discover, as we go over our col- 
onies in the late winter or early spring, that 
some of them have actually starved to death. 
In all such cases we will see dead bees tight- 
ly packed in the cells of the winter nest, 
and a solid mass of bees between the several 
spaces between the combs. Starvation is 
often due to the fact that cold weather has 
continued so long without a let-up that the 
bees are left high and dry, so to speak, in 
the center of the winter nest. They actual- 
ly starve, notwithstanding that sealed hon- 
ey is within two inches of the cluster. The 
long-continued cold has given them no op- 
portunity to warm up and shift the cluster 
over in contact with the sealed honey. We 
have seen this condition almost every win- 
ter in our yard. 

Still again, we have often found dead col- 
onies where some of our newer men in the 
bee-yard had disturbed the combs, putting 
a solid comb of honey right down through 
the center of the winter nest. This made 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



21 



two bunches of bees; and both, being too 
small, died. 

When it comes to indoor wintering, espe- 
cially where the cellar temperature does not 
go below 45 F., a winter nest is not so vital- 
ly necessary. But if the temperature goes 
down below 45, then the absence of a winter 
nest may mean the death of a colony. 

Nature has worked out this problem of 
wintering bees; and when we tamper with 
her plans we tamper with our pocketbook. 
While we can do certain things contrary to 
nature, we can not interfere with her plan 
in the arrangement of the combs. 



BEE-KEEPING AS A HOBBY, 



An Explanation of the Various Parts of a Hive 
for the Benefit of the Beginner. 



BY F. DUNDAS TODD. 



The beginner in bee-keeping ought at the 
very start to get acquainted with the parts 
of a hive. If he be like the writer at the 
outset of his bee-keeping career the novice 
may assume that the structure in which the 
bees are housed is a solid piece of carpentry; 
but he will be greatly mistaken, for it con- 
sists of about a dozen movable pieces, which 
number is greatly increased in the active 
months of the year — June, July, and Au- 
gust. 

THE LANGSTROTH HIVE. 

We will, therefore, begin by studying a 
hive as it appears on the stand. Fig. 1 may 
be taken as a type of the average hive in 
common use in this country to-day, though 
there are, of course, other styles; but the 
bee-keeping world as a whole has settled 
down to using what is known as a Lang- 
stroth hive, though generally called the 




FIG. 1. 

Dovetailed in catalogs. Now, if we look at 
it even casually we see that, like a dwell- 
ing-house, it has a roof, side walls, and a 
foundation. These three are definite, dis- 
tinct parts, and are essential features of ev- 
ery modern hive. If j^ou take hold of the 
roof you will find it to be removable, some- 
times with a little difficulty, for the bees 
have a habit of fastening the roof to thd 
walls with a special kind of glue that is 
very adhesive. In bee-keepers' language 



the roof of the bee-house is known as the 
"cover." 

The four perpendicular walls inclose the 
living-room of the hive, which is also at 
once pantry, kitchen, dining-room, bed- 
room, and nursery; for a wonderful series of 
operations is going on in this little home 
all at one time. But the modern bee-keep- 
er, although he knows full well the many 
phases of its interesting life, has come to as- 
sociate it with the raising of the family, so 
he usually speaks of it as the "brood-cham- 
ber." It is also known as the "hive-body." 



FIG.l 




The foundation of the bee-house has side 
walls like the cellar of a modern human 
home; but since there is no floor between 
the basement and the living-room we can 
not give it a title corresponding to the same 
part of our home. Bee-keepers in their 
practical way have given the name of "bot- 
tom-board " to this very important part of 
a hive. 

You have been told that, in order to pre- 
vent all decay of the bottom-board, it must 
not rest on the ground, but upon wood, 
brick, or stone, at a convenient height from 
the earth. This support is called the hive- 
stand. 

THE COVER. 

We will now examine the difi'erent parts 
of a hive in closer detail, as, like every thing 
else, there are important problems to be 
solved in their construction. Take the cov- 
er for example. At first thought one would 
suppose any flat piece of goo I lumber would 
do very well; but any bee-keeper will tell 
you that very much thinking has been put 
into designing hive-covers; nevertheless, the 
perfect cover has not yet been invented. In 
the first i)lace, it must be water-tight, for 
rain must not get into the brood-chamber. 
Then it must fit snugly on the body of the 
hive so as to conserve the heat there, and, 
consequently, must be prevented from 
warping. 

The illustrations, Figs, 1, 2, 3, 4, show a 
design that is very efficient. The pieces are 
securely fastened by tongue and groove, the 
joints being protected from water, by a cap. 
Warping is prevented by cross-pieces on 
the ends. 



22 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan 1 



BROOD-CHAMBER. 

The brood-chamber is really a box with- 
out top or bottom. Its mission is to hold 
the frames to which are attached the combs 
in which the bees store the honey and pol- 
len, and also raise the young. Some are 
wide enough to hold only eight of these 
frames; but an increasing number of bee- 
keepers prefer them wide enough to hold 
ten frames. This size is shown in Fig. 5, 
nine of the frames being in place and one 
outside. 

Simple as is the general plan of a brood- 
chamber, it must nevertheless be made with 
great accuracy. You see, after bees had 
been kept by man for several thousand 
years a clever bee-keeper discovered one 
very important fact — namely, their conduct 
in small areas varied according to the size 
of the space. When this is less than one- 
fourth of an inch the bees will fill it with 
wax or other adhesive substances; if more 
than three-eighths of an inch they will build 




FIG. 5. 

comb in it. When he learned this he was 
able to invent the movable frame whose 
most noteworthy feature is this: Its end- 
bars are about three-eighths of an inch 
clear from the inside ends of the chamber 
in which the frames hang, thus allowing 
the bees room to move freely around the 
ends, but preventing the building of combs 
that would fasten the end-bars tight to the 
hive-body. It will also be apparent that 
the sides must be perfectly square with the 
ends. Hive-bodies, then, must be machine- 
made; and it is better if they have lock 
joints as in the illustration, for such joints 
insure perfect squareness. 

BOTTOM-BOARD. 

The bottom-board is really the floor of the 
hive which rests evenly on three sides of it. 
The fourth side is left clear, thus providing 
an entrance to the house, so to speak; but 
the doorway is also a ventilator, and it is 
important to remember this fact, for bees 
breathe and need fresh air just like any oth- 
er animal. So we must intelligently follow 
the climatic conditions and adjust the size 
of the entrance to suit the comfort of the 
bees, contracting it as winter approaches, 
and enlarging it in the hot days of summer. 

The illustration. Fig. 6, shows an excel- 
lent bottom-board of great adaptability. 
The upper figure is partly sectional, a small 



part of the end of the hive being indicated 
in position to show that the sides of the 
bottom-board and the hive are of the same 
length. An alighting-board fits into the 
groove in front (half of the board is shown 




FIG. 6. 

in position) , and projects several inches in 
front of the hive-body. One side of the 
alighting-board is perfectly plain; on the 
other is nailed a cleat with a narrow pas- 
sageway. When this side is turned up, the 
entrance is one-fomth inch by eight inchp'*; 
but if the plain side be uppermost, then 1 he 
entrance is seven-eighths of an inch by the 
width of the hive. 

HIVB-STAKD. 

The purpose of the hive-stand is to keep 
the bottom-board clear of the ground, and 
thus prevent decay. But if the board and 
the stand have contact over a considerable 
area it is found that both water and ants 
will collect between them and hasten the 
destruction of the wood. The points of con- 
tact between the bottom-board and stand 
should, therefore, be as small as possible. 
Fig. 7 shows a stand that is inexpensive, 




easily put together, and strong and durable; 
at the same time, it touches the bottom- 
board only around the edges. 

FRAMES. 

The furniture of the bee-house is very 
simple, and rather wanting in variety; but 
the tenants so far have not been known to 
make any complaint, so we will gravely as- 
sume they are satisfied. They are mostly 
ladies, seemingly free of the habit (said to 
be characteristic of their human sisters) of 
finding fault with their home and its fur- 
nishings. Eight frames, sometimes ten, 
with a division-board or follower, is a com- 
plete inventory of the contents of the brood- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



23 



chamber. As will be seen from Fig. 8, each 
frame consists of a top-bar, a bottom-bar, 
and two end-bars. The top-bar is longer 
than the bottom one, the projecting lugs 
being the points of support when the frame 



BEE-KEEPING IN CALIFORNIA. 




is in the hive. Notice the end-bars partic- 
ularly, for the ui^per third is wider than the 
lower part, the respective sizes being 1^ 
inch and 1 inch. Careful measurements 
and experiments have proved that bees 
build combs in the natural state very near- 
ly one inch and a half from center to cen- 
ter, so man secures the proper distance in 
the hive by making the end-bars of the 
frames the proper width. The space be- 
tween the lower part of two frames is the 
regular bee-space of three-eighths of an inch, 
so as to facilitate the movement of the bees 
from one part of the hive to another. 

DIVISION-BOARD. 

Since there is considerable expansion and 
contraction in a hive, due to the presence 
or absence of moisture it would be unwise 
to make the frames a close fit, so the brood- 
chamber is somewhat wider thin the frames 
pemand. After the frames are all in, the 
vacant space is partially reduced by the in- 
troduction of a division-board, which, being 
in contact with the last frame, really be- 
comes the wall of the brood-chamber on that 
side. 



The Sage the Principal Producer in the South- 
ern Part of the State; the Lack of Fain 
Prevents the Secretion of Nectar in 
Most Years. 



BY p. C. CHADWICK. 




Fig. 9 shows one style of division-board or 
follower. 



Mr. Root: — May I add something in line 
with your comment on the articles of Mr. 
E. M. Gibson and Mrs. Acklin? After care- 
fully reviewing Mr. Gibson's article and 
your comments, page 718, Nov. 15, I find 
myself almost entirely in accord with you, 
and with him in a few respects. 

I am not a "pessimist" who talks about 
overproduction; but I am of the opinion 
that production can be reduced by over- 
stocking, much in the same way that a 
small pasture would fatten four head of 
stock while ten head would merely keep 
alive. 

My object is not to discourage people from 
casting their lot with us in this glorious cli- 
mate, but, rather, to acquaint them with 
difficulties that must be surmounted, and 
at the same time give an idea of what those 
who have been in the bee business for years 
have accomplished and what they have 
faced in the way of seasons. 

South of the Tehachapi Mountains lies 
practically the entire sage of our State, not- 
withstanding eastern people and many of 
our westerners term every form of small 
growth on the vast slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains "sage brush." There is no de- 
nying that the button (or black) sage is, of 
all honey-plants, our chief surplus-producer. 
Neither does it average a crop more often 
than every other year regardless of rainfall; 
for it seems necessary, from its semi-arid 
nature, to be dried out or rested before it 
comes back to its prime yielding condition. 
I have seen it return some surplus for three 
consecutive seasons; but the middle season 
was not what could be considered a crop, 
even after a sufficient rainfall. 

I am now speaking of Southern Califor- 
nia, the sage-field — not any particular place 
within that may have special producers, as 
the orange at Red lands, Riverside, Pomo- 
na, Monrovia, the lemon in San Diego Co., 
etc. —for the portion of our territory covered 
principally by the sage is so much more 
vast in extent that the few thousand acres 
of orange, lemon, or deciduous fruit are 
a comparatively small factor in a good sage 
year, and show no great results when the 
sage fails; therefore if the sage fails every 
other year, Southern California outside of 
those districts above mentioned may well 
be counted an every-other-year producer, 
which means the greater portion of our 
Southland. 

To quote Mr. Gibson: "There were scores 
of bee-keepers who did not get a pound of 
honey, but it was not the fault of the sea- 
son rior of the bees." The implication fol- 
lows that it was the fault of the bee-keeper. 
Now, of the entire article the above sen- 



24 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



tence is the most unfair; for most of us 
know that, regardless of the good condition 
of many well-kept apiaries during the en- 
tire season, no surplus was secured. I will 
admit that, if every one knew the true con- 
dition in our sage ranges, and the over- 
stocked condition of the foot-hills on the 
outskirts of our orange-groves, we would 
be in no danger of overstocking. 

The misapprehension of many people 
owning bees (not bee-keepers) as to the dis- 
tance locations should be apart, has much 
to do with overstocking. My apiary was 
at one time in as fine a location as could be 
found; but now, however, I am surrounded 
by an aggregate of 1200 colonies, any of 
which can overlap my range on one side or 
the other, and nearly half on both sides to 
a certain extent. 

Here let me give you the report of our lo- 
cal weather observer on the annual amount 
of rainfall for 15 years beginning with 1895. 
Ten inches of rain is about as small an 
amount as can be figured on to produce a 
yield from the sage; and that must fall late 
in the season. For example, we had 10.22 
inches this season — only about two inches 
of which fell after .Tan. 1, the result being 
that, while the sage bloomed more or less 
profusely, there was not sufficient moisture 
to produce nectar. In 1895 there was a fall 
of 7.51 inches; 1896, 12.85; 1897, 5.50; 1898, 
4.82; 1899, 6.89; 1900, 12.21; 1901, 7.00; 1902, 
12.75; 1903, 15.81; 1904, 8.59; 1905, 22.12; 
1906, 16.22; 1907, 20.76; 1908, 14.56; 1909, 
14.47; 1910, 10.22. 

I have the records before me back to 
1880— those from 1880 to 1895 being 4 inches 
less per annum than the average from 1895 
to 1910. In 1882 the fall was only 2.94 inch- 
es. Think of going twelve months with 
less than three inches of rainfall, and three 
years with less than 15 inches, as was the 
case from 1880 to 1888. 

Bee-keeping here is conducted, to a great 
extent, in as haphazard a style as farming 
was in the middle West 80 years ago, when, 
we are told, the farmer moved the barn in- 
stead of the manure. We have bee-keepers 
who know their business' and know it well; 
then we have a class who give their bees lit- 
tle personal attention, know little of the 
business, and seem to care less, for they 
rent their holdings for a share, during the 
honey season, many renters simply know- 
ing how to extract, and they usually do 
close work on that, after which the bees are 
left to shift until another season. Imagine 
the condition of some such apiaries, the 
danger of foul brood, and the general run- 
down and unkept condition. 

I could not point you to a single bee-keep- 
er who depends on his bees entirely for his 
support, though some have been in the bus- 
iness for twenty years. 

If the East can send us up-to-date bee- 
keepers with capital to buy out these half- 
kept apiaries, and help improve conditions, 
we will give them the glad hand; but as for 
new locations, they are few and far between 
— at least, desirable ones; and what we have 



are being encroached upon each year by the 
barley-fields. More than one who thought 
himself secure a few years ago now finds he 
is surrounded by great grain-fields, and will 
soon have to pull up stakes for new pasture, 
and eventually only the most rugged of the 
foot-hills will be left for the support of our 
industry. 
Redlands, Cal. 



A HISTORY OF A CASE OF PROPOLIS POI- 
SONING. 



BY C. H. HOWARD. 



This summer I worked among my bees 
without a veil, and with my shirt-sleeves 
rolled above my elbows. The beginning of 
October the inside part of my arms between 
the elbow and wrist became very much in- 
flamed, and itched, smarted, and burned 
all at the same time. Oct. 11 I tried a bis- 
muth formic-iodide preparation, supposing 
the trouble came from some poisonous 
plant. I was surprised, as I can handle poi- 
ton ivy without any ill effect. My arms 
kept about the same, sometimes a little bet- 
ter, and then not so well, till Oct. 31, on 
which day I scraped the burr-comb and pro- 
polis from some sixty frames. That night 
my arms got very much worse, and for six- 
ty hours they were yery bad. I slept very 
little for two nights. I showed my arms to 
a doctor, and he said I had got them poi- 
soned, and gave me stuff to put on. 

Oct. 10 I wrote to Washington, D. C, for 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 86, "Thirty Poison- 
ous Plants of the United States." None 
describe my case, but ivy is the nearest. 

Mr. C. P. Waldron, of Boulder, told me, 
some time ago, that he had to give up his 
apiary of over 100 colonies, as working over 
them brought on vomiting. Mr. J. E. 
AValcher says he has been poisoned, and he 
supposes it is from the propolis; and Mr. 
Eggleston, who helps Mr. Collins with his 
900 colonies, says his hands become poison- 
ed soon after he begins work with the bees 
in the spring, and it continues till some 
time after he gets through with the work in 
the fall. Many people have told me of get- 
ting poisoned from propolis; but I never 
believed it until I myself had trouble. 

I have kept bees on and off more than fif- 
ty years, and I never had such an experi- 
ence as this year. I had several cases of 
poisoning after cleaning off the propolis 
from a few hives. Then on Nov. 29 I did 
considerable scraping, and my arms were 
very bad for two days, and did not get well 
till the 6th or 7th of December. Yesterday, 
Dec. 9, I thought they were right for an ex- 
periment, so I put a little propolis on my 
left arm, about three inches above the 
wrist. This was at 12:50 p. M., and I felt 
nothing of it for several hours. At 7 p. m. 
the spot was much inflamed, and at 11 p. M. 
it was very bad. This morning my wrist 
and five to six inches above it was scarlet, 
and all the symptoms were as I described , 

Boulder, C'o1., Dec. 10. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



25 



Heads of Grain 

front Different Fields 



What Makes the Hives so Damp Inside? the Rel- 
ative Values of the Different Packings. 

I have eight colonies of bees, all in good condition 
— plenty of bees and good clear honey. They are in 
eight and ten frame hives. I have had only two 
years' experience in the business, and am troubled 
about their sweating so much, especially the single- 
walled eight-frame hives. The two chaff hives do 
not sweat much. They all face southeast: are In a 
bee-shed open in front with the back to the north- 
west, and straw between the hives, and the top or 
super packed with straw. Early last fall I cut lino- 
leum the size of the top of the brood-chamber, and 
under this I used strips to provide a bee-space on 
top of the frames. Kight under this linoleum is 
where the sweat starts, and runs down and out at 
the entrance. Of course the bees get damp, and 
freeze. The opening to the entrance is ^s x 9 for the 
eight-fnime, >'8xll for the ten-frame, and ?8x8for 
the chaflf hives, which are also ten-frame. Would 
you advise cutting a small hole in the top of the 
linoleum, or take out the block in front and give 
them the full j8-inch entrance? 

Last winter I lost an Italian queen from the A. I. 
Root Co. because the hive was so damp. It was so 
wet it burst, and the paint came of! the sides. 

"Washington, Pa., Xov. 29. J. C. McXeely. 

[Common straw, unless a great deal of it is used, 
is hardly dense enough for packing. You had bet- 
ter use planer-shavings, leaves well packed, or 
wheat chaflf if you can get it— a packing that is bet- 
ter than all of them. The trouble is, the sides and 
tops of your hives are too cold froni insufficient 
packing. Then, moreover, linoleum is not as good 
as a plain board laid on top. The surface of the lin- 
oleum is too cold. On a cold morning, with your 
bare feet step on a piece of linoleum and then on a 
thin board and note the difference. Wood is a 
much better non-conductor of heat and cold. 

Your entrances appear to be large enough in size, 
but possibly for your locality it might be wise to 
make them larger. Before we would do that, how- 
ever, we would try the absorbing-cushion plan, be- 
cause there is a possibility, and even probability, 
that your locality is so damp that absorbents pro- 
viding for upward ventilation would be better than 
a tight sealed cover; but if you use absorbents you 
will need to have a good deal more packing materi- 
al than you have provided. It should be of a loose 
porous nature, preferably chaff: but if this material 
can not be secured a large quantity of dry forest 
leaves may be substituted. Planer-shavings do very 
well, but are not quite the equal of chaff. W hen you 
use absorbing cushions you will need to have them 
not le.ss than eight inches thick. Then be sure to 
provide an air-space over the packing and under the 
cover, so that the moisture as it passes through the 
cushion can escape. 

Now, we wish to suggest this: That you try a part 
of the bees with sealed cover and eisht inches of 
packing material on top. and the other part with 
absorbing cushions. \\'hen you use the latter you 
will need to put a Hill device or some sort of stay to 
hold the cushion up off the frames. 

The very fact that your chaff hives are drier goes 
to show that the single-walled hives are not suffi- 
ciently protected. Uy increasing the amount of 
protection for all the hives you will reduce mate- 
rially the amount of condensation; but in any case 
remove the linoleum, using boards instead. We 
shall be pleased to have you report the result of 
your experiments next spring.— Ed.] 



Lack of Ventilation; Another Instance of the Fol- 
ly of Shutting the Bees in the Hive with 
Wire Cloth when Placed in the Cellar. 

I am In trouble, and do not know how I am going 
to get out of it. My bees are kept In an outyard, 
and In moving them to the cellar I was obliged to 
screen them in. I am now going to tell you how I 
proceeded with the screening and moving. I put 
the hives on a bottom-board 2 in. deep, setting them 



even with the front end of the bottom-board, and 
over this open space of 2 x 14K in. I nailed No. 12 
wire cloth. The space at the back end of the bot- 
tom-board I closed except a space of about an inch 
wide and five inches long, over which I also nailed 
wire cloth. They were then placed in the cellar 
and left as I have described. The colonies are 
strong in bees, and have an abundance of clean 
sealed stores. When first put In they settled down, 
and I thought they would be all right; but at this 
writing. Nov. 28, they are perfectly crazy. I should 
have said I left the cover on. Is it possible to make 
any change that will quiet them? The cellar Is 
clean and the air is pure, with temperature at 45. 

El Roy, Wis. Chas. Sheldon. 

[We would advise you by all means to remove 
the wire-cloth screens; at any rate, fix It so that the 
bees can get out of the hives. They might boil out 
over the fronts of the hives, but they would soon go 
back. In spite of what you say, we think there is a 
lack of ventilation. Before you remove the wire 
screens open the cellar door wide at night, allowing 
the cellar to become cold. This will force the bees 
back in the hives; then quietly remove the screens. 
If you will give the bees Infusions of fresh air con- 
stantly, from some sort of ventilator, they will be- 
come more quiet. The best thing you can do now, 
probably. Is to open the cellar-door at night and 
close It by day: but do not open the cellar if the 
bees are quiet. During severely cold weather It 
will probably not be necessary to open the cellar. 

If you provide ventilation we think you will find 
that your troubles will disappear. When bees are 
shut in with wire cloth It is apt to make them very 
uneasy. In their efforts to escane they stir up the 
whole colony. Under such conditions the only 
thing to do is to reduce the temperature of the cel- 
lar nearly to freezing, and then quietly remove the 
screens as before explained. — Ed.] 



Grafting and Cell-building; Staple-spaced v. Met- 
al-spaced Hoffman Frames. 

I am anxious to raise queens for my own use, and 
did so the past season, requeening 75 colonies, some 
of which were black stock, all with pure Italians of 
Jones' stock. This, of course, was accomplished by 
removing the queens and causing the bees to build 
cells which were weeded out when near hatching, 
leaving the best one for the hive, provided it were 
Italian. The blacks had all cells removed: and 
when they well realized their plight a nice plump 
Italian cell was grafted to the comb, and may be 
they did not look after it, regardless of the fact that 
their color was to go on for ever. 1 am desirous of 
rearing queens next season in nuclei by the use of 
queen-cups so as to hJive the queens mated and 
laying before introducing to the colonies made 
queenless; and any informtion as to the grafting of 
eggs or larva' into these cups would be gladly re- 
ceived. I presume one strong colony will nourish 
the whole set of cells up to within a few days of 
hatching, when they have to be separated and giv- 
en to each nucleus. 

Do the good qualities of the staple-spaced frames 
overcome the bad ones — that is, in the way of 
swinging in the hive, etc.? 

ir. Harley .Selwyn, 
Director of Experimental Farms, Ottawa, Can. 

[For Information on grafting cells you are refer- 
red to our ABC and X Y Z of Bee Culture under 
the head of "Queen-rearing."' One strong colony 
will furnish you all the ceils you require if you do 
not expect more than 10 or 12 cells for every 10 days. 
While It Is possible to get as many as 55 or 60 cells 
from a single colony during that same period, you 
will get stronger and more vigorous stock by giving 
the bees only about a dozen cups to feed and take 
care of. In your case, at least, we would advise you 
to make the colony queenles.s, and then feed a little 
every day If no honey is coming in, say from a half 
to a full pint of syrup. You can not get good re- 
sults unless the colony is put in a highly prosper- 
ous condition. Until you have had more experi- 
ence we would not advise you to adopt the twin or 
baby nuclei. Better use nothing smaller than the 
two-frame Langstroth nucleus. After you have had 
a little more experience you can get down to the 
smaller boxes. 

The staple-spaced frames are not nearly so satis- 
factory as the Hoffman metal-spaced frames. The 
staples space only the top-bars and not the end- 
bars, while the Hoffman metal spacers hold the 
frames square and true.— Ed.] 



26 



(JLKAXINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



Feeding During the Winter in Tennessee. 

Having purchased several stands of bees this win- 
ter at 81.50 per hive, in log and board hives, with- 
out any frames or boxes inside, I desire to know 
how 1 shall feed; or, will they need feeding? The 
combs are built on the same principle they are in 
the bee-tree. Ha! ha! what comb I can see by re- 
moving the cover seems empty! I Intend to trans- 
fer to Danzenbaker hives in the spring. 

Would you think that old burlap bags wrapped 
around these box hives would be ample protection 
in this latitude? Our bees tly every month in the 
year; but many of the nights are very cold. 

At what date would you advise feeding for stimu- 
lating or for increase In the spring. Fruit-blossoms 
open in March. 

Maryville, Tenn., Nov. 28. C. R. Coulter. 

[If your weather gets warm enough for you to 
make an examination it would be well to remove 
enough of the cover or side, as the case may be, of 
one of the hives and ascertain the condition of that 
colony so far as stores are concerned. If you do not 
find that there are 20 to 25 lbs. of honey, you had 
better do some feeding. It is a question whether 
you can feed sugar syrup; but as your bees can fly 
every day we should think that you can. It is well 
to feed toward evening, so that the excitement 
caused by the syrup may subside before morning, 
so that other bees may not be unduly stirred up 
and robbing started. After you have examined 
one colon V, if the others are about the same size 
and the hives about the same, you can probably 
get a pretty good idea of the condition by lifting or 
weighing the hives, noting any that may seem un- 
duly light. 

Without knowing more in particular in regard to 
how cold it gets, etc., we can not be sure how much 
protection these hives need; but we presume that 
burlap sacks wrapped around and covered with 
some waterproof material in the shape of a cover 
would be sufficient. Do not put on any packing 
that can get soaked with water and then frozen, for 
such packing is only a detriment. Whatever pack- 
ing you use, keep it dry. 

Most progressive bee-keepers of to-day say it is 
much better to provide the necessary amount of 
stores in the fall, and do no feeding for stimulating 
in the spring. However, exceptions must be made 
in case of colonies that, for some reason or other, 
have not the necessary amount of stores. Colonies 
which are well supplied, ordinarily do not need 
feeding in the spring.— Ed.] 



Carbolic Acid for Driving Bees Out of Supers. 

Will you be kind enough to give me some infor- 
mation about the use of a carbolic solution for qui- 
eting bees? 

Lordsburg, Cal., Dec. 1. John Stripsky. 

[Carbolic acid iia a diluted solution for quieting 
bees has been used to only a very limited extent. 
Our British cousins sometimes use a piece of mus- 
lin saturated in a weak solution of carbolic acid, 
laid on top of a super of sections. It is said that the 
odor of the acid is so repugnant to the bees that in 
a very short time they will all go down into the 
brood-nest below. How true this may be, we do not 
know from personal experience; but the fact that we 
do not hear very much of these carbolized cloths 
for the purpose mentioned would rather lead us to 
believe that the scheme works prettier in theory 
than it does in actual practice. If anybody knows 
to the contrary we should be pleased to have him 
report.— Ed. J 

Feeding to Prepare for a January Honey-flow. 

About the 10th of .January we have a flow of nec- 
tar lasting about two weeks. Queens quit laying 
in October, and by January the colonies are very 
small. Bees fly nearly every day in the year at my 
place, and there has never been a week when I 
have not seen a few bees bringing in pollen. Would 
you advise feeding when the colonies can say. 

Millions of honey at our house"? With strong 
colonies I think more honey would be stored here 
in January than in any other month. 

Bakersfleld, Cal., Nov. 24. C. G. Knowles. 

[Under the circumstances we would advise you to 
practice a little stimulative feeding along about the 
middle of November or first of December, and con- 
tinue it up to within a week of the honey-flow. 
Enough feed should be given so that the bees will 
have the brood-nest filled with brood and sealed 



honey. We say sealed, so that they will not carry 
any of the led syrup up into the supers. For that 
reason we advise discontinuing stimulative feeding 
just about a week before the honey-flow actually 
begins.— Ed.] 

How to Make a Weak Colony Robber-proof. 

Mr. G. H. Latham, p. 737, Nov. 15, take that rather 
weak colony from its stand early in the morning; 
put it in a safe place when its bees can go out at 
will. Put a baited robber-trap in its place with a 
screen cover and a tight cover on top. Leave it 
there until you have trapped all the bees needed, 
which will include many of the field bees from the 
weak colony. Take your catch into the part of a 
room furthest from the window; remove the cover; 
set it on end with the screen facing the light (which 
should be rather limited) . Let it remain all day or 
until the bees realize they are hopelessly caged; 
then give them time to repent. Unite the weak 
colony with the catch. After 12 hours they may be 
placed anywhere in the yard, and you will have a 
colony as nearly robber-proof as any. This not 
only abates a nuisance but turns the nuisance to 
good account. 

Sonora, Cal. A. D. Herold. 



Why the Honey was Not All Capped Over, 

I should like to know why my comb honey con- 
tained so many cells partially and entirely filled 
that were not capped. In other words, why was 
not the comb filled out to the edge of the section? 
A great many colonies had sections partially built 
that were never finished. 

East St. Louis, 111. J. c. Reader. 

[It looks to us as if you had an extraordinarily 
good flow of honey that ceased suddenly. This near- 
ly always results in a lot of uncapped honey and 
unfinished sections. It may be that you put on su- 
pers a little too rapidly, and did not give the bees 
time to finish what they had. Of course, it is a reg- 
ular practice to add new supers before the first, 
ones are entirely finished; but in case the honey- 
flow is nearly at an end, a new super put on will 
result in only a lot of unfinished combs. For this 
reason the putting-on of more supers must be done 
with extreme caution. — Ed.] 



A Steady Temperature of 33 F,, in the Cellar; 
the Probable Effect on the Bees. 

Having my cellar full of bees I was compelled to 
put 47 colonies in a neighbor's stone cellar, size 20x 
10x7. The thermometer registered steady 33 above 
with no way of raising it except artificially. How 
are these bees likely to come out after perhaps four 
mouths of confinement? I am a little worried 
about them. 

Fawndale, Minn., Dec. 8. John S. Lind. 

[A steady temperature of one degree above freez- 
ing is altogether too cold for a bee-cellar. You will 
probably find that, before spring, many of the col- 
onies will be dead outright, and others much weak- 
ened down, and suffering from dysentery. You 
ought to arrange to put in artificial heat to bring 
the temperature up to 45; and you probably would 
require, also, some ventilation, although a cellar 
20x10x7, for only 47 colonies, ought, with proper 
temijerature, to take care of that number with very 
little ventilation. Probably opening and closing 
the cellar-door at night at intervals would be suffi- 
cient.— Ed.] 



How Much Honey should a Purchaser Expect to 
Receive in a 60-Pound Can ? 

I bought 120 lbs. of honey, and when it arrived It 
was weighed; and with the cans which contained it 
it weighed exactly 120 lbs. Now, I wish to know if 
the purchaser of honey should jtay for 114 lbs. of 
honey and 6 lbs. of tin, or should he receive 120 lbs. 
of honey net? An answer through Gleanings 
would probably be of interest to other bee-keepers 
who buy honey to help out their shortage. 

Pawtucket, R. I., Nov. 21. F. E. Curran. 

[A good deal will depend on how the honey is 
bought and sold. If it is bought by the can the 
seller may put in less than 60 lbs. to the can. It is 
our rule in selling honey to put in full 60 lbs. in 
each can. — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Our Homes 

By A. I. Root 



Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all 
the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of 
the Lord for ever.— Psalm 23 : 6. 

To-day, Dec. 9, is my birthday, and I am 
really 71 years old; and, may the Lord be 
praised, I am strong and well, physically, 
mentally, and (I trust and pray) spiritual- 
ly also. 

In a little Sunday-school paper called 
Forward, that is distributed at our church 
to all the classes, old and young, I found 
the following little gem of thought: 

Only things to eat and drink and wear are high 
in price. Happiness is at the same old figure. 

I read it over and laughed, and read it 
over again, and thanked God that it is in- 
deed true. We may, if we will, or if we 
choose, all of us, have "happiness" at the 
"same old figure." My life has, as a rule, 
been a happy one. I was happy in child- 
hood, and 1 am happy (may God be prais- 
ed again) in my old age. One especial 
thing that has made my life a happy one 
is that I was always keenly interested in 
exploring the wonders of God's creation. 
Even in early childhood I was full of curi- 
osity in regard to every thing about me; 
and when father or mother could answer 
my eager questioning no further, I set about 
making the plants and animals tell what 
they knew. In other words, I put them on 
the witness-stand, as we are told Prof. Hol- 
den put corn "on the witness-stand," and 
made corn answer his questions. Bees were 
my first great hobby, and for many long 
years I questioned them indefatigably, both 
day and night. Of course, the explorer in 
nature's domains meets with many disap- 
pointments, and, as a rule, follows many 
false scents, ofttimes, before he gets on the 
true trail; but, oh the joy and thrill that one 
feels when he gets at the truth and reaps 
his reward! 

To illustrate the above, and to tell you at 
the same time how I am enjoying my "old- 
age vacation," as I sometimes term it, I 
will tell you something about what I am 
now engaged in. 

I have told you before about my arrange- 
ment for watering my seven yards of chick- 
ens, with dropping water, in an overflowing 
dish in each yard; well, the plan I have been 
using requires quite a little iDumping every 
morning, and it was, therefore, quite desir- 
able to have a running stream; so we sank 
a well on the highest part of our premises, 
and found plenty of water down about four 
feet. As our ground slopes strongly, in 
only a few rods this water would be on top 
of the ground ; so we got some cheap second- 
hand pipe and undertook to siphon the wa- 
ter out of the well; but although the long 
arm of the siphon was several inches lower 
than the water in the well, it didn't work. 



The reason was, a much stronger fall is 
needed to pull water out of a well, under 
such circumstances; and the friction in pass- 
ing through a long iron pipe of small diam- 
eter (more or less rusty inside, besides) was 
more than I had calculated. We spent con- 
siderable time on it before we reluctantly 
gave it up, and now I must confess to a 
piece of stupidity on my part that I am 
ashamed of; but as it well illustrates my 
point, I will tell you about it. 

During these very experiments mention- 
ed, we were having trouble with water com- 
ing up through the cement floor of our in- 
cubator cellar. My brother had suggested 
digging a ditch in which to place the pipe 
from the well to the poultry-yards; but this 
would be quite an expense, besides littering 
up the premises; and we should also have to 
cut through quite a few clumps of palmetto. 
In trying to drain the cellar I first put in a 
two-inch cement tile; but the palmetto roots 
or something else soon rotted the tiles. 
Perhaps they were made of cement not 
" rich " enough; at any rate, they soon fail- 
ed. I then dug them all up and put in four- 
inch sewer-pipe; but after the heavy rains 
of last summer, even this sewer-pipe be- 
came filled up more or less with the soft 
white quicksand that runs almost like wa- 
ter in this region. The consequence was, 
that when I got here the first of November 
there was several inches of water in the cel- 
lar; and the "legs" (and especially the 
"ankles") of my Cyphers incubator indi- 
cated the water had been almost a foot deep 
and had stood there for some time. 

By the way, when I commenced making 
a cellar here in Florida I was told by several 
that yo'u couldn't have cellars here; and I 
was just beginning to find out at least one 
reason why. Now, a damp or wet cement 
floor for an incubator cellar is just what is 
wanted; but, of course, \ye do not want wa- 
ter a foot deep. After pondering over the 
matter I declared I would put in an iron 
pipe, so fixed that sand could not get into 
it. And this is the way I did it: We cut 
out a small circle in the floor of the cellar, 
and with a post-auger made a s'mall well 
about three feet deep. The iron pipe was 
then turned to go down into this well, near- 
ly to the bottom. This pipe was then laid 
under the floor (and, of course, under water) , 
and then pushed down through the filled- 
up sewer-pipe, so we had no digging what- 
ever to do. Thus you see we had a "livmg 
spring " of pure soft water, and had the cel- 
lar drained nicely, and about then it occur- 
red to me that if this pipe was connected 
with my "waterworks," we had not only 
killed two birds with one stone, but three, 
and the last one a "whopper." AVe not 
only have running water in all our yards, 
but have an overflowing tub full for four 
Indian Runner ducks that we brought from 
Ohio. 

There are several lessons to be learned 
from the above: First, that w^e can not well 
appreciate something of value to us until 
we have labored and experienced disappoint- 



28 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 1 



ment in getting it. Secondly, the things 
that annoy us most, and seem at times al- 
most insurmountable, may finally turn out 
to be one of our greatest blessings. 

Once more: When we first started "our 
cottage in the woods " Mr. Rood suggested 
that, on account of a chance fire, it would 
be an excellent idea to clear a path or lane 
clear round our premises, and so we have 
had Wesley, whenever he had spare time, 
clear up a lane ten feet wide, and we have 
lately had this lane fenced off and planted 
with oats and other crops for the chickens. 
You see this arrangement makes it very 
convenient to throw the droppings from any 
poultry-house right over the fence into the 
lane; and whenever it is desirable to admit 
the fowls from any yard into this lane it is 
easily done by raising the fence a little. A 
hen with chickens can be given much or 
little room in this lane by putting in a cross- 
fence. At present we are growing some of 
the upland rice I have spoken of at one end 
of the lane down by the creek, where the 
ground has always been pretty damp and 
wet for any thing else. Our chufas that I 
have spoken of have also been grown in 
this lane, and we also grow carrots, collards, 
and any thing else we find the chickens are 
fond of. We sow oats broadcast, a little 
patch every few days, and in this way we 
always have oats of the right size to pull up 
by the roots for the chickens. Now the 
planning for all this work gives me exercise 
for the mind; and taking hold of the tools 
occasionally gives me exercise for the body. 
Last Wednesday evening at the close of the 
prayer-meeting our pastor made a remark 
something like this: He said the church of 
God needed not only consecration anil sanc- 
tification, but it needed also "perspiration." 
Well, I am strongly impressed with the idea 
that this thing we call happiness can not 
be found, at least in its highest and purest 
attainment, without this same "perspira- 
tion," and, I might almost add, with both 
mind and body. 

Our new automobile has not arrived yet, 
although it was shipped from Chicago al- 
most two months ago, and, as a consequence, 
we have been obliged to have more or less 
repairs on the old one; and after having 
tried one after another of the three re- 
pair-shops here, Wesley and I have been 
obliged, on account of the exi)ense, to do 
most of our own repairing. Well, you would 
not at first glance conclude that crawling 
under a car, getting your hands and possibly 
your clothing covered with black grease, 
was particularly conducive to happiness; 
but I want to tell you, you are mistaken. 
Some of my happiest moments have come 
when, after perplexing and fatiguing toil, 
we have succeeded in correcting something 
the expensive experts up town failed to mas- 
ter. In like manner I find happiness in 
surmounting other difficulties. Because of 
a door that shut imperfectly, a possum got 
in to a sitting hen and ate every egg except 
one, when almost ready to hatch. Well, I 
fixed the door; then, after two attempts. 



caught the possum^in a steel trap; and my 
next sitting hen gave us 14 smart chicks 
from 14 feitile eggs, and the whole 14 are 
now two weeks old, and as smart as crickets. 

There are many inquiries about the But- 
tercups. Well, although they (the three 
hens) did some tall laying last spring and 
summer, after moulting they were very slow 
in getting started to laying again, and only 
one was laying the first of December, and 
she lays only every other day. She lays a 
very long white egg, extra large; in fact, it 
is unlike any egg you ever saw, for it is 
more like a rolling-pin than like an ordi- 
nary egg. If she will only keep it up the 
year round I may have some faith in But- 
tercups after all. When I first came back, 
the Buttercup roosters had grown so much 
and improved so much, even after they were 
a year old, that I said the first evening that 
the best one was worth $5.00. The next 
day the beauty of his plumage, his kingly 
carriage, with his royal streamers and gaudy 
coloring, impressed me so much that I rais- 
ed the price to $10.00; but when I kept on 
adding $5.00 each day to his value until I 
got up to i^25.00, Mrs. Root called a halt, re- 
minding me that I knew nothing at all 
about "scoring" fancy birds. Well, he is 
about the handsomest bird I ever saw, any 
way. 

And this reminds me that quite a few 
have written, asking if I would sell some 
Buttercups or eggs. Now, good friends, I 
hope none of you will feel hurt if I tell you 
I could not, with a clear conscience, sell any 
thing that I have mentioned here in these 
Home papers. God has, in his infinite 
mercy, placed me here to. give you all unbi- 
ased facts about Florida, Buttercup chick- 
ens, and a host of other things. What 
would you think of me were I to use this 
great privilege to boom something I had for 
sale? What would you think of a minister 
who would mention in his sermon the 
things he had for sale during the week? It 
is true the editor of a family journal does 
not occupy exactly the sacred position of 
the minister; but I think he ought to realize 
that he should feel pretty near that responsi- 
bility resting on him. Think of the num- 
ber of men who have been placed by the peo- 
ple in important places, solely to protect 
their interests, but who have used their 
great privilege and opportunity to steal from 
the i)eople and our nation. May God for- 
bid that this thing should go on any lon- 
ger. If I should use these pages accorded me 
for years by those who pay for this journal 
to boom the stuff The A. I. Root Co. have 
for sale, do you think I could feel happy in 
repeating over and over the precious text I 
started out with — "Surely goodness and 
mercy shall follow me all the days of my 
life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord 
for ever"? 

From one colony, spring count. I increased to five 
by natural swarming, and secured 120 lbs. of comb 
honey. Two swarms absconded, so the increase 
would have been seven if I had succeeded in keep- 
ing them all. 

Hornets Ferry, Pa., Dec. 12. Emma V. Biles. 



CSbanmgs tn iin Culture 

Published by The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 
H. H. ROOT, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department J. T. Calvekt, Business IMauager 

Entered at the PostofBce. Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



JANUARY 15, 1911 



NO. 2 



Editorial 



" Our Homes " came in from Florida too 
late for insertion in this issue, hence will 
be held over until the Feb. 1st issue. 



STATE bee-keepers' CONVENTIONS IN OHIO 
AND INDIANA. 

Ohio bee-keepers are reminded of the fact 
that the Ohio State Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tion will hold its convention in Cincinnati, 
at the Grand Hotel, Halls 1 and 2, Feb. 16 
and 17. There will also be an important 
State Convention of the Indiana bee-keep- 
ers in the State-house at Indianapolis on 
Feb. 2. A good program is being arranged 
for both conventions. State Entomologist 
Shaw, also foul-brood insi^ector, will be 
present at the Cincinnati meeting to deliver 
an address. In the saitie way. State Ento- 
mologist Douglass, and also foul-brood in- 
spector Demuth, of Indiana, will deliver ad- 
dresses at the Indianapolis meeting. The 
bee-keepers of both states should get out to 
these two conventions, as there will be im- 
portant matters up for discussion. The ed- 
itor of Gleanings expects to be present at 
both meetings, and assist in the discus- 
sions. 



the honey-cooking recipes. 

On page 777 of the Dec. l-5th issue we 
asked all those who knew of good recipes, 
in which honey was one of the ingredients, 
to send such to us, and in exchange for any 
that we could use we agreed to send 
Gleanings one year free, or a copy of 
"How to Keep Bees," by Anna B. Com- 
stock, the "Townsend Bee-book," "Alex- 
ander's Writings on Practical Bee Culture," 
or " How to Keeji Well and I^ive Eong," 
by T. B. Terry. A large number of recipes 
have come in, in response to this offer, for 
which we will issue the proper credits just 
as soon as we can go over the list and find 
out what we can use. Meanwhile, any 
others among our readers, who intend to 
send recipes will please get them to us as 
soon as possible. 

So far we have been considerably sur- 
prised to see how widely honey is used for 
making almost every thing, from shoe pol- 
ish and cough syrup to bread and cake. 



national bee-keepers association an- 
nual REPORT. 

The 1910 Annual Report from General 
Manager N. E. France is just out, and, 
after looking it over quite carefully, we find 
that in many respects it is ahead of any 
other. There are quite a number of very 
interesting illustrations, and the whole sub- 
ject matter of the report bears the stamp of 
practicality. As usual, a full list of the 
members of the Association is given, 
which list, by the way, is larger than ever 
before, and shows the Association to be in 
first-class condition. 

The new secretary, Mr. E. B. Tyrrell, has 
sent out, with the report, a request for 
names of bee-keepers to whom he might 
write with the idea of interesting them in 
the Association and thus materially in- 
creasing the list. By the way, we happen 
to know that Mr. Tyrrell is well qualified 
for his new position, as he has practically 
spent his life in work similar to this; and 
we bespeak for the National Association a 
period of greater growth and prosperit?j^ 
than it has ever enjoyed. 



candied comb honey; what shall we 
do with it? 

At this time of the year, dealers and job- 
bers should look over their comb honey 
very carefully. If they detect initial signs 
of candying they should move it off at once. 
If the room is not raised to a temiierature of 
about 80 degrees Fahr., they should take 
steps at once to have a uniform warm tem- 
perature provided night and day. When 
honey once starts to candy the process goes 
on very rapidly. With a uniform tempera- 
ture of about 80 degrees the candying is de- 
layed materially. 

We once thought we could stop it by put- 
ting the temperature up to 95 or 100, but we 
found from experience that such a high 
temperature has a tendency to make the 
combs sag and leak. We do not now advo- 
cate a higher temperature than 80 to 85. 

Dealers should make sure that it does not 
jump from 90 down to 32. There is nothing 
in the world that will make honey candy 
any quicker than a variable temperature. 



ILLUSTRATED MATERIAL ON HAND FOR 
PUBLICATION. 

Never before in the history of Glean- 
ings have we had so large an amount of il- 
lustrated material on hand. We have 
spared no expense in procuring the very 



30 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



finest engravings possible from some of our 
largest and most extensive producers, illus- 
trating each step in important methods of 
management, many of which we ourselves 
have not fully understood up to this time. 
It is astonishing how these "moving pic- 
tures" aid in making the meaning clear. 
Then, once seen, they are never forgotten, 
and the method in question is permanently 
fixed in the mind. 

In spite of the fact that we have so much 
on hand, we are just as anxious as ever to 
get good instructive photographs, illustrat- 
ing various interesting points in connec- 
tion with bee-keeping. Mere pictures of 
apiaries we do not ordinarily care for, unless 
they illustrate some special feature. 

HOW THE MOVING PICTURES ARE SECURED. 

In some instances the editor himself has 
visited the yards of the contributors, taken 
the necessary pictures, step by step, to illus- 
trate a prospective series of articles con- 
tracted for. In other cases the contributor 
has used his own camera. However, be- 
sides our complete and up-to-date outfit 
which we use ourselves, we have four or five 
compact folding cameras that we send out 
to special contributors together with the 
necessary instructions, so that they "press 
the button and we do the rest." Parties 
who have had no experience at all have 
taken some very good pictures in this way. 



CAPPING-MELTERS AS VIEWED BY OUR EX- 
TENSIVE PRODUCERS. 

We can not help noticing that some of 
our large bee-keepers who have tried cap- 
ping-melters under quite favorable circum- 
stances have had more or less complaint to 
make in regard to them. As our readers 
know, there are quite a number of different 
shapes and sizes of melters that have been 
used; and one opinion that has been ex- 
pressed quite frequently is that a capping- 
melter means considerable apparatus that 
needs constant attention at a time when all 
hands are the busiest. Some have come 
out quite frankly with the statement that 
they would prefer to lose a little honey rath- 
er than have so much heat and fuss around 
in the way. Others have decided that it is 
better to allow the cappings to drain and 
accumulate until a time when work is not 
so rushing and labor is less expensive, then 
render up the whole lot at one time and 
have it done with. 

There has been also more or less complaint 
of the quality of the honey being injured by 
being heated in close contact with the wax, 
propolis, etc. The latest producer to express 
a sentiment of this kind is W. A. Chrysler, 
who, in a paper read at the Ontario Bee- 
keepers' Association convention, and pub- 
lished in the December issue of the Cana- 
dian Bee Journal, had the following to 
say on the subject: 

We have capping-melters that are used to sepa- 
rate honey from the cappings while the uncapping 
of the combs is in progress. The cappings, when 
first removed (not having time to drain), contain 



large quantities of honey. I maintain that, al- 
though the honey may be just as palatable, it is 
changed in flavor and color to a certain extent, al- 
though it be not overheated. All honey, when 
melted with cappings or comb, will take on the 
flavor and the color that wax, smoker smoke, and 
probably other minor substances, such as travel- 
stain, etc., will give it. Overheating has been sug- 
gested many times as being the cause of darkening 
the honey and aflecting its flavor. From my expe- 
rience I am thoroughly satisfied that the honey will 
be darkened in color and changed in flavor, even if 
not overheated. 

Unless cappings can be in some way pressed cold, 
we may always expect capping honey necessarily to 
be kept separate from our other honey, and sold on 
its merits. 

I find that cappings. after having been drained of 
all honey that will drain from them, still contain a 
large percentage of honey, the value of which will 
repay an efTort to secure it in a palatable and sal- 
able condition. 

While taking off honey, It is advisable, however, 
to avoid smoking the bees more than is necessary, 
as smoker smoke, when used to excess, will affect 
the flavor and the color, especially the cappings or 
honey exposed on the surface of the combs. 

In my honey-house I have an uncapping-tank 
about 6 feet long, about 18 inches wide, and about 
the same depth, made of ?4-Inch lumber, and lined 
on the inside with tin, in which I have four wire- 
cloth baskets, about 17 inches square and about 12 
inches deep, which have lugs to hang them sus- 
pended in this tank, and handles for removing 
when ready to melt up. I can uncap in any place 
that is most convenient along the aforesaid tank; 
and when the wire-cloth basket is full I can slide it 
along out of the way to drain, and replace with an 
empty one. 

The cappings, when sufficiently drained, are melt- 
ed over steam-coils, or in a vessel placed in hot wa- 
ter, with an opening to allow the wax to separate 
from the honey. The chief difliculty I have found 
is to separate the wax and the impurities from the 
honey successfully, and with the desired amount of 
labor. I have, while attending this convention, 
seen displayed here, by the Provincial Apiarist, Mr. 
Pettit, an apparatus that I feel certain will obviate 
and remove the above^difflculties, and may also be 
used in connection with the wax-press when ren- 
dering wax from all combs. 

Some of these objections may be over- 
come; but time only will tell whether the 
capping-melter is a piece of apparatus that 
will come into general use. We know that 
there is a large number of capping-melters 
of various constructions in use, and we in- 
vite comment on the question, cut where it 
may. Let those who know speak from 
their experience so that others may profit 
thereby. 

IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE AND HONEST 
GRADING OF COMB HONEY. 

More and more the evidence is coming 
in, showing that too many bee-keepers ei- 
ther do not grade their comb honey at all, 
or else do it so slovenly and carelessly that 
the consignee is simply disgusted when he 
comes to open up the cases and finds No. 2, 
No. 1, and Fancy all mixed together indis- 
criminately. One dealer said that he could 
excuse careless grading, providing that the 
front of the case was not faced up with 
"fancy." Said a jobber, "When I send 
out a case of fancy comb honey and sup- 
pose that the case is in keeping with the 
facing on the outside I get ' particular fits ' 
from the grocer, and I deserve it, too. 
Now," he said, "Mr. Root, you can not 
blame me very much when I turn around 
and give the producer 'fits.' When that 
producer turns around and sends my letter 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



31 



to the Root company and wants me ' shown 
up,' it makes me mad all over, and I have 
about come to the conclusion that I will 
never handle another pound of comb hon- 
ey so long as I live." 

This is only a sample of some of the in- 
terviews that we have had with some of the 
buyers of comb honey. No wonder some of 
our dealers are saying they won't handle 
any more, especially when so much good 
comb honey carefully graded is broken 
down in shipment. 

There is no question but that there must 
be a radical reform in the marketing of comb 
honey. In the first place, better shipping- 
cases must be used, and the comb honey 
must be packed on corrugated paper. When 
small shipments are sent out, the cases 
should be crated in carriers, in the bottom 
of which are heavy cushions of straw. In 
the second place, producers must learn the 
importance of careful grading, not to say 
honest grading, for it is not honest to face a 
case with fancy combs when all the rest of 
it is No. 2, No. 1, and fancy, indiscriminate- 
ly mixed up. 

Another practice that can not be too 
strongly condemned is mixing old comb 
honey with new. A few months ago we in- 
spected one shipment where it is evident 
that this year's crop was mixed up with last 
year's. The latter was largely candied, and 
otherwise gave the appearance of being old. 
Unless the whole lot is regraded, putting 
this year's crop by itself, and last year's 
crop by itself, the entire shipment will go at 
the price of the poor honey. The average 
dealer has no facilities for regrading, and 
therefore he will lump off the whole lot, if 
it is on consignment, at any old price to 
get it off his hands. 

The seeming indifference on the part of 
some small producers (and a few large ones) 
in packing their comb honey for shipment 
in such haphazard ways as have been de- 
scribed, will, sooner or later, drive railroad 
companies to refuse to handle comb honey. 
It has already driven from the field hun- 
dreds and possibly thousands of good cus- 
tomers who would buy comb honey largely 
to sell again. 

We projoose to hammer at this proposition 
until reform is well under way. Such slov- 
enly, careless methods of packing should 
give way to more scientific ways of putting 
up a product so fragile as comb honey, and 
we invite bee-keepers' associations, bee-jour- 
nals, and all bee-keepers everywhere, to join 
with us in the crusade. 



A BEESWAX EXPLOSION. 

Yesterday, if we had been told that bees- 
wax would explode we would not have be- 
lieved it; but, nevertheless, one of our men 
is to-day suffering from severe burns about 
the face and hands as the result of beeswax 
apparently exploding that was being heated 
during the progress of an experiment. The 
details of the incident are as follows: About 
a pound and a half of wax, was being heated 



in a deep wash-dish over an ordinary stove. 
The dish had a rounding bottom, was about 
a foot in diameter at the top, and perhaps 
six inches deep. The melted wax occupied 
not more than \]4. inches space at the bot- 
tom of the dish. When fine bubbles of wax 
commenced coming to the top, showing 
that the boiling-point had nearly been reach- 
ed, about half a pint of water from a tea- 
kettle was poured in, the idea being to cool 
the wax and prevent it from boiling. With- 
out any warning, however, there was a sud- 
den explosion, all the hot water and wax 
being thrown violently into the face of the 
one who was performing the experiment; 
and, as the wax had to be scraped off with 
a knife, it caused some quite severe burns 
before it cooled. 

Now, did this wax, like nitro-glycerin or 
gunpowder, simply explode of its own ac- 
cord? There was no exposed flame or fire at 
any time, and, fortunately, nothing caught 
fire afterward. Our explanation of the trou- 
ble is as follows: Wax boils at a much high- 
er temperature than water; hence, although 
the wax in the dish on the stove had not 
quite reached the boiling-point, its temper- 
ature must have been considerably above 
the boiling-point of water. When the hot 
water from the tea-kettle was poured in, its 
tendency was to go to the bottom of the 
dish because the wax is lighter; but the high 
temperature immediately volatilized the 
water; and as the steam had no exit except 
through the wax, it fairly lifted the whole 
contents of the dish into the air. 

If wax is being heated over boiling water, 
there is no such danger if our explanation is 
the correct one, for the wax could get no 
hotter than the boiling water underneath; 
hence it hardly seems correct to say that 
wax may be boiled over water. It is true 
that the water underneath boils; but the 
wax above does not reach its own boiling- 
point, although the steam from below, ris- 
ing through the wax, agitates it and gives 
it the appearance of boiling. 

All this only goes to show that it is much 
safer, when "melting wax, to put water in 
the bottom of the vessel before the wax is 
thrown in. The wax will then not reach its 
owTi boiling-point. In the experiment de- 
scribed above, the wax was already above 
the temperature of boiling water before the 
water was introduced. Very serious results 
would surely follow if a large quantity of 
wax were brought nearly to its boiling-point, 
being heated in a dry vessel, and then water 
introduced. If a large quantity of cold wa- 
ter were put in there might not be bad re- 
sults, as it would have a tendency to cool 
the wax, although the first of the water put 
in might make trouble before the larger vol- 
ume had cooled down the body of the wax. 
If we are not sound in our reasoning, we 
shall be glad to be corrected. 

Fires from burning wax are very hard to 
extinguish; and the greatest precautions 
should be taken, not only to prevent wax 
from boiling over, but to prevent such oc- 
currences as this. 



32 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



Stray Straws 

By Dr. C. C. Millee, Marengo, 111. 



Italians are far less inclined to " resort 
to the fluids excreted by aphides, to damaged 
fruits, etc.," p. 12. That's new. I wish the 
proof had laeen given. 

Figures as to nectar-loads, page 780, are, 
after all, not very conflicting. Professor 
Koons' data give 20,000 bees to carry one 
pound of nectar. That would be .350 of a 
grain to a load against Mr. Digges' .333. 

Dummies for eight-frame Dovetailed hives 
are, I think, usually made the same length 
as brood-frames, 11 Y?,. For years I have 
used them >^-inch shorter; and if I were 
making new ones they would be an inch 
shorter. Bees never build in the space left, 
and they are more easily handled. Manu- 
facturers, please take notice. [We are not 
sure but you may be right. We shall be 
glad to hear from others. — Ed.] 

A HIGH PRICE is set on propolis, p. 772 — 
namely, $5.00. I'd like to sell five or ten 
pounds of it at that price each year I have a 
crop of honey. [You say you would be glad 
to furnish propolis at $5.00 a pound when 
you have a crop of honey. When you have 
not a crop, perhaps you could not furnish 
it in quantity at any price; therefore $5.00, 
taking seasons as they go, probably would 
not be much out of the way. — Ed.] 

F. H. Cyrenius, p. 802, it doesn't follow 
that you would make a big gain by feeding 
between fruit-bloom and clover because J. 
A. Green did. That 1000 lbs. of sugar — per- 
haps 3 lbs. to the colony — wouldn't cut very 
much figure in filling up; but it would cut 
a big figure in keeping up brood-rearing; 
for in Colorado there is a dead break in 
brood-rearing, while with you it is probably 
the same as here — the queen doesn't stop 
laying. 

"I can not see why anybody should 
think that he can buy better queens than 
he can rear at home," page 766. The man 
with average bees can always buy better 
queens than he can rear, simply because 
some one else has better bees than he has. 
If he buys a queen of better stock than he 
already possesses, even should that queen 
after her journey prove a poor layer, he can 
from her rear queens that will beat his old 
stock. 

"We have an idea that, to eliminate 
completely the swarming desire, is to breed 
a race of bees that is lacking in fecundity." 
— Canadian B. J., 358. I don't know about 
that. The thing I do know is that the col- 
onies that give me record crops are the very 
ones from which the swarming desire is 
completely eliminated for one or more years. 
They seem to have at least enough fecundi- 
ty left to get more honey than anybody else. 



Banats "more nearly resemble the black 
bees in appearance, and it would be difficult 
to keep the blacks and Banats separate." 
That would hardly count against the Banats 
in places where the black blood is nearly all 
worked out. I suppose there are thousands 
of bee-keepers to-day who have never seen 
pure blacks, although some of us never saw 
any other for years. 

How LONG does it take a bee to load up 
with pollen? In six to eight seconds it 
cleans up a single erica blossom, and in five 
to six minutes the beginning of the pel- 
lets can be seen; eighteen to twenty min- 
utes later they are finished; and four to five 
minutes later the bee is back to its hive X 
mile away. — Deutsche Imker, 336. Can it 
be that it fools away four or five minutes 
getting over that quarter of a mile? [What 
kind of a mile is meant, doctor? — Ed.] 

Disagreement still continues as to ab- 
sorbents and sealed covers. I wonder, now, 
whether, in places where absorbents do bet- 
ter, sealed covers would not do just as well 
if the absorbents -were put on tojy of the 
sealed cov^ers. At any rate, it seems very 
important to have the top warm, sealed or 
not sealed, so that moisture will not be con- 
densed and drop down on the bees. [When 
sealed covers are used for outdoor wintering 
there should alivays be some warm packing 
placed on top. The great thing in favor of 
sealed covers is that they keep the packing 
material dry because the moisture can not 
escape through the top. — Ed.] 

Allen Latham has the secret of keeping 
section honey. I have some of his get-up of 
1907, '8, '9, and '10, and there's no more sign 
of graining in the first than in the last. All 
of it is thick, stringy, with never a grain. 
Now, how does he do it? [This is very im- 
portant. If Mr. Latham, or any one else, 
has a plan of keeping comb honey liquid, 
it would be worth much to dealers who 
have to hold over a croii after the holidays, 
In this connection it is proper to remark 
that some honeys will remain liquid very 
much longer than others. We wonder 
whether our friend has any plan that would 
keep alfalfa honey from candying for any 
great length of time. — Ed.] 

"Solid cards of honey "break up the 
cluster, so that the bees, instead of being in 
a solid cluster separated only by midribs, 
are separated into slabs of bees y?, inch thick, 
p. 19. That's true, with an "if" — v/ there 
is not room for them to cluster below bot- 
tom-bars. In my cellar the colonies that 
look " goodest " to me are the ones with a 
big cluster below bottom-bars, not separat- 
ed even by a midrib. [We had in mind, 
particularly, colonies in oufdoo?- wintered 
hives. It is not so necessary to have a win- 
ter nest for indoor colonies; but when they 
are outdoors it would be simply impossible 
for the cluster to be so strong that it would 
reach away down below the bottom-bars. If 
the entrance was of the usual size, the bees 
would hug up against the top of the hive. — 
Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



33 



Carbolic solution. Little is heard about 
it nowadays, so it may be prettier in theory 
than in practice, quoth ye editor, page 26. 
Possibly less is said about it now because it 
has become a settled thing. Cowan's Guide 
Book, p. 98, says it is frequently used, and 
gives instructions for using. Digges' Prac- 
tical Bee Guide says, " By some the carbolic 
cloth is preferred to the smoker. In certain 
operations it is somewhat easier to work 
with than is the smoker," p. 67. To sub- 
due bees, lay over them a cloth moistened 
with a solution. Cowan says 1 oz, of Cal- 
vert's No. 5 carbolic acid to 2 oz. of water. 
Digges says 1 to 10. I've heard of its taint- 
ing the honey. 

Once I had two nuclei in the same hive. 
One of them, becoming queenless, united 
with the other. I suppose it united with- 
out flying out, merely- crawling the short 
distance from one entrance to the other. 
At any rate I found one side of the hive de- 
serted, and part of the field bees regularly 
entering its entrance, and then solemnly 
marching out again, and walking across to 
the other entrance. This they kept up for 
days, I suppose as long as the original field 
bees livtd. I leave Ralph P. Fisher to rec- 
oncile their actions with his experience that 
"bees invariably seek the shortest way 
home" [At our north yard, where we use 
200 twin baby nuclei, we find it a common 
thing for some of the bees of the queenless 
?ide of the nucleus to desert and go over to 
the side that has a fertile queen. — Ed.] 

Is THERE a better name than "extracted"? 
page 3. The fact that much discussion, sev- 
eral years ago, failed to find the better word, 
it looks as if there were none. "Extracted" 
is a better word now than it was then, be- 
cause it has had all these years of reputable 
use. The editor strikes at the root of the 
matter. It is not so much what the name 
is, as what the public knows about the thing 
itself. My Chicago daily — and likely other 
dailies— contains a full-page ad. of beer — 
not beer of this or that make, just beer — its 
food value, its tonic effect, nourishing, sooth- 
ing, livening, cleansing, etc. That ad. cost 
a pile of money, and on the face of it the 
beer-makers must have got together to pay 
for it. If it pays them to raise big money 
to pay for lies about their vile product, why 
should it not pay bee-keepers to get together 
to tell the truth about the most delicious 
and wholesome sweet in existence? In that 
way the public would learn just what ex- 
tracted honey is, and the name would mat- 
ter little. Will they ever do it? 

Ye EDITOR "silenced for ever" all ques- 
tions as to beet sugar being inferior for win- 
tering, p. 733. Now comes one of the big 
feeders, Wesley Foster, who breaks the "for 
ever " silence by saying. Ranch and Range, 
34, "The reason for using cane sugar in 
place of beet sugar is that syrup made from 
beet sugar turns to crystals much quicker 
than syrup made from cane sugar; in fact, 
cane-sugar syrup fed to hee^ does but rarely 
granulate." [Beet and cane sugar look ex- 



actly alike, and chemically are precisely 
the same. Very often local dealers will sell 
what they suppose is cane sugar, when in 
reality it is beet, and vice versa. We have 
never been able to get granulated sugar 
from the sugar-refiners which, was guaran- 
teed to be either beet or cane. The ques- 
tion of crystals forming from the syrup 
would depend more on the way the syrup 
was heated, we should say, than upon the 
material out of which it was made. Our 
friend Mr. Foster we consider one of our 
most re'iable correspondents. We simply 
raise the question as to whether he is mis- 
informed as to the source of the sugar. We 
have tried ordering a granulated sugar made 
of sugar cane; but so far the sugar trust 
has not seen fit to give any information, 
any more than to state that they guaran- 
teed it to be first class, and equal to any 
granulated sugar sold. — Ed.] 

"At what date would you advise feed- 
ing for stimulating or for increase in the 
spring?" is the common question of all be- 
ginners after they have been reading a lit- 
tle about bees, and have somehow got the 
idea that bees will not build up as they 
should without that sort of attention from 
their owners. The proper answer to that 
question — an answer given with emphasis 
— should be "At no date." If bees do not 
have plenty, yes, abundance, of food, they 
should be promptly fed (and that feeding 
is better done the summer or fall previous) ; 
then, having abundance, the safe thing is 
for a beginner to let them alone. It's the 
safe thing, as well, for the veteran. A sort 
of exception occurs in places where there is 
so great a break in the early forage that the 
queen jstops laying. [You are sound, doc- 
tor, all the way through, but once in a 
while a beginner finds his colonies, during 
mid-winter, with almost dry combs. If he 
has no combs of sealed stores from other 
hives or in reserve in his honey-house, the 
only thing he can do is to give slabs of 
candy, laid up on top of the frames. We 
recommend hard rock candy, made only of 
granulated sugar; there should be no fla- 
voring of any sort. Generally speaking, it 
should be made by a professional candy- 
maker who knows how to do the work with- 
out overdoing it. A slightly burned candy 
is almost sure to be fatal to the colony be- 
fore spring. Where one can not secure the 
rock candy, the orcinary queen-cage candy 
does very well. One objection to it is the 
waste, as the granules of the sugar rattle 
down between the frames, and the first 
warm day, or fly day, are carried out and 
deposited at the entrance. We find nothing 
of this kind when rock candy is used. 
Again, unless the candy is made of the 
right stiffness, it softens from the warmth 
and moisture of the cluster, and sags down 
between the frames, daubing up the bees. 
This difficulty can be overcome by putting 
the candy in wooden butter-dishes. Metal 
or porcelain dishes should not be used, as 
they are too cold for the cluster. — Ed.] 



34 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



Sittings 

By J. E. Cbane, Middlebury, Vt. 



On page 683, Nov. 1, attention is called to 
the necessity of strong colonies for working 
a late flow. Good advice, and it is just as 
good for working an early or mid-summer 
flow. 

After looking at those beautiful pictures 
on pages 690 and 691, of the field meeting of 
the Massachusetts Association of Bee-keep- 
ers, it makes me regret more than ever that 
I could not accept their pressing invitation 
to be present. 

I think it will pay to read that article 
twice by Albion Platz, page 651, Oct. 15, on 
stimulative feeding. Evidently we can not 
improve much on Nature's methods; and 
the closer we study this old teacher the 
more success we shall have. ^ 

4>- 

Hip! hip! hurrah! Vermont at last has a 
foul-brood law. Conditions were favorable, 
and a few of us put our shoulders to the 
work and it went through. We did not get 
all we desired, but enough to make it work 
in our small state, and we hope in the near 
future to eradicate entirely this scourge of 
foul brood. 

Wesley Foster, page 682, Nov. 1, gives us 
a glimpse of Colorado winters. It must be 
a great thing to be able to leave bees out all 
winter without packing or care. By the 
way, I have found a most excellent material 
for packing to insure safe wintering is \% 
inches of live bees packed around a moderate- 
sized colony. 

The editor says, page 711, Nov. 15, he 
would like to see the question of a settling- 
tank vs. strainers settled. Well, we have 
settled it so far as we are concerned. Unless 
honey is quite warm or thin we find it too 
great a task to strain it satisfactorily, and 
now prefer to trust to a settling-tank. [This 
opinion seems to be growing. — Ed.] 

I was much interested in the short edito- 
rial, page 643, Oct. 15, on the value of bees 
as fertilizers of cranberry-blossoms. Mr. 
Martin, Commissioner of Agriculture for 
Vermont, recently informed me that, while 
the apple crop of Western Vermont is large, 
that of Addison Co., where the most bees 
are kept, is much larger than in the adjoin- 
ing counties. 

-^ 

A very interesting article is that by D. M. 
Macdonald, page .617, Oct. 1, on securing 
heather honey in Great Britain. Some of 
his methods are especially applicable to 
this or any country, and we do well to re- 
member them; viz., to get the hive full. 



crainmed with brood in all stages, with an 
abundance of hatching bees, strong colonies 
just as the flowers begin to bloom, from 
which the harvest is expected. But why 
heather honey sells at so much higher a 
price than clover honey I fail to see. 
-^ 
Attention is called, page 679, Nov. 1, by 
the editor to the relative price of comb and 
extracted honey. I believe that here in the 
East, in small packages, say from % to one 
pound in glass, extracted honey sells as 
high as or higher than comb; but in larger 
quantities the extracted sells for less. How- 
ever, when we speak of a pound of comb 
honey we think of a section, which often 
does not weigh over 14 ounces after the wood 
and wax are removed. 

Mr. Holtermann's note, page 614, Oct. 1, 
on percolator feeders, seems to me quite to 
the point. I never could see the sense of 
letting our sugar dissolve slowly in cold 
water when we could melt it in half or a 
quarter the time with hot water. W^e have 
to feed heavily here in Vermont, especially 
some years. With hot water we are able 
to melt up two or more barrels of sugar and 
take it from six to ten miles away and feed 
the same day, and then repeat again the 
next day. How long would it take with 
"percolator feeders "? 
<^ 

A number of articles have recently ap- 
peared as to the practicability or possibility 
of breeding out the swarming impulse. 
Some think it can be done, while others 
claim it is impossible. Now, I am not go- 
ing into the fight, but just going to stand 
on the fence and "holler " for the under 
dog. One thing seems to me very clear, 
however. The swarming instinct or impulse, 
or whatever you may call it, is a very vari- 
able quality in different breeds or races, or 
even strains of bees of the same race. Fur- 
thermore, when any quality, either in plants 
or animals, over which man has control, is 
variable, he can either increase or diminish 
that quality by careful breeding and selec- 
tion. 

Mr. W. E. McFarland tells us, page 655, 
Oct. 15, of a wise chicken he has, that ev- 
ery afternoon goes around among his hives 
catching drones. A great deal has been 
written about improving our bees, and I 
am of the opinion that, a breed of chickens 
such as he describes would be a decided ac- 
quisition. Try as we do to cut down the 
drones, we always have quite too many, 
and a few chickens with drone-eating hab- 
its would just fill the bill. Only think ! 
instead of our drones being a complete 
waste, as now, they would furnish food for 
our feathered family; and our hens, instead 
of just furnishing eggs will earn us money 
at drone-catching. But how about our 
choice drones? I think we will just set 
such hives on a barrel, so the chickens 
wouldn't find them. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



35 



Bee-keeping in the South- 
west 

By Louis Scholl, New Braunfels, Texas 



THE REAL. PRICE OF BULK COMB HONEY 
IN TEXAS. 

On page 680 Otto 8ueltenfuss takes the 
writer to task as giving to the bee-keeping 
world an erroneous idea of the prices of bulk 
comb honey. Had our correspondent taken 
the pains to investigate the situation as 
thoroughly as we did through some forty or 
more letters asking for postal-card replies, 
he would have found that by far the great- 
est amount of Texas bulk comb honey sold 
for 10 cents per pound, and a great part of 
fhis realized those who sold direct even bet- 
ter than this. We have sold on a 11, 11>^, 
12, and 12 >^ cent basis the entire season for 
bulk comb honey. For extracted honey our 
price, f. o. b. shipping-point, was 9 cts. per 
lb. in the two 60-lb. cans, and 9>^, 10, and 
lOX cts. in the smaller-size pails in case lots. 

On page 580 he quotes the average price 
for extracted as having been 7 cts., and a 
dull market for this later for three months, 
crowding it down to 6>^ cts. This seems 
strange to us, since we have scoured the 
country for extracted honey with which to 
put up our bulk comb honey, and found 
nearly everybody sold out; or those who had 
any, held it at 8 to 9 cts. We ourselves paid 
1% cts. for dark amber, and S% for light- 
amber honey in two 60-lb. cans, in several 
thousand pound lots. A single lot of 33 
fifty-gallon barrels, we paid 7 cents per lb. 
for, the lightest we could get, though still a 
light amber. In the first place we have seen 
no " water- white " honey this year, and 
know of none that sold at so ridiculously a 
low price as 6 to 6>< cents, as stated. If he 
got so little for his honey it does not neces- 
sarily set the price obtained for the great 
bulk of the Texas honey crop. We have 
yet to meet a single bee-keeper who is com- 
plaining either about the demand or the 
prices of honey this year; and many have 
obtained more than the ten-cent basis. 

ORDER YOUR SUPPLIES EARLY. 

This is of more than average importance, 
for delays in ordering the needed supplies 
for the next season have resulted in far 
greater losses than one would suppose with- 
out a second thought. The writer has seen 
instances where the simple delay of a month 
in the spring meant almost the entire loss 
of a honey crop to the owner of several hun- 
dred colonies of bees, while in other in- 
stances a great part of the main crop was 
lost for the simple reason that the much- 
needed supplies were either not to be ob- 
tained at all or they were delayed "some- 
where on the road " and could not be locat- 
ed until it was too late. A little extra care 
in this direction would prevent many a loss 
of a crop. 

There are other advantages gained by the 



early ordering of supplies. It is still early 
enough to do this; but the proper time to 
get the new things should be in the late 
fall or the early winter months. As soon 
as the honey crop is out of the way, and 
there is still some of the money on hand 
from the proceeds of the apiary, turn it into 
supplies for the next season. At this time 
there is a reduction on early orders. These 
can be shipped out earlier, since there is not 
the rush of the busy season, and the trouble 
resulting from delays en route will not be 
felt nearly so much. 

But there is a much greater advantage; 
and that is, if the supplies are received ear- 
ly they can be put together a ad painted 
at leisure when there is nothing else of a 
pressing nature to interfere, as is the case 
later in the season. Then we are able to 
give our thoughts and attention to some of 
the more important things that help so 
much in making our business a success. 
This warning is given at this time so that 
those who have not already ordered will not 
be caught delaying the matter any longer. 



PREVENT FIRES IN THE APIARY. 

Fire may do disastrous work in an apiary 
if proper precautions for its prevention are 
not taken. One of our river-bottom apia- 
ries, in which the hives are on scaffolds four 
feet high, is located in a Bermuda-grass 
pasture. While the stock keep the grass 
very short in the pasture, it grows very rank 
and thick in the apiary during the year. 
This fall the grass caught fire; and, before 
it was discovered, a lot of supplies and some 
lumber, part of the fence, and several large 
trees, were burned. One of the scaffolds, to- 
gether with six colonies of bees on it, also 
burned up entirely. Several others that 
had caught fire were saved. Had this not 
happened on a Sunday, when there were 
many plantation negroes near the place, the 
fire would not, perhaps, have been discov- 
ered, and the entire apiary would have been 
destroyed. 

We have always been careful to guard 
against such disasters; but this work was 
delayed on account of other matters. It has 
made a still firmer irapression upon us of 
the importance of cleaning up the apiaries 
in the fall of the year instead of leaving all 
fallen leaves and other trash and rubbish 
until spring. 

Although we have been careful before, 
this experience has taught us to do this 
work a little earlier and more thoroughly 
than heretofore. It is not very pleasant 
even to think of finding one or more of the 
out-apiaries entirely wiped out by fire. 
Where some of the apiaries are located in 
pastures or forests it is also wise, as an extra 
precaution, to plow or otherwise clean a 
space entirely surrounding the bees. This, 
together with a clean-kept apiary, not only 
prevents fire losses but improves the ap- 
pearance of things materially. It shows in- 
telligence, energy, and thrift on the part of 
the owner. 



36 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodino 



BOOKS, HIVES, ETC., f OR BEGINNERS. 

I read with interest your article for beginners in 
the November 15th issue. Now please name some 
of the practical books on bee-keeping; and tell us 
what size of frame and hive you would use. Would 
it be advisable to sow sweet clover or other nectar- 
producing plants for bee pasture? 

It would be hard work to pick out any 
special book on bee-keeping and recommend 
it above all the rest, as all writers on apicul- 
ture have their own individual ideas of what 
is practical. When any one originates 
something new, that thing is more practi- 
cal in his hands than in the hands of some 
one not familiar with it. To illustrate: Eor 
over thiity years of my bee-keeping life I 
used a smoker made of a piece of tin ten 
inches long, rolled into a tube two inches in 
diameter, and locked together with a stove- 
pipe joint, so there was nothing to unsolder 
from iieat irom the burning fuel. In one 
end was nailed a cone-shaped plug having a 
X-incli hole in the center, while the other 
end was fitted with a removable plug or 
stopper having a mouthpiece with a hole 
bored through it, something like the mouth- 
piece of an ordinary tobacco-pipe. This cyl- 
inder was filled with almost any kind of fuel 
that would produce lots of smoke — a coal of 
fire or a little punk set on fire from a match 
droiJjoed in, and the mouthpiece or plug re- 
placed. It was then held between the teeth, 
and the smoke directed just where it was 
needed, by a slight breathing through the 
mouthpiece and a little turning at the de- 
sired angle by a pressure of the teeth, or a 
little motion of the head and neck. This 
left both hands free, and the directing of the 
smoke, and the quantity required, became, 
after a little, almost automatic. When, final- 
ly, my teeih began to decay I had to resort 
to a " bellows smoker " — a thing wliich the 
great mass of bee-keepers called "perfec- 
tion;" but I was so thoroughly disgusted 
with it that I threw it into the waste-box 
till I was simply obliged to go back to it on 
account of having nd teeth to hold the old 
mouth smoker with. 

In 1876 I was at Medina, having the old 
mouth smoker with me. I showed the 
founder of Gleanings, Mr. A. I. Root, how 
I used this femoker; and as he saw how any 
amount of smoke, from the least trifle to a 
large volume, could be directed just where 
it was needed, and at the instant needed, 
while both hands were free, he became very 
entimsiaslic in the matter. When I return- 
ed home I left the old smoker with him; 
but I soon received a letter telling me how 
the "elephant" hail filled his eyes with 
smoke till the tears streamed down his face 
— how his lungs were filled till he was nearly 
strangled, and he forgot to turn the thing, 
on the bees, so that he got the worst sting- 
ing he had had in a long time. If begin- 



ners — yea, and all others — will be patient in 
trying something new, their trial is not so 
apt to be in vain. 

Now about the books: I think all will 
bear me out when I say that the book con- 
taining the most up to date matter. on api- 
culture is the one called "The ABC and X 
Y Z of Bee Culture." But, while this is a 
fact my eyes always glisten at the sight of 
my old 1865 edition of " Quinby's Mysteries 
of Bee-keeping," for it was at the feet of this 
Gamaliel that 1 learned my first lessons in 
practical apiculture. Of course, this book 
is now out of print; but "Quinby's New 
Bee-keeping," by L. C. Root, Father Quin- 
by's son-in-law, is still obtainable, and 
brought more nearly up to date. Then there 
is " Langstroth on the Honey-bee," which 
was and is considered "the standard'' for 
the world. And our own Dr. Miller's book 
telling of his forty years' work with the bees, 
which has placed him where his name is a 
household word on the tongue of every lover 
of our little pets, should be in every bee- 
keeper's library. And, dear me! there are 
nearly or quite twice as many more books 
on bee-keeping that have the " right ring "' 
in them, from which so much can be learn- 
ed that surely no one interested in bees can 
go amiss in making a selection. 

For 35 years I u^ed and "swore" by the 
Gallup frame about the same as I did by 
that old mouth smoker. The Gallup frame 
was like a Langstroth frame, but it was 10^ 
in. square, inside, or 11^ outside. Mr. Gal- 
lup used twelve of these to the hive, while 
I used only nine, spacing them 1>^ inches 
from center to center. This small brood- 
chamber caused nearly all the white honey 
to be stored in the sections; but when I 
wished a non-swarming plan for working 
my bees, this one-foot cube for a brood- 
chamber would not answer. 1 then took 
the old beaten path and adopted the regular 
Langstroth size, using ten frames to the 
hive; and now, after getting "acquainted" 
with this regular L. frame and liive I am 
wondering at the patience the rank and file 
of the bee-keepers of the past had with my 
continual claims for the Gallup as best. 

Now about sowing for bee pasturage: I 
very much doubt whether the sowing or 
planting of any thing which is of no value 
except for the nectar it may produce can be 
made to pay on land which will produce 
fairly good returns for farming purposes. 
Sweet clover is surely a great honey-plant; 
and the beauty of this plant is that it will 
thrive on gravelly, rocky, or sandy soil 
where almost nothing else will grow at all. 
I have sown it all about here by the road- 
side, by gullies, and all waste places, until 
it is quite a help to the bees. But as an api- 
ary of lUO colonies requires hundreds of acres 
of pasturage, the clovers, as sown by our 
farmers, the basswoods growing for lumber, 
and the buckwheat for its grain, give 99 out 
of every 100 ounces of nectar which our bees 
gather; while the hard maple, willows, and 
fruit-trees give the most of the other ounce 
not included with the 99. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



37 



General Correspondence 



SECOND HAND CANS. 



Does it Pay to Use Them ? Occasional Lots of 

Cans will do for Use the Second Time; but 

in the End the Second-hand Business 

Proves Unsatisfactory. 



BY F. B. CAVANAGH. 



The only possible object in using second- 
hand cans is the saving in cost over new 
ones; therefore if second-hand cans cost us 
30 cts. less per case we can obviously sell our 
honey at % ct. per lb. less when we mar- 
ket. Furthermore, if the cans have con- 
tained nice light honey, and have been 
carelessly drained, there will be close to a 
pound of honey in each can, which, includ- 
ed in the selling weights, may net us 10 to 
15 cts. more per case. All very well so far, 
and a good-appearing proposition; but now 
for the facts and figures governing both 
sides of the case. 

In the first place, it is exceedingly hard to 
get cans which are good enough. The deal- 
er empties his once-used cans after melting 
the contents by placing the can in hot wa- 
ter. The can looks very good, but in reali- 
ty it is injured at the time of emptying 
when he shoves it back into the box to 
await an order from some bee-keeper. Mr. 
Beekeeper writes a letter something like 
this: 

Honey Bend, May 22, 1910. 
Honey Bottler Co., Big City, U. S. A. 

Gentlemen: — 
Have you any good second-hand cans, con- 
forming strictly to the following specifications? 
New cans used but OLce for white-clover, alfalfa, or 
sage honey; bright, and free from rust both inside 
and out; free from leaks; not battered, and with 
caps which fit: cases to be in good condition for 
shipping. You might also quote me on the same 
cans shipped without cases. 

I had decided never to use second-hand cans 
again, as 1 had to throw out fully one-fifth of those 
purchased of a firm last year. However, the 100 
cans you sent me loose last fall were so good (with 
the exception of the ones the trainmen used in play- 
ing football) also, that your firm is highly recom- 
mended to us; hence we contemplate trying once 
more if prices are right. Yours very truly, 

E. Z. Beeman. 

In due time a cheerful reply comes back: 

Big City. U. S. A., May 27, 1910. 
Mr. E. Z. JSee7»a«.— Replying to your favor of the 
22d, we have for immediate shipment 200 cases of 
good cans such as you describe, in good solid box- 
es. For these we ask 30 cts. a case. We also have 
100 loose cans at 5 cts. each. 

These will be good: cans used but once; and on 
receiving them, if you find any you can not use, 
just throw them out and report to us. 
Yours truly, 

Honey Bottler Co. 

The order is sent. Mr. Beeman, being 
busy at the time the cans arrive, takes a 
hasty glance at a few cans opened at ran- 
dom, finds them bright and good, is satis- 
fied, and stores them away. 

In a couple of weeks comes another letter 
advising of several hundred more cans in 
stock. Beeman writes that the first lot 



looks fine, and if others are as good he says, 
" Ship us the 100 boxes and 200 loose cans." 

The Honey Bottler Co. replies later that 
they have shipped 100 boxes of cans, 40 
cases of which have had maple syrup in 
them marked X X, and which are good cans, 
and "we hope you can use them at 20 cts. 
per case; also 200 loose cans, some of which 
are not so good, so we include 25 extra ones. 
Trusting you can use the entire shipment, 
we beg to remain, etc. 

"P. S. — You may throw out any cans 
which you can not use." 

Now, the proper thing to do was to inspect 
the cans before accepting. However, Mr. 
Beeman, being busy at out-apiaries, leaves 
strict advice to the agent and drayman not 
to delay a minute in getting those cans in- 
side the shop. No bees must get at them; 
hence the cans are piled inside, and, feeling 
secure of the company's good faith and the 
clause to throw out any poor ones, Mr. B. 
waits for a rainy day to inspect the cans. 

It rains at last, so to the shop goes Mr. 
Beeman and helpers armed with towels, a 
tank of cold water, tub of hot water on a 
gasoline-stove, also hammer and nails to 
renail boxes. 

The first 200 cases tested are satisfactory, 
barring a dozen with nail-holes. Of the re- 
maining 400 cans, over 160 are sour inside, 
or blackened with an evil-smelling rusty 
substance, much unlike maple syrup. 
About 100 remaining cans are tarnished 
outside, and hardly fit to use; but Mr. Bee- 
man polishes them up and keeps them, 
hoping to make a little better report. He 
very kindly writes the Honey Bottler Co., 
expressing regrets. They, being very much 
surprised, and somewhat offended, reply 
thus in substance: "Enclose shipping-bill 
for 25 cans, which," they add, "ends the 
matter so far as we are concerned." 

Mr. Beeman takes the local bank's cash- 
ier down and has him look the lot over. He 
smells the openings of many cans with ap- 
propriate exclamations of disgust. He 
writes his confirmation of condition of cans, 
and sends it in the same mail with Mr. Bee- 
man's kind repetition of facts. 

The Honey Bottler Co. say they now rec- 
ollect having sent cans used for maple syr- 
up, and are, therefore, enclosing billing for 
75 more loose cans to replace these. The 
letter closes thus: "The cans we sent you 
were exactly what you ordered; and if you 
are not satisfied now, then we certainly shall 
not do any thing further in this matter." 

Mr. Beeman calls attention to the matter 
of freight, which aggregated over $30.00 (no 
reply) ; offers to return cans (no reply) ; 
writes a sassy letter, saying he will take 
such action as the case justifies (no reply). 
Honey Bottler has the money. Mr. Bee- 
man has the freight-bills and dray-bills to 
pay, and a shop cluttered with cans which, 
like whited sepulchers, look good outside, 
but are very bad inside. 

The reader may draw his own conclusions, 
knowing that this firm is rated and well 
recommended. 



38 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



My experience in past years has never 
been quite satisfactory. There Mere always 
cans without caps, and cans with holes in 
them. Frequently cases bought as used but 
once the past season would have old dates 
stamped by the railroad company, showing 
conclusively that, in reality, they were two 
years old instead of one. 

The deterioration of honey-cans occurs in 
ways unlooked for. To begin with, the acid 
contained in honey acts on the tin. Honey 
spilled in the melting-tank forms a sweet- 
ened solution which tarnishes and eventu- 
ally injures the tinning of the can. If 
wiped dry the can will remain bright, but 
this is seldom done. The bee-keeper then 
fills it wi I h honey; the varying temperature 
causes a collection of moisture, which fre- 
quently rusts the can badly before it is 
shipped. Can - manufacturers do not tin 
their cans heavily enough to withstand 
more than a single season's use. 

Then we have inside deterioration of cans, 
which some dealers in cans refuse to ac- 
knowledge. Cans containing thin syrup or 
honey with caps loosely attached will 
"breathe air," inhaling during falling and 
exhaling during rising temperatures. Thus 
in time oxidation of the tin occurs inside as 
well as out. If the caps are air-tight the 
cans will swell and shrink from expansion 
or contraction of air, causing an audible 
snapping, which in time cracks little cross- 
shaped leaks in the can. 

In conclusion 1 would say go slow. It 
doesn't pay to buy second-hand cans as a 
rule. Good second-hand cans quickly mar- 
keted may be all right. Cheaper cans may 
serve in certain cases in selling to a whole- 
sale manufacturer where price is a promi- 
nent feature. To ship hard-looking cans to 
a mixed trade will certainly cause the loss 
of customers, no matter how fine the honey 
inside. 

We all desire a deserved reputation for a 
neat, cleanly, and securely boxed article as 
well as one of superior quality. If a "kid " 
handles the honey-gate and the honey sjull- 
ed is left on ihe can-tops, what will it look 
like when marketed even in new cans? 

Fill the cans to weight yourself; don't 
spill a drop on the can. It isn't necessary. 
Then box them up, and either remove at 
once to a separate room or cover with a 
cloth, I'iling five cases high. Don't let bees 
crawl over cans and cases if they are to look 
nice. Lastly, don't be stingy with nails. I 
have never lost a can of honey in my fifteen 
years of shipping, and I attribute it largely 
to care in screwing caps tightly, nailing 
cases securely, and also to the use of caution- 
labels. 

Enclosing our product in cheap cans is 
like dressing in shabby clothes. It gives a 
bad if not a wrong impression. Good con- 
tainers appeal to the average user to the ex- 
tent of the difference in price, and are fully 
as convincing in suggesting the quality 
within as are statements made by the pro- 
ducer. 

Hebron, Ind. 



THE PROPER ARRANGEMENT OF BAIT 
SECTIONS IN A SUPER. 



How Baits at the Sides of a Super Tend to Dis- 
courage Swarming. 

BY C. B. PALMER. 



It has been said that a queen will not or- 
dinarily lay in bait sections if such sections 
consist of worker comb. The bait sections 
I use are the unfinished ones saved from the 
previous season. I asked Dr. Miller where 
to place bait sections when an excluder is 
not used; and from his usual answer,* I con- 
cluded that he used an excluder. When I 
read the editor's remarks on page 379, June 
15, 1909, I went directly to my bee-yard to 
see if I had placed the baits where they 
would do the most good. I had put supers 
on fifteen colonies on Monday, the 14th of 
June, and on the following Friday I raised 
the covers and listened with my ear close to 
the honey-board, and heard the bees waxing 
and making that snapping sound in ten of 
the fifteen supers. The other five colonies 
gave forth a roaring sound below the supers, 
so I knew that ten had commenced to work. 
(This is my way of finding out without dis- 
turbing the bees.) Therefore, on Saturday, 
the 20th, I raised the honey -boards to ex- 
amine those bait sections. For convenience 

1 will refer to the 
sections by num- 
ber as in the fol- 
lowing chart: 

One super had 
baits in sections 

2 and 11, the lat- 
ter being covered 
with bees that 
were drawing out 
the cells, and the 
former contain- 
ing a few bees 
that were doing 
nothing. The 
other nine supers 
had baits in sec- 
tions 4 and 6, 22 
and 24, and 11. 
I found that all 
of these were full 
of bees. The 
end sections 
seemed to have 

as many bees as any other sections in the 
super except those with baits, but the most 
bees were in sections 22, 23, and 24, and in 
4, 5, and 6; sections 8, 11, and 14 had no 
more bees than 4, 5, and 6, if as many. 
The under side of the honey-board showed 
more bees clinging to the ends than the 
middle, and more bees were at the ends of 
the supers than at the sides. My bees 
seem to boil over more at the ends of the 
supers than at the sides, so there must be 
more bees there ready to come out. 

When it came time to put on second su- 
pers all around, I found that the ends were 

* I don't know. 



.3 


2 


1 


4 


5 


6 


9 


8 


7 


10 


11 


12 


15 


14 


13 


k; 


IT 


18 


21 


20 


19 


22 


23 


24 


27 


26 


25 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



39 



just as far advanced in the first supers as 
any other part. In the second supers that 
are added, the more unfinished sections or 
baits the better, placed at the ends and 
sides. The third and fourth supers added 
are placed above the others, or underneath, 
depending on the honey-flow; but the loca- 
tion of the baits in the supers is not 
changed. 

We would not think of putting a whole 
frame of honey in the center of the super, 
because we would not want such frame to 
receive brood; so if we use such frames from 
below for baits we put them at the sides of 
the super. In the same way we should not 
risk sections with drawn comb in the cen- 
ter. Then by locating the baits at the ends 
and sides, more bees are drawn from below, 
so that the crowded condition of the hive is 
relieved at just the right time, and swarm- 
ing more likely prevented. At the time I 
put on the first super I put one-inch blocks 
under the hives, so that the bees are checked 
in their desire to swarm, in two ways. 

By the above plan, general excitement is 
induced all over the super; and when all the 
sections are being drawn out, and honey 
found sparkling in all about the same time, 
there is no uncertainty as to when to put 
the next super underneath. There is no 
need of worrying about the middle of the 
super, for it will develop with the rest, — 
but no faster. If 1 can get bees in 4 and 6, 
and in 22 and 24, 1 find that the end sections 
are filled also. 

In supers started with the baits in the cen- 
ter, the work must gradually spread to both 
ends; and as there is no inducement for the 
bees tu build clear to the ends, they com- 
mence to cap a few sections in the center 
and swarm. On the other hand, if they 
start at both ends, with the baits, the desire 
to "close the gap" causes more excitement 
and heat, and the bees seem to forget to 
swarm, as there is no clustering out, and 
very few bees on the frames of brood. Su- 
pers with baits in the centers alone show a 
small cluster of bees on the fronts <>f the 
hives for days, and the colonies fiequently 
swarm before the ends of the supers are 
reached. 

But the worst objection to the center baits 
is that the queen will fill the combs, and 
little grains of pollen will be scattered all 
over. Then the bee-moth will locate in 
that super as soon as possible, whether the 
super is on the hi\e or in the store. A few 
years ago I had to take a drayload of supers 
from the store to the honey-house and fumi- 
gate the whole lot simply because the baits 
had bten in the center. The farmers near 
by do not use excluders. 

I use sectional hives, and keep the top 
section as solid with brood as possible. The 
baits that I use are, as near as I can get 
them, like the last two in the upper row of 
the engraving shown on page 262 of the 
1908 edition of the ABC and X Y Z of Bee 
Culture, and 266 of the 1910 edition. Near- 
ly all of them contain some honey. I have 
about two hundred of these unfinished sec- 



tions this season, and wish I had more. I 
took 1080 4X5 sections from seven old colo- 
nies, and have about 1500 sections in all. 
Two of the colonies gave 189 sections each, 
which is not bad. I surely must have 
placed some of the baits where they did 
some good. 

Last season I tried three colonies with baits 
placed as follows: In the first super put on I 
had the baits in the center at 11, 14, and 17. 
These were all drone comb. In the second 
super the baits were at 10, 15, 11, 14, 12, and 
13, and these were partly drone and partly 
worker comb. In the third super the baits 
were at 11, 7, 9, 15, and 13, and these were 
all worker comb. About twelve sections of 
these baits contained more or less brood, j 

Bradshaw, Neb. 



HONEY-STRAINERS DONE AWAY WITH. 



A Strong Endorsement of the Settling-tank Meth- 
od of Clarifying Honey. 



BY H. F. STRANG. 



A discussion of settling-tanks and strain- 
ers has been asked for by the editor; and as 
I have been a user of the settling-tank meth- 
od for about eight years, it may be that my 
experience will be interesting. 

I have owned bees for about thirty-five 
years, but never had much to do with ex- 
tractedhoney production until about eight 
years ago, when W. Z. Hutchinson began 
to advocate so strongly the keeping of 
"more bees." At that time I had been sick 
for six or seven years; but my health was 
getting so that I could work a little, and I 
ran an apiary in Southern Michigan on 
shares. While the owner was a good comb- 
honey man, his extracting-outtit was many 
years behind the times; and I laugh to my- 
self sometimes yet when I think of the dif- 
ficulties I worked under the first fall. The 
extractor was old style, and we had to stop 
it and lake the frames out to turn them 
around; but the fun came in when we strain- 
ed the honey. We had a barrel to strain 
into with a framework made to set on top, 
in which to hang the strainer; and by the 
time we poured in the third pail of honey 
the strainer was usually so covered with 
cappings and specks of wax that the honey 
would not run through it except by constant 
stirring with a long-handled spoon. Be- 
tween putting in about half the time stir- 
ring and the other half washing out the 
strainer, our extracting did not progress 
very fast. 

It has been said that all discoveries are by 
accident or chance. My discovery of the 
settling-tank was by the merest accident. 
My better half used to help me in the ex- 
tracting; but once in a while I would become 
so disgusted and use such language that she 
would leave me to do my own stirring and 
washing. One afternron, when she had 
gone back to the house and left me to my 
own devices, I dn w oflf into 60-lb. cans near- 
ly all the honey that we had stirred through 



40 



(JLKANJXGS 



BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



the strainer in a whole day's work. T i"'^ 
I picked out the largest stru'ncMwe li I'l, .ir.d 
hung it in the barrel and \v\iit to txtra(t- 
ing again. A lot of honey ran throi;',:i; but 
when the strainer clogged, as it did very 
soon, I kept on pouring in the honey until 
finally the bottom fell out of it and all the 
honey not yet strained, with the pieces of 
comb (cappings and all) went down into 
the strained honey in the barrel. Then I 
felt so disgusted that I followed my good 
wife to the house after pouring in what hon- 
ey I still bad in the extractor, so as to be 
sure to make a good job of it. I expected 
that I would have to dip out the whole con- 
tents of the barrel the next morning, and 
warm it up and go through the stirring pro- 
cess again to get it through another strainer. 

The next morning, when I was standing 
and looking at the outfit and dreading the 
job, the thought came to me that I might 
skim off the bits of cappings and wax and 
save having them to bother with; so I used 
a long-handled skimmer and removed all of 
the wax and cappings to a pail. Then, no- 
ticing how clear the honey looked below, I 
commenced to draw it off from the bottom 
of the barrel and pouring it into cans through 
a large funnel, so there would be no chance 
for any bits of comb or wax to get the start 
of me. To my surprise I found that I could 
draw the honey down to within about three 
or four inches of the bottom of the barrel 
before any scum or bits of wax ran through 
the gate. 

I was not sure that the plan would work 
every time; so when my wife came out to 
help me I told her what I had done (not 
mentioning that the bottom had fallen out 
of the strainer, so that the whole plan was 
an accident) ; but when I suggested that we 
would not bother any more with strainers, 
but just let the honey strain itself, she said 
she knew we would have the whole barrel- 
ful to dip out and warm and stir through 
the strainer just as usual. However, I did 
not believe in crossing bridges before I came 
to them, so I extracted a barrelful and then 
went to work at something else. I visited 
that extracting-room several times during 
the afternoon, and just before going to bed 
I skimmed ofT all the wax I could with the 
skimmer and poured it into the uncapping- 
tank. The next morning I found out for 
sure that I had solved the straining part for 
good, and the next season the owner of the 
bees had two galvanized-iron tanks made, 
each of which would hold all that we could 
extract in a day. I found that, unless the 
honey was very cold and thick, it did not 
need to stand over twelve hours at the most; 
but in case of very thick cold honey the two 
tanks might be beneficial, so that there 
would be room enough to hold two days' ex- 
tracting, allowing the honey to stand twen- 
ty-four hours in each one. In the morning, 
before I commenced drawing off the honey 
from the bottom of the settling-tank, I al- 
ways skimmed off what I could from the 
top and poured it into the uncapping- tank. 

1 think it was about two years after this 



that Mr. Townsend began advocating a grav- 
ity strainer; but I think he found it too 
complicated, as I see he is now using the 
settling-tank, although having a float. I 
h?.ve tried the float, but can not see what 
benefit it is. 

A Iter having used the settling-tank plan 
so long, I surely would not go back and 
bother with strainers. With hot knives 
and good fat combs, extracting has lost so 
much of its unpleasantness that I am going 
to sell my farm next fall, hunt up a good 
location, and put my whole time and ener- 
gy into extracted-honey production. 

I may say that, after years of trying all 
shapes and sizes of hives from the Danzen- 
baker to the tw^elve-frame Jumbo, I say, 
"Hurrah for the ten-frame Langstroth for 
an all-around hive ! " 

Lakewood, Mich. 



QUEEN-EXCLUDERS INDISPENSABLE. 



The Opinion of a Twenty-four-hundred-colony 

Man. 



BY CHAS. BDSON. 



The general run of honey is improved by 
using queen-excluders. A party called on 
me recently who owns two thousand col- 
onies. 1 always thought him a wiaeawake 
bee-man; but I changed my mind when he 
told me he did not use excluders. I am in 
hearty sympathy with the opinion express- 
ed by Elias Fox, page 631, Oct. 15, 1909, 
when he said, "I would about as soon be 
without bees as without excluders." 

In the same article Mr. Fox stated that 
he did not think nurse bees take honey 
from field bees. I can not agree with him 
in this, for, though they may not in a light 
honey -flow, I believe they surely do when 
they are robbing. 

HOW TO STOP ROBBING. 

A most excellent way to stop robbing, 
when extracting honey, is to fill seven or 
eight wet combs with water and set them 
where robbers can help themselves in su- 
iters; and, when the water is all gone, fill 
the combs up again. In a short time the 
robbers will give no further trouble, because 
they will all be full of water and the nurse 
bees will not accept further kindness. 

Grafton, Cal. 

[Mr. Edson runs about 2400 colonies, so 
he ought to know whereof he speaks. We 
should be glad to hear from him further, as 
we regard him as an expert. — Ed.] 



Motherwort a Good Honey-plant. 

Motherwort is one of the best hone.\ -plants I have 
ever seen. It begins blooming here in the moun- 
tains early In May. and to-day, Nov. 5, you can still 
find my bees work ingon it. It grows about 3 feet 
tall in large clusters. It will grow on any kind of 
land, but does better on rich sandy soil. Drouth 
has no eflfect on it. This plant is known here by 
many different names. The honey from it is of a 
liglit orange color. 

Scholten, Mo. Otis A. Griffith. 



42 



©LEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jak. 15 




DR. BIGELOW'S APIARIAN L,ABORATORY AS IT STOOD ORIGINALLY IN STAMFORD, CT. 



EXTRACTING HONEY WITH ELECTRICITY 
FOR POWER. 



BY A. D. SHBPARD. 



As I have seen nothing in the bee-jour- 
nals about operating a honey-extractor with 
an electric motor, I decided to send you a 
photograph of my automatic four-frame ex- 
tractor equipped with a ^ H. P. electric 
motor for power. Instead of using a very 
large pulley on the extractor shaft, I used a 
countershaft as shown. The pulley on the 
motor is 2 inches in diameter, which belts 
to the 12-inch pulley on the countershaft. 
The small pulley on the latter is 3 inches, 
which belts to the 8-inch pulley on the ex- 
tractor shaft, this reduction being just about 
right for the speed of the motor. 

By this arrangement I still have the use 
of the idler for regulating the speed of the 
extractor, which I regard as very satisfac- 
tory. After most of the honey is out of the 
combs and the speed of the reel is a little 
too high, I loosen the idler a notch, allow- 
ing the belt to slip slightly, so that I have 
what I call a happy medium in speed. 

The motor is a second-hand one, which 
had been in use before only a short time. 
I paid $40.00 for it, the original selling price 
being $55.00 or $60.00. The countershaft 
cost me $4.25, and the extra belting $2.12. 
Our city engineer estimates that it costs me 
about 15 cts. for electricity per thousand 
pounds of honey extracted. The electric- 
power plant is owned by the city, which 



perhaps makes some diflference in rates. I 
find that this little motor "beats elbow grease 
all holler." 
River Falls, Wis. 



MOVING AN APIARIAN LABORATORY, 



BY EDWARD F. BIGELOW. 



Readers of Gleanings have been made 
familiar with my apiarian laboratory, which, 
for a few years, was located on Grove St., in 
Stamford, Ct. 

In the early part of 1909 a resident of 
Sound Beach suggested that I should move 
my entire ex]ierimental outfit to that place, 
which is the next station on the main line 
of the railroad west of Stamford, and about 
twenty minutes' ride by trolley. Between 
the old and the new location there is a dis- 
tance of only about three miles. But while 
this suggestion connoted many advantages, 
it revealed some rather appalling obstacles. 
One was the task of moving. The labora- 
tory was constructed for eighteen interior 
colonies, with external experimental benches 
for as many more. At first my friend offer- 
ed to build a new structure for experiments; 
but upon more careful consideration we de- 
cided to move the entire building and the 
colonies within it. It was also found advis- 
able to move the pet-house, or, more strict- 
ly speaking, the zoological part of the ex- 
perimental plant. Then arose the problem 
of method; but, fortunately, a contractor 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



43 



was found who had a truck large enough to 
carry either of the buildings. 

Barnum's or any other circus would not 
have attracted more attention with a man 
in an open cage and a tiger driving the 
horses in the procession than this larger 
cage attracted with me inside of it in com- 
pany with about a dozen colonies of bees. 
Our professional apiarists, of course, know 
that this was a simple matter in theory; 
but it was not found to be so simple in prac- 
tice. The shaking of the building on a 
truck without springs was much greater 
than had been anticipated, although the 
road was smooth. Two hives, in spite of 
firm nailing, were literally shaken to pieces, 
and the insects came swarming out, the 
most astonished bees that I ever saw. Their 
amazement was almost ludicrous, and (for 
them) an entirely new experience. They 
alighted in clusters on various parts of the 
apiary; but they were so frightened that 
they forgot to sting. I scooped them ofif 
the sides of the building with my naked 
hands and put them back into the hives. 
It seemed almost impossible for them to 
sting; and it was as impossible to convince 
and soothe the driver, who sat at the front 
on the sill of the open door. So far as the 
horses were concerned, it seems rather risky, 
as I now think of it, to have about a quarter 
of a million bees within this rattling, shak- 
ing cage; but experience proved that they 



were absolutely safe, because every bee was 
too greatly frightened even to protect itself. 

The photographs show the process of haul- 
ing the buildings out of the yard and load- 
ing them on the truck. 

The third photograph shows the struc- 
ture safely located at our experimental plant 
at Arcadia, Sound Beach, Ct., and the con- 
tinuation of the work of experimentation, 
with the writer in the act of transferring 
the queen and some of her bees from the 
large hive to the miniature hive named 
Pearl Agnes in honor of my daughter. 
These hives have been in steady use during 
the summer, and have proved very conven- 
ient for manipulating small numbers of 
bees, and for exhibiting them to visitors. 

Arcadia, Conn. 



BEE-KEEPING 



FOR BEGINNERS, 
TRATED, 



ILLUS- 



Cellar Wintering in Northern Michigan. 



BY B. D. TOWNSBND. 



[We have engaged Mr. Townsend to write anoth- 
er series of articles for beginners especially, in 
which "moving pictures" will illustrate almost 
every point. Mr. Townsend says that, when he 
looks backs to the first few years of his experience 
as a bee-keeper, he can see that most of his dismal 
failures were on account of ignorance of the com- 
mon principles. In other words, the little things 
that now seem to him almost too trivial to write 




MOVING THE LABORATOBY, BEES AND ALL. 



about were like mountains in his path 
at that time. 

I This first article, because published 
at a time when most bee-keepers in 
the North are thinking about the win- 
tering problem, is naturally on that 
subject. — Ed.] 

Coupled with our own experi- 
ence, and that of others who have 
been kind enough to explain con- 
ditions that bee-keepers further 
south have to contend with, I 
have come to the following con- 
clusions: As a general rule, bees 
in the northern states and in 
Canada winter better in a cellar 
or in a special repository under 
ground, where the temperature 
can be kept near the 45-degree 



44 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 




ONE OF E. D. TOWNSEND'S BEE-CELLARS, OUT- 
SIDE VIEW AND INTERIOR, ALSO HIS METH- 
OD OF VENTILATING A HIVE THAT IS TO 
BE PLACED IN A CELLAR IN CLAY SOIL. 



mark all the time. In the slates a little 
further south, where the bees can have a 
flight every six weeks or two months during 
the winter, chaff hives or special packing- 
boxes containing from four to six inches of 
chafT at the sides and eight inches at the 
top are better adapted to the conditions. 
Still further south, where bees liy each 
month in the year, no packing is required; 
but, instead, a good cover that will not leak, 
and an abundance of stores, is all that is re- 
quired for successful wintering. In this 
connection it is of importance to know that, 
the further south the bees are, the more 
honey they will consume during the twelve 
months of the year. In the North the ex- 
tra surplus is laid up for winter use; while 
in the South, not only the winter stores 
have to be retained for the use of the bees, 
but even more has to be provided for the 
long summer drouth or the interval known 
as the "starvation period." 

It is to be presumed that fairly good re- 
sults with chaff-packed hives can be se- 
cured in the territory above mentioned for 
cellar wintering, if conditions are favorable; 
but, generally speaking, better results will 
be obtained in this cold region in the cellar 
or special repository, as stated. It is equal- 
ly true that fair results in cellar wintering 
can be secured in the milder portions of the 



United States; but I understand that 
it takes an expert to handle the tem- 
perature of a cellar where the cli- 
mate is varied throughout the win- 
ter. In a changeable temperature 
the chaff hive is in its glory; for 
when the bees can have a day for a 
cleansing flight each six weeks or 
two months they will winter almost 
l^erfectly. 

It is not unusual for bees in this 
northern location to be confined to 
their hives from 90 to 120 days with- 
out a flight. In order to stand this 
long confinement, the bees out of 
doors would have to be in ideal condition, 
and they would have to have an abundance 
of good stores, as well as outside protection 
from the prevailing winds, and more than 
the usual amount of packing. 

The first view in the illustration shows 
our bee-cellar in Charlevoix Co. This cellar 
is 14X32 feet, inside measurement, and 7 
feet deep. It is wholly under ground ex- 
cept, the hatchway, which has double doors, 
with about 4 ft. between the two doors, this 
space representing the amount of earth in 
front of the cellar each side of the hatch- 
way. As the cellar is built in the side of a 
knoll, all but the front is naturally under 
ground. In the hatchway, a foot from the 
inner door, a partition with loose boards is 
built and filled in with straw during the 
winter. 

Eight feet from the back end of the cellar 
a ventilator 17 inches square is placed. 
This is shown in the second \iew. The 
lower end of the ventilator is about a foot 
from the cellar bottom, and it extends up 
through the covering of the cellar, but not 
through the roof. This is not used much 
in the winter; but in the summer it is left 
wide open to dry out the cellar. 

Two rows of benches, to set the hives on, 
are also shown in view No. 2, which gives 
an idea of half of the back end of the cellar. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



45 



Two inore benches are on the opposite side 
of the row of cedar posts that support the 
center of the roof. 

As stated above, the cellar is all under 
ground — the cover (22 inches thick) being 
ihe least protected place about the building. 
There is no cement used in the walls, cedar 
posts being set every three feet, and inch 
lumber nailed outside. This allows the 
earth to come close to the bees — a construc- 
tion which we consider much better than a 
cement wall. A neighbor built a cellar, the 
walls of which were of stone laid without 
mortar. In order to make them stand, the 
stones were laid sloping slightly out; but 
experience showed that this was not neces- 
sary, as some of the later-laid portions stood 
just as well, although built very nearly 
perpendicular. After the wall was finished, 
almost even with the surface of the earth, 
logs from the forest were cut and laid across 
close together. Then the cracks between 
the logs were closed with small trees and 
finally straw and earth over the whole thing 
to a thickness of two feet. A roof and 
hatchway similar to ours completed the cel- 
lar, as good as could be made for the pur- 
pose of wintering bees. 

A dry sandy knoll is much preferable to 
a clay soil for a bee-cellar. This reminds 
me of another neighbor, who lives in a low 
level country, whose cellar is not only very 
damp, but in the spring, as the snow thaws 
off, it is nothing unusual for him to have to 
wear his rubber boots and wade in several 
inches of water when he removes the colo- 
nies in the spring. This bee-keeper used to 
lose a good many bees until he discovered 
that, if he removed the covers entirely, and, 
instead, used two or three thicknesses of old 
carpet over the hives, the trouble was over- 
come. 

We rent several cellars for outyards, and 
so we have experience with different soils 
and different conditions. It sometimes hap- 



l^ens that we can not get cellars to our lik- 
ing, several of them being in soil that is 
part clay. For such cellars we loosen the 
covers on the hives, as shown in view No. 3, 
until the end cleat rests on the back of the 
hive. This V-shaped opening at both sides 
forms about the same ventilation as is se- 
cured by replacing the covers with carpets 
as mentioned above. 
Remus, Mich. 



BEE-KEEPING IN NEW MEXICO. 



Bee-keepers of the Pecos Valley Convene at 
Roswell. 



BY H. C. BARRON. 



The illustration shows a part of the mem- 
bers of the Pecos Valley Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation, at their meeting at Roswell, in Oc- 
tober. I am sending a copy of our weekly 
paper, which contains an account of the 
convention. 

Hagerman, N. M. 

[We are glad to see so full a report of a 
bee-keepers' meeting as was contained in 
The Messenger; for, the more the general 
public knows about bees and bee-keeping, 
the better. 

Among the most important matters taken 
up at this meeting was a petition to the 
General Freight Agent of the Eastern Rail- 
way of New Mexico, for a lower rate on hon- 
ey. Mr. Barron, in his letter, writes that 
this petition was granted. 

As there are, no doubt, other points where 
similar conditions exist, we are publishing 
herewith this petition in full: 

PETITION. 

To the Hon. J. Briiiker, General Freight Agent of 

the Eastern Railway of New Mexico: 

At a convention of the Pecos Valley Bee-keepers' 

Association, held in Roswell. N. M.. the fifth day of 

October, 1910, we respectfully petition you (or your 

aid in secur- 
ing for us a 
lower rate 
o n honey 
from the 
towns of 
Roswell, 
Dexter, Ha- 
german, Ar- 
tesia, and 
Carlsbad 
in the Val- 
ley to Chi- 
cago. 111., 
and Kan- 
sasCity, Mo. 
We have 
now much 
more honey 
than we can 
sellathome, 
and we can 
easily in- 
crease our 
productand 
desire to do 
so. We wish 
in the fu- 
ture to be 
sure of sell- 
ing all the 
honey we 
can pro- 
CONVENTION OF THE PECOS VALLEY BEE-KEEPERS ASSOCIATION, ROSWELL, duce, and 

NEW MEXICO. we feel com- 




46 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



pelled to ask tor lower rates to the large honey 
markets ol Chicago and Kansas City. 

Among our western honey-producing States, ( 'ol- 
orado takes first rank, and we would come In com- 
petition with its immense honey product. 

We understand that the distance from Denver to 
Kansas City and Chicago over the"Santa F^ rail- 
road is virtually the same distance as those cities 
are from Roswell. 

The. carload rate from Denver to Chicago on 
" comb honey in boxes with glass fronts " is 97 cts., 
and on "extracted honey in tin cans, boxed," is 75 
cents per cwt. 

We earnestly desire to obtain the 97-cent rate to 
Chicago that Denver honey-shippers pay on comb 
honey In boxes with glass fronts. 

We also ask for a 66?^-cent rate to Chicago on ex- 
tracted honey, that being 1200 per carload of 30,000 
pounds, which is about two-thirds of the rate that 
we have asked you to make on our comb honey, 
and it is about (and perhaps above) the average 
proportional rate from other States. For example, 
the California rate on extracted honey is just one- 
half as much as its rate on comb honey. This we 
have just learned from the Santa F6 railroad office 
in Chicago. 

Another reason why we desire a lower rate on ex- 
tracted honey is, for some unknown reason to us, 
honey is darker in color here than the Colorado 
honey, and, though equal in quality, the price is 
Invariably cut down from one to one and a half 
cents per pound on account of this amber color. 

Another package mentioned In the Western Class- 
ification on which we should like proportional 
rates is on "comb honey in boxes," no glass. 

We further desire rates to Kansas City that would 
be about proportional to what we have asked for 
Chicago. 

It would be desirable, frequently, to send both 
comb and extracted honey in the same car to make 
up a full carload. This is done elsewhere, and each 
kind is billed out at its own rate; and we ask that 
this feature shall be arranged to accommodate us. 
We have been assured that you have taken a kind- 
ly interest in helping out various industries in the 
Pecos Valley. And now that we are in need of help 
we come to you for assistance, and shall be ever 
thankful for such aid as you can give us. 
On behalf of the convention. 

R. B. Slease, President. 

Heney C. Barron, Secretary. 

A committee was appointed to secure the 
names of large shippers in tlie valley for the 
purpose of annexing them to the above pe- 
tition. 



The convention also petitioned the county- 
commissioners to fix the price of colonies of 
bees for taxation at $1.00 per colony. Mr. 
Barron writes that this petition will also 
probably be granted. All this goes to show 
that the "New Mexicans " are hustlers, and 
that when they go after a proposition they 
go after it to win. A pull, a long pull, and 
a pull all together, counts for bee-keeping 
as for any thing else. — Ed.] 



FULL SHEETS 



VS. STARTERS 
DATION. 



OF FOUN- 



The Melted-wax Plan for Fastening Foundation 
in Sections, 



BY LEO ELLIS GATBLY. 




GATELY'S method of FASTENING FULL SHEETS OF 

FOUNDATION IN A WIDE FRAME OF FOUR 

SECTIONS. 



Not only is the foundation we use of ne- 
cessity pure beeswax, but in the process of 
manufacture it is freed from all dirt and 
sediment, becoming more refined than the 
average article. Beeswax itself will not 
withstand the high temperature from a col- 
ony without sagging unless it is entirely 
freed from this dirt and sediment. In my 
opinion it is highly important that we em- 
phasize to consumers the fact that no other 
wax has yet or probably ever will be found 
which can be used as a substitute for this 
purpose. 

It is impossible to estimate the actual 
value of foundation in comb-honey produc- 
tion, as so much depends upon the extent 
to which bees are naturally secreting wax; 
also on the volume of the honey-flow, etc. 
The extra amount of surplus usually secur- 
ed when full sheets are used, over and above 
that obtainable with small starters, I have 
found to vary from 5 to '2b per cent. Tak- 
ing into account the fact that bees are at 
times involuntarily secreting wax, 
the foundation still affords a great 
saving, for this involuntary secre- 
tion is rarely more than sufficient 
for drawing out foundation into 
comb. The amount of honey con- 
sumed in the elaboration of comb 
is not as important, however, as 
is the saving of time, which foun- 
dation makes possible in provid- 
ing storage room. 

In the production of comb honey 
the use of full sheets of foundation 
cut to fit will result in a larger pro- 
portion of fancy honey than by 
any other method. The two sec- 
tions of honey appearing in the 
engraving show well the usual dif- 
ference resulting between the use 
of full sheets and starters. The 
sections containing the full sheets 
may thus be placed in a higher 
grade, although the eating quali- 
ties are identical. 

The illustration also portrays our 
method for putting in foundation 
by the melted-wax plan. The 
foundation is not put in until aft- 
er the sections are placed in the 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



47 




A STUDENT OF F. MAURUS MASSE, BUCKFAST ABBEY, 
S. DEVON, ENGLAND. 



wide frames, when they can be handled 
four at a time, making the work neither 
slow nor tedious. It is advisable to cut the 
foundation yi inch less than the depth of 
the section, as this amount of leeway is just 
enough to make up for any possible sagging; 
and it also facilitates the work of putting 
in the foundation. It is sheer folly to at- 
tempt to fasten full sheets on three sides of 
a section unless each section is subsequent- 
ly to remain in exactly the same shape un- 
til the foundation has been fully drawn 
out. With wide frames, having a nailed 
top-bar, this condition is easily and natu- 
rally met, as the frame at all times holds 
the sections perfectly true and square. 
Fort Smith, Ark. 



THE QUESTION OF HONEY PRICES. 



BY JASPER LLLLIE. 



I have read w^ith interest the article by F. 
L. Pollock, page 552, on "What is the Cost 
of Honey to the Producer?" and also that of 
Orel L. Hershiser, page 663, in which Mr. 
Hershiser differs widely in opinion from 
that of Mr. Pollock. There is certainly 
great variance in the prices of honey; and 
any plan by which this wide-spread irregu- 
larity could be remedied would be a boon to 



both the producer and con- 
sumer of honey. 

It would seem that Mr. Pol- 
lock endeavors to show what 
the average expense and aver- 
age income would be in an 
apiary of 200 colonies, taking 
that number, as he says, "as 
about the limit of one man's 
ability." 

Mr. Hershiser seems to over- 
look or ignore this average 
proposition, and bases his crit- 
icisms on the fact that a large 
apiary can be operated at less 
expense per colony than a 
small one, and in doing this 
he makes some statements 
that are, to say the least, sur- 
prising. For instance, he says 
a plumber did a small job for 
liim and charged 60 cents per 
hour; this I would consider a 
light charge, as most skilled 
workmen in our locality, when 
called out on a small job, 
charge $1.00 per hour; but, at 
the same time, if that man 
were open for a job I could hire 
him for $2.50 or $3.00 per day 
and get a skilled mechanic. 
It is hardly to be supposed 
that any one running an api- 
ary would depend on going out 
and hiring a man by the hour 
to do work needed in his api- 
ary; if he did, that apiary 
would soon change hands, or 
cease to exit. 
Again, Mr. Hershiser says, 
" The apiarist with from 350 to 400 colonies 
will have an expense account but slightly 
larger for his greater number of colonies 
than the man with 200." 

Now, suppose the man with 400 and the 
man with 200 colonies were both running 
for comb honey, and each had supers ready 
to be removed and replaced by new ones; 
suppose the apiaries had equal conveniences 
for doing this work, and suppose, for the 
sake of easy count, that one man could take 
out and replace ten supers in one hour; now 
suppose each apiary starts a man on this 
job and each pays $3.00 per day. Of course, 
it costs the 200-colony man $6.00 and the 
400 man $12.00. This I should consider 
something more than a "slight difference." 
It is true that a large manufacturing con- 
cern can turn out goods cheaper than a 
small one, as a 500-barrel flour-mill can turn 
out a barrel of flour much cheaper than a 
50-barrel mill; but it is also true that the 50- 
barrel mill is often running at a good profit 
when the big mill is shut down by a dull 
market. So with the honey trade. The 
400-colony man often finds the honey mar- 
ket glutted, and is compelled to hold or sell 
at a sacrifice, while the 75-colony man may, 
right in his own locality, be selling all the 
honey he can produce, at a good profit. This 
serves to some extent to equalize the per- 



48 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. lo 



centage in profits of big and small dealers. 
Taken all in all, the Pollock suggestion 
seems in principle to be a good one; and, if 
properly carried out, might go far in settling 
the vexing question of the j^rice of honey. 
Franklin, Tenn. 



OPPORTUNITIES IN PEDDLING HONEY. 



BY THOMAS P. HALLOCK. 



[While the author of this article, who is the Ad- 
vertising Man for Gleani>'GS. has always been in 
the ranks of the consumers rather than of the pro- 
ducers of honey, his enthusiasm over the possibili- 
ties of honey-peddling for bee-keepers who have the 
time and inclination to follow this practice is to be 
excused in the face of a knowledge of facts. Mr. 
Ilallock is an experienced salesman, and has gained 
a wide acquaintance with practical bee-keepers 
through his connection with the publishers of this 
journal. — Ed.] 

One of the most sensible suggestions on 
how to create a larger and more appreciative 
market for honey which I have ever read or 
heard is contained in a leaflet distributed by 
the publishers of (tleanings in Bee Cul- 
ture, entitled "Peddling Honey." Doubt- 
less many of the readers of Gleanings 
have read this little story by Dan White, a 
plain, practical farmer who built up a valu- 
able honey-business; but for the benefit of 
all I want to repeat the following, which 
embodies the best of his several suggestions: 

1 got into the town just before dinner time: and 
after eating a good meal at a boarding-house I filled 
my pockets with the Root honey leaflets and took 
one honey-can and commenced business. I started 
down a street and called at every house. After 
ringing the bell, or rapping, a lady would open the 
door and look at me with more or less suspicion. I 
would say, " I made the call to ask you if your fam- 
ily were fond of honey." 

They would generally answer yes, but believed 
they would not buy any. 

"Well.'" I would answer, "but I am not selling 
honey to-day. I am giving it away, and should be 
glad to give you some in a sauce-dish." 

Some would look astonished; others would smile 
and say. "That's funny," but iwerery instance I was 
invited in. I would pour out the honey, then hand 
out a leaflet, telling them to read every word of it. 
" You will tind it very interesting; it will tell you 
all about honey — how and why we extract it, etc. 
Then here is a postal addressed to me; and should 
you decide to want a 12-pound can. put your name, 
street, and number, on the card, drop it in the of- 
fice; and when I deliver in about ten days you will 
get a can of honey." 

Well, there were enough cards put in the mail 
within five days to take thirty cans of honey. I 
promptly made the delivery on time, taking along 
twenty extra cans that sold about as fast as 1 could 
hand them out; and since then I have received or- 
ders for 50 more cans from the same town. 

There, Mr. Beekeeper, is a plan for build- 
ing up a honey business, and a thoroughly 
good and practical plan it is. 

If I were going into the business of pro- 
ducing honey I believe I should endeavor to 
be both the honey-producer and the middle- 
man. I would sell my honey, in so far as I 
possibly could, on the " Hive-to-Home" 
plan, and I would cultivate a substantial 
class of patronage too, and get the top prices 
for my first-class product. 

One way I believe I should try, if you are 
interested to know, is this: I would get a 
first-class, down-to-date wagon of the milk- 
wagon type — easy to get in and out — well 



pain led and nicely arranged for carrying my 
comb and extracted honey in good condi- 
tion, and with my name and address paint- 
ed on either side and on the back of the 
wagon. Then I would start out to build a 
busines-^ on practically the same lines as 
suggested by our friend White. 

^lay be it would be a good plan sometimes 
to carry a small observation hive with me 
in the wagon at the start, until my custom- 
ers come to appreciate the connection be- 
tween my honey and real bees. I would 
want them to trust me — to feel that I was 
Felling them the purest honey bees can 
make, and to save their honey orders for 
me. I would have labeled packages and 
jars, and a leaflet telling a brief story of my 
apiary, showing a picture of it, and contain- 
ing several honey recipes as well. I believe 
that, by following such plans, and watching 
conditions, and persevering, I could estab- 
lish a honey route which would bring a con- 
siderable revenue to me — more, without 
question, than I could expect to derive from 
the sale of my honey through any easier 
method. 

Other opportunities — some of them of 
broader scope — are suggested in this plan. 
In the large cities an experienced bee-keep- 
er who knows honey and has some capital 
to start could maintain several honey-routes 
and supplement the sale of honey produced 
in his own a])iary with that obtained from 
other bee-keepers in the same and (iistant 
communities. This could be done at a good 
proHt; and that the plan is entirely feasible 
none will deny after comparing the prospec- 
tive profits with those to be made on the 
distribution of milk peddled in large cities 
by hundreds of independent milkmen as 
well as by the dairy companies. 



THE EASTERN NEW YORK BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 



BY STEPHEN DAVENPORT, SEC. 



The third annual convention of the East- 
ern New York Bee-keepers' Association was 
held Dec. 8, at Albany. President ^V. D. 
Wright occupied the chair. 

Owing to the recent National convention 
at Albany the attendance was not as large 
as otherwise would be expected. Many w^ho 
are usually present, and who attended the 
National convention, were absent at this 
time; and yet there was a larger attendance 
than at the last annual convention. 

The secretary's report showed an enroll- 
ment of U5 bee-keeiDers as members, 34 of 
whom had joined during the year. 

The treasurer's report showed a favorable 
condition of the treasury, with a handsome 
balance on hand. 

On motion of C. B. Loomis, of Albany, 
the secretary was directed to address a com- 
munication to Colliers^ Weekly to refute j 
the canard concerning artificial comb hon- 
ey- 

W. D. Wright, of Altamont, as president; 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



49 



S. Davenport, Indian Fields, as secretary, 
and M. A. Kingman, East Greenbush, as 
treasurer, were reelected to their respective 
offices. Audubon Johnson, Delanson, was 
elected first vice-president, and C. W. Hayes, 
Brookview, second vice-president. 

S. Davenport and W. D. Wright were 
elected delegates to the annual convention 
of the New York State Association of Bee- 
keepers' Societies. 

The contents of the question-box were 
quite limited; but there was animated dis- 
cussion of the few questions presented, in- 
terspersed with wit and humor to the enter- 
tainment of the audience. 

In answer to one query, the i^resident 
stated that the best time to put bees in the 
cellar, from his experience, was from the 1st 
to the 10th of November. 

The question was asked, if a larger hive 
than the eight-frame Langstroth were not 
more desirable. This led to a lengthy con- 
sideration of the subject of the be>t hive for 
practical use, during which the Adams hive 
of 16 Gallup frames parallel with the en- 
trance was suggested and described by G. 
H. Adams, of Schenectady. He had used 
this h.\e for twenty-five years with the best 
results, and has had but little swarming. 
Th.? '.lerits of this hive were ably advocated 
by X Lansing, nf Troy. It seemed to be 
fu 'v conceded that a larger hive than the 
ei,t.'t-frame Lancstrolh is more desirable. 

It was decided that the next semi-annual 
convention should be held in Albany in the 
spring. 

There had been repeated disappointments 
in the efforts to secure addresses or papers 
on specific subjects for this occasion, and 
much anxiety was felt for the success of the 
convention; but it proved to be one of the 
most enjoyable conventions in which the 
association had ever assembled. 

Indian Fields, N. Y. 



LIFE SKETCHES OF NEW CONTRIBUTORS. 



A Brief Outline of the Career of 0. B. Metcalfe, 
" The New Mexico Chap." 



BY H. H. ROOT. 



This year we have planned to give brief 
sketches, by way of introduction to our 
readers, of some of our newer contributors 
who have been engaged to prepare special 
articles for 1911. The subject of this sketch 
first began writing for Gleanings under 
the nom de plume of "The New Mexico 
Chap," but later came out under his true 
name. He has been engaged to prepare a 
series of illustrated articles on bee-keeping 
in Mexico, and also to make extensive con- 
tributions to our series of "moving pic- 
tures." 

Mr. Metcalfe was born .Tan. 2, 1878, in 
New Mexico, and was raised in that Terri- 
tory and in Colorado. From the age of ten 
to seventeen he worked with sheep, cattle, 
and goats, later trying the poultry business, 



following modern practices. Now that he 
is in the bee business, he frankly says he 
would never think of changing back to any 
other occupation. 

In his seventeenth year he entered a spe- 
cial class in the preparatory department of 
the New Mexico College, witti a previous 
training of six months in a private school, 
and some work at home where his sister 
taught him, as best she could, between in- 
tervals of his sheep-herding and working on 
the farm. During his college life he did all 
kinds of odd jobs to earn his way, and in 
1903 graduated with a debt of some seven 
hundred dollars which he paid off by col- 
lecting botanical specimens the summer 
following. Having been awarded the schol- 
arship from the scientific department at the 
same time he received his degree of B. S., 
he returned to New Mexico College in the 
fall of 1903 and took up graduate work with 
soil, jihysics, and forestry as major subjects. 
After receiving the degree of M. S. he be- 
gan another plant collection, which he fin- 
ished in the summer of 1905, having served 
during the year 1904-'5 also as an assistant 
in the scientific department of the college. 

In 1907 he joined forces with his present 
partner, Mr. H. L. Parks, and 300 three- 
frame nuclei were bought by way of a start 
in the bee business. Five dollars each was 
paid for these, the money being borrowed at 
ten per cent. 

The season of 1908 was the first honey sea- 
son for the 300 nuclei. These were built up 
well, and quite a bit of surplus taken from 
them. That fall, 1200 colonies were bought, 
the money to pay for them being borrowed, 
as before, at ten per cent. At the present 
time the young men are doing well, for they 
have kept the interest paid up, and have 
paid a good part of the principal as well, be- 
sides putting several thousand dollars' worth 
of improvements into the bees and outfit. 
This speaks well for the bee business, be- 
yond question; but during the same years 
and in the same locality others have had 
more or less of a failure, so that the record 
speaks even better for the ability of these 
two who have chosen the bee business as 
their life work. 

Mr. Metcalfe says that, while he would 
not quit the bee business for that of a pro- 
ducer in any other line, headvises beginners 
not to go into bees on an extensive scale un- 
less they expect to get back of the proposi- 
tion with lots of courage and energy, and a 
large supply of optimism to tide over bad 
years; for he thinks that there are perhaps 
few other lines of business which look so 
gloomy one week and so much like getting 
rich quick the next, or vice versa. 

With the above short outline our readers 
will better appreciate the writings of this 
newer contributor to our columns. The ar- 
ticle which follows is the first of the series 
on Mexican bee-keeping, the other "chap- 
ters" that will appear later being well il- 
lustrated, for Mr. Metcalfe has a faculty 
of making not only good word pictures, but 
good i^ictures with his camera as well. 



50 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan, 15 



BEE-KEEPING IN THE HIGHLANDS OF 
MEXICO. 



BY O. B. METCALFE. 



With a view to locating bees in Mexico, 
and of procuring for Gleanings some data 
as to what sort of proposition bee-keeping 
on the high tablelands of Mexico really is, 
the author, during the latter part of August, 
entered the republic at Laredo and went by 
the Mexican National R. R. to the city of 
Mexico, stopping over wherever it seemed 
that there might be a chance of getting in- 
formation on the subject. From Mexico 
City a short trii? was made on south into 
the Cuerna Vaca country, and the return 
trip was made back up the old Mexican Cen- 
tral. The data I collected I will give with- 
out exaggeration and without prejudice. Of 
the queer old country with its quaint and 
romantic beauty, nothing will be said, ex- 
cept that, to any man who can afford it, 
the trip is worth while. 

At Laredo the trip began through a semi- 
arid region, where the main plant life was 
the great fiat-leafed prickly pear {Opuntia 
Wislezeni) and mesquite, with here and 
there a scattered growth of creosote bush 
{Larrea tridentata) . 

To an Eastern bee-keeper, perhaps few 
places would have looked less like a good 
location for bees. Nevertheless, if there 
were a valley running anywhere through 
this strip in which alfalfa or perhaps cotton 
were raised by the hundreds of acres, it 
would be the finest kind of bee-range, for 
all three of the plants are honey-bearers, 
and there are few plants that yield a better 
honey or more of it than the mesquite. 

Just after the mesquite fiow the creosote 
bush comes out with its thousands of bright- 
yellow flowers, and furnishes enough nectar 
for the bees to keep up brood-raising and to 
store a little bluish-yellow honey. The cac- 
tus also furnishes considerable honey in 
some localities. This semi-arid region is 
not, however, a practical location for bees 
unless it is supplemented by some irrigated 
plant, as the bees seldom store more than 
enough to summer and wint^ on from nat- 
ural sources; and when the mesquite fails 
they sometimes starve. 

At Monterey I had the good fortune to 
meet a Mrs. Allen, whose husband was a 
bee-keeper in Colorado some j ears ago, and 
who had taken it up in a modern way at 
Monterey. Unfortunately, Mr. Allen had 
died the year before; and his apiary had 
gone to pieces, i^art of the colonies having 
died out, and some more washed away in a 
big flood. However, his wife had taken 
some part in the business, and was able to 
tell me the things I wanted to know most. 
She still had some fine honey, both comb 
and extracted, by which I saw that honey 
of excellent quality could be raised in that 
locality. Bees do not suffer from spring 
dwindling at Monterey as they do further 
south in the wetter parts. Mr. Allen got an 
average of 100 lbs. of fine white comb honey 



per colony before Oct. 1, and a good fall 
flow of dark stuff from the sugar-factories. 
It seems that the Mexicans do not get the 
pulp as dry as the American sugar-refiners 
do, and that, after the pulp has turned 
black, the bees work around it and bring in 
a syrup which is blacker than New Orleans 
molasses, and not so good. All comb hon- 
ey must be taken off before this dark syrup 
begins coming in or else the bees will fill 
any unfilled cells with it and spoil the sale 
of the sections. Some of the sections Mrs. 
Allen showed me had been finished at the 
corners with the dark syrup. 

As regards market, the fine white sections 
brought 40 cts. each in Mexican currency, 
and the extracted about 15. This is an 
equivalent of 20 and 1% cents American 
money, and in these articles all prices must 
be divided by 2 in order to get the equiva- 
lents in American money. The above prices 
were good enough for honey, and the wax 
brought $1.00 per lb.; but the trouble was, 
there was a very limited market for the hon- 
ey, some trouble being experienced in sell- 
ing the output from about ten or fifteen col- 
onies — this, mind you, in a city of one hun- 
dred thousand. The Mexican is not a hon- 
ey-eater, honey being used more as a medi- 
cine than as a food. On this account there 
is practically no market for it in Mexico 
except to foreigners. 

Mrs. Allen ciaims that their light honey 
was mostly made from orange, mesquite, 
and a white syringia which grows wild all 
over the hills. She complained that the ex- 
pense of estabishing an apiary in Mexico 
was very heavy. Among the interesting 
things she told me was a description of a 
colony of stingless bees which Mr. Allen 
had caught in the hills and brought to his 
house where he kept it hanging in a tree 
for several years. From the description, 
these bees made a nest something like the 
old-fashioned hornet, and of the same ma- 
terial. Very much unlike the hornet, they 
had no sting, and would not fight at all. 
The honey was white and pretty, but did 
not have the taste of honey-bee honey. I 
was much interested in these stingless bees, 
and hoped at least to get a picture of them, 
for I had several times heard of them; but 
they had washed away with the rest of the 
bees. 

About twelve miles south of Monterey the 
Mexicans keep quite a number of bees in 
box hives and use another box inverted on 
the brood-nest box as a super. They under- 
stand that they are to leave what is in the 
lower box for the bees. The honey, thty 
sell cheap; but the wax is not for sale, as they 
treasure it to make candles for the Catholic 
church. 

Mesilla Park, N. M. 

To be continued. 



Wild Aster, 

The worst weed pest we have here Is one of the 
wild asters — Aster tradescanti. Do bees ever work 
on that kind of aster? 

Oakland, HI. Wm. Cox. 

[We don't know. Can any one answer?— EB.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



51 



Heads of Grain 

from Different Fields 



A Scheme for Strengthening Nuclei and Intro- 
ducing Queens; Reversing to Get Solid 
Combs and to Destroy Cells. 

1. Could a queen be introduced to a full colony by 
this method? Leaving the undesirable queen un- 
disturbed, place a queen-excluder upon the hive, 
and on top of this queen-excluder place an extra 
hive-body containing a three-frame nucleus and 
the queen which you wish to introduce (a little la- 
ter) to the colony below. This method of strength- 
ening the nuclei is all right so far according to 
the late Mr. Alexander. After leaving the three- 
frame nucleus over the colony for some few days, 
kill the queen below. Cut out all queen-cells that 
are started by the bees below, and take off the ex- 
cluder, permitting the queen to go below. 

2. Bees generally place their queen-cells on the 
bottoms of the combs, do they not? If that is so, 
why wouldn't such a scheme as this be efficacious 
Inhuntiug for queen-cells in reversible-frame hives? 
Supply full sheets of foundation; and after the bees 
have drawn it out, reverse all the frames but one. 
In this way you have nine solid combs, and one 
frame with space between the bottom of the comb 
and the bottom .strip of the frame. Wouldn't they 
be most likely to draw out their queen-cells on this 
frame where they have plenty of room? This frame 
could be marked on the upper side of the top-bar 
for easy ident iflcation. so that, in looking for swarm- 
ing preparations, this need be the only comb re- 
moved. 

Strafford, Pa. A. M. Parker. 

[1. We see no reason why you could not introduce 
a queen by the plan you propose. If we are not mis- 
taken. Mr. Alexander himself introduced queens 
in this manner when he worked the plan for 
strengthening weak nuclei. 

2. In the early "SO's. many bee-keepers were excit- 
ed over the possibilities that might be accomplish- 
ed by reversing. One of the strongest arguments 
put up at that time in favor of inverting combs was 
to get them built up solid to the end-bars and bot- 
tom-bars; and there is no denying the fact that this 
can be accomplished. Another claim was made, 
that the process of Inversion would destroy swarm- 
ing-cells; that the most of the cells would be along 
the bottom edge of the comb: and when the hives 
or combs were inverted the cells would be de.stroy- 
ed — that is to say. the young baby queens would die 
because they could not live " fother side up." But, 
unfortunately for the advocates of this scheme, the 
idea did not work as well in practice. While It is 
possible and i^robably true that some cells were de- 
stroyed by inverting, if we remember correctly too 
many queens would hatch to make this plan for the 
prevention of swarming at all feasible. 

You will, therefore, see that the idea that you 
propose could not be relied on. — Ed.] 



How to Produce Both Comb and Extracted 
Honey at the Same Time. 

I have been thinking of using the ten-frame hive 
for extracting with Hoffman frames: but I should 
like a hive that I can run for extracted and comb 
honey at the same time if I wish to do so. I have 
seen in Gleanings where some bee-keepers do. I 
wish you would tell me all about it. I certainly 
should be pleased to read up on the subject from 
different bee-men under " Heads of Grain." When 
I use sections I wish to use 1/^ x 4 x 5. Can I use 
them in connection with extract in g-f ram es? 

Converse, Ind.. Dec. 23. J. F. Miller. 

[Your decision in favor of the ten-frame extract- 
ing-hive is entirely correct. When one runs for 
comb and extracted honey both, you may use about 
75 per cent of comb-honey supers and 25 per cent of 
shal}ow extracting-supers. If the season, however, 
is very short, and there is danger of unfinished 
sections at the close of the flow, the proportions 
may be exactly reversed. Perhaps it would be safe 
to say that those who produce both comb and ex- 
tracted honey use about half and half of each style 



of super. At the beginning of the flow, extracting- 
supers are put on first. When they are about half 
filled they are lifted up. and comb-honey supers are 
placed beneath, one lor each hive. When the bees 
are well started in the sections the extracting-supers 
may or may not be removed. In some cases they 
are given to sulky colonies that show a disinclina- 
tion to go into the supers. Such colonies can often 
be induced to go above when extracting-combs are 
partly filled with freshly stored honey. Other ex- 
tracting-supers may be tiered up on a hive or hives, 
the bees of which do not make white cappings suit- 
able for sections. It very often i appens that some 
cf the best workers in the apiary will store a large 
amount of honey, but the cappings of the combs 
will be so close on to the honey that it will have a 
water-soaked appearance. Such colonies as these 
should be run entirely for extracted. They also 
answer the excellent purpose of starting work in 
extracting-supers. and these partly filled supers 
may then be used to good advantage to place on 
sulky colonies. 

When the season is pretty well advanced, the 
sections, as fast as they are sealed, are taken off the 
hive, and extracting-combs are put in their place to 
catch the tapering-off of the flow. You thus avoid 
unfinished sections. You are wise in deciding in. 
favor of 4 X 5 sections.— Ed.] 



Two Strong Colonies Desert Hives in the Fall, 
Leaving Honey in the Combs. 

I had three colonies, and took off extracting- 
supers in September. At that time every hive had 
what seemed to me a good stock of vigorous bees, 
and the upper parts of frames in the brood-cham- 
bers were filled with capped honey. After extract- 
ing, the empty frames were put out to be cleaned 
by the bees. This work they were very busy at 
while it lasted. Other work kept my attention 
from the bees until the beginning of November, 
when 1 took the hives to the cellar, and it was then 
I got my surprise. My two parent hives (eight- 
frame Langstroth). the ones I wintered over in 
1909-"10, had not a single bee nor any brood — not a 
vestige of any thing in the comb but some capped 
honey in the upper half of each frame. The only 
hive with bees was the one swarm I secured, and 
they seem strong enough. Xow, what went wrong 
in the two hives? Where could the bees go, and 
what made them go? 

O'Connell, Ont., Dec. 6. W. M. Shields. 

[We are as much at sea In regard to this as you 
are. It seems very strange, to say the least. It 
only one colony disappeared in this way we could 
explain it better, for in that case it might be that 
that one had been robbed out considerably by the 
others, being weak, and that the few bees that were 
left simply left the hive on account of being an ab- 
normally small cluster. It is possible, but not 
prijbable, that this was the ca.se with both of the 
colonies. What makes us think this is not the 
case is that there was capped honey left in both 
hives. It would hardly look as if any robbing had 
been going on. You say that both of these colo- 
nies were comparatively strong when you removed 
the honey. Perhaps in the process of cleaning up 
the combs afterward the bees of the.se two colonies, 
being rather old any way. perhaps, literally wore 
themselves out fighting for the honey in those 
combs that you placed outside to be cleaned. We 
know that it is very hard on Vices to fight for honey 
in this way. and perhaps this is an explanation of 
the trouble. However, we can not be at all sure. — 
Ed.] 

Proper Size of Entrance for Wintering. 

I am trying to winter four colonies of bees in a 
shed, closed, except at the hive-entrances, with 
about four inches of planer-shavings above, below, 
and all around the hives. One colony is on eight 
Danzenbaker frames. The others are in iM-siory 
Danzenbaker hives with six brood-frames and six 
extracting-frames each. The covers are sealed; the 
bottom-boards, ys-inch side up: entrances. % x 5 for 
small colony; Ji x 6 for two other.s; 78 x 7 for strong- 
est. For about three weeks the temperature has 
rarely gone above 32". with a range of from 5 to 15 
at night; yet there is a constant gentle murmur 
from all of the hives, and from one hive bees will 
emerge if approached quite closely. I don't find 
much discussion as to handling bees wintered out- 
doors after they have been prepared for the win- 



52 



GLEAXINGS IN BEK CULTUllE 



Jan. 15 



ter; aud, if it is not too much trouble. I should like 
to find out whether I ought to enlarge the en- 
trances, and whether the bees' present activity 
will be likely to result in such a consumption of 
stores as to cause bad wintering. 

Brookline, Mass., Dec. 12. Loring P. Sears. 

[It very often happens that, in the case of a very 
powerful colony, the inside walls of a hive are cov- 
ered with quite an amount of frost. This is due to 
the moisture from the breath of the bees condens- 
ing and then freezing on the walls. There is a pos- 
sibility that your entrance is too small. By en- 
larging it slightly the moisture will be carried oflF 
better; or there is a possibility that the side walls 
of your hives are too cold, this being due to insufli- 
cient packing at the sides. If you increase the 
amount of packing material in and around the 
hive, you would probably eliminate the frost in- 
side. It may be necessary to enlarge the entrance 
also.— Ed. 

Alexander Plan for European Foul Brood. 

I have read the various articles by Dr. Miller and 
others on European foul brood, and, to my mfnd, 
these writers know nothing about the disease that 
my old employer, E W. Alexander, did not know. 
They are now traveling the same path that he fol- 
lowed when he was developing a cure. He found 
that, the longer the colonies were queenless up to 
25 and 26 days, the m')re certain the cure. Mild 
cases can sometimes be cvired by short periods of 
queenlessness, and often by simply requeening. I 
know one colony, in fact, that cured itself. 

I advise anybody who has European foul brood to 
get Mr. Alexander's actual plan as published in 
Gleanings in 1905 and follow it to the letter. A 
first-class Italian queen in as strong a colony as 
possible, that has been queenless 26 days, is what is 
wanted. During the 26 days the bees clean out the 
disease, and the flrst-class Italian queen is to keep 
the colony in shape so that it will be kept free from 
disease, and in condition to gather honey. 

Sloansville, N. Y. R. V. Cox. 



Bees Dying in a Cigar-box. 

I had a very strange thing happen last summer. 
I was caging some young queens preparatory to in- 
troducing them into full colonies. I used ordina- 
ry Benton cages, putting in four escort bees with 
each queen, and placing the cages in a cigar-box I 
carried with me. After caging half a dozen, I 
picked up one of the cages and found the queen 
and the four escort bees dead. What caused these 
bees to die? I had been working only about twen- 
ty miniites. 

The queen and bees were in good condition when 
placed in the cage. There was plenty of honey in 
the nucleus from which I took them, and the cage 
had been supplied with fresh candy before placing 
them in it. 

San Jos6, Cal., Nov. 28. J. W. Kalfus. 

[We can not imagine why this queen and the 
four escort bees should have died in the way men- 
tioned. Could it be possible that the odor of tobac- 
co was strong enough in the cigar-box, combined 
with a possible lack of ventilation, to stupefy the 
queen and bees in this one instance?— Ed.] 



Building Cells the Other Side of Perforated Zinc. 

By placing a tight-fitting division-board in the 
brood-nest, putting, say, two frames with eggs, 
some honey, and all the bees thereon next the hive 
side, would queen-cells be started ? or would per- 
forated zinc have the same effect? I am aware that 
frames placed above zinc will cause cells to be 
started; but my point is to get cells built without 
in any way interfering with the usual hive work of 
storing and brood-rearing. The subsequent care 
and disposal of the cells is an Independent matter. 
"When cells so obtained were removed, the removal 
of the division-board would be a very simple per- 
formance and without any disturbance, or that is 
the way it appears to me, 
Hoboken, N. J. C. D. Cheney. 

[A tight-fitting division-board for making two sep- 
arate colonies In one hive will accomplish the re- 
sult sought much better than perforated zinc. Ol 
course, one side is supposed to be queenless. and 
the other you can have queenless or not. as you 
like. With a perforated zinc division-board such 
as you describe, the bees will build cells on the 



queenless side of the hive providing cells are al- 
ready started. You can not get them to start cells 
in the first place, nor, for that matter, can you get 
them, unless there is a good honey-flow, to start 
cells in the upper story with perforated zinc be- 
tween the two stories. In any case. In order to 
do much work in cell-building In a lower story the 
bees should be queenless, and should be fed a small 
quantity of syrup dally. For further particulars 
on the subject you are referred to queen-rearing in 
the A B C of Bee Culture.— Ed.J 



Separating Cocoons from Old Combs. 

Could I soak old combs, containing cocoons, a 
day or two in water, then put them in the extract- 
or and throw the cocoons out, leaving the comb 
clean again? 

Eraser, Idaho. F. F. George. 

[It is impossible to loosen cocoons to any appre- 
ciable extent by soaking the combs in water. Per- 
haps a lew of the looser ones might fly out in the 
extractor If you soaked the comb several days, but 
we think that not many of them would. .jj 

It is better to continue using combs right along, 
even though there are a good many lajers of co- i 
coons in the cells. However, if the coiubs become 
so thick and the cells so small as to leave too little 
room for young bees they had better be melted up, 
and the wax rendered out of them. For the very best 
results, extracting-combs should not be used that 
contain many layers of cocoons, although many of 
the most successful producers prefer to have brood 
reared in the exiracting-combs a few times to make 
them stronger. — Ed.] 

The Somerford Method of Forming Nuclei; what 
is Done with Old Queens? 

I should like an explanation to the article appear- 
ing in the A B C of Bee Culture, entitled " Nucleus 
—Confining to keep the bees in," by W. W. Somer- 
ford. He says. " Reniove the queens or cage them 
after getting the brood-nest well filled with brood. 

Wait ten days after removing the queen 

Leave or loose the old queen on the old stand," and 
the bees from it will work straight ahead. Now 
what I want to know is, what Is done with the 
queen In the mean while? How do you keep her 
from starving while the nucleus Is being formed? 

Columbine, Col., Nov. 16. T. W. WijlsoN. 

[When Mr. Somerford wrote the article describ- 
ing his method ot making Increase he probably took 
It for granted that his readers would understand 
that a queen could be caged in her own hive for a 
considerable length of time, and her own bees 
would take care of her. When he spoke about re- 
moving the queen he implied that those same read- 
ers would cage or introduce her in some other col- 
ony, in the next edition of the ABC book we will 
see that a suitable explanation is made.— Ed.J 

Alfalfa in Texas. 

Will you please state whether alfalfa and sweet 
clover yield honey In Louisiana and Texas? P'rom 
what can I learn the sources ol honey in those 
states, especially the southern part of Louisiana? 
Does LesDcza striata, or Japan clover, yield honey? 
What hives are most popular in Louisiana or Texas? 

Plalnfield, C, Nov. 24. W. E. Dean. 

[Alfalfa does not usually yield nectar outside of 
the irrigated regions; but after It has been in a lo- 
cality for some years it will secrete some honey. 
This will be found to be true in parts of New York. 
Sweet clover, so far as we know, yields honey eve- 
rywhere In the United States. We are not able to 
advise you with reference to the other clovers men- 
tioned.— Ed.] 

Only One Division of a Sectional Hive Used for a 
Brood-chamber. 

If only one section of a sectional hive is used for 
the brood-nest, and a honey-board is placed on top 
with one or more section supers above, will the 
bees store pollen in the sections ? I do not mean 
to use this shallow brood-nest all the while, except 
when there is a honey-flow. 

Richard A. Weatherwalks. 

Pompton Lakes, N. J. 

[Under such conditions there Is apt to be consid- 
erable pollen In sections; but this can be largely 
o\ ercome by placing a comb containing pollen on 
each side of the brood-nest.— Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



53 



Health Notes 

By A. I. Root 



TAKING YOUR MEALS IX THE OPEN AIR. 

Sleeping outdoors is right in fashion just 
now, and thousands of people are getting 
health and strength and manly vigor by 
doing so. Now, I have not heard anybody 
say verj^ much about having our meals in 
the open air; but I believe that children 
sometimes in their play have a little repast 
out under the apple-tree. Well, it just oc- 
curs to me that perhaps I am ''breaking the 
record " by not only having my su])per un- 
der the apple-tree, but getting it from the 
apple-tree. For five or six weeks, at just 
five in the afternoon I gO out to an apple- 
tree in our dooryard where there are beauti- 
ful luscious apjiles just getting ripe; and I 
have a supper of fruit, and nothing else, 
and it agrees with me to a dot. I do not 
think I ever enjoyed any supper so much 
in my life as I do these fruit suppers.* By 
the way, my good friend, have you got a 
nice apple-tree right close by your home, 
where the children can have plenty of fruit 
without any assistance from the middleman 
or middlewoman? Just think of it — instead 
of paying a dime for three apples on a fruit- 
stand, I simply reach up, while standing on 
the ground, and pluck the luscious fruit. 
Is it not a "short cut" in very truth, from 
"producer to consumer "? Let us do a lit- 
tle figuring. A lot of you think it not ex- 
travagant to pay 25 cents for a supper. 
Well, this apple-tree we call the Mannt ap- 
ple; and it has the peculiarity of ripening 
its fruit gradually. From first to last there 
are nice apples on this tree for nearly sixty 
days. Well, this tree would usually give 
me sixty suppers. At 25 cts. each this 
would be $15.00; and as Mrs. Root and all 
the children and grandchildren help them- 
selves to these apples whenever they feel in- 
clined, we will say that what they consume 
is worth $10.00 more, or $25.00 from one ap- 
ple-tree in one summer (or fall) of apples. 
Can't you afford to have an apple-tree? 

And while I am about it, why don't you 
stop paying rent and get a little piece of 

* It occurs to me that a caution should be put in 
right here If you undertake to make a full meal 
of apples at five o'clock as I do. it will not work at 
all if you eat apples or other fruit between meals 
during the day: and where you have one fruit meal, 
as a rule you had better abstain from fruit, sauces. 
and pie, etc., at your two other meals. There is 
such a thing as getting too much fruit, as you have 
doubtless often found out. Children especially 
have to be looked after in regard to this matter. 
This excellent health I am enjoying now is obtain- 
ed, and kept, by carefully abstaining from i^utting 
any thing in my mouth whatever except pure water 
between meals, and having breakfast and dinner 
with little or no fruit. When nature gets accus- 
tomed to such a program, and knows what to calcu- 
late on (if I may use the expression) every thing 
works nicely. 

tProf. W. J. Green, of our Ohio Experiment Sta- 
tion, has just been here, and says the tree is not the 
Mann, which is a late winter apple. He took spec- 
imens, and will try to name our tree later on. 



land that you can call your own? A quar- 
ter of an :icre or less would do for some sort 
of little home, and yet give room for an ap- 
ple-tree. Suppose you get right about it 
now. The good wife and the children will 
join in with you, I am sure, and will con- 
tribute the nickels they have been in the 
habit of paying out for gum and candy at 
the soda-fountains. 

TWO MEALS A DAY. 

Some of you may feel inclined to joke me 
after reading the above, in view of what I 
Lave said about two meals a day; but T. B. 
Terry says a few nice mellow apples are so 
easily digested, and so quickly out of the 
way, they can scarcely be called a meal. A 
few times I have b« en ]jersuaded to have a 
few crackers and a little cheese with my ap- 
ples; but I rest during the night very much 
better without any thing but the fruit I 
have mentioned. Now, here is something 
which I clip from the Piain Dealer in re- 
gard to two meals a day instead of three. 
It comes from one of the great addresses de- 
livered before the Mississippi Valley Medi- 
cal Association: 

Detroit, Sept. 16.— Well-cooked vegetables, rice, 
and meat, as opposed to New England mince pie 
and Boston baked beans, has made " the graceful, 
self-controlled Turk the superior of the nervous, 
lank New Englander." 

This was the contention laid down before the 
Mississippi Valley Medical Association yesterday 
by Dr. Fenton B. Turck, of Chicago. 

" Diet has more to do with the making of great 
men or the deteriorating of the human race to the 
level of the brute than any thing else," declared 
Dr. Turck. "Compare that armor-plate mince pie 
diet indulged in by all America with the t%vo sane 
meals a day that are enabling Turkey to produce 
the finest specimens of physical manhood in the 
world." 

Later. — I shall have to explain to our 
readers that the above article has been in 
type for some time, waiting for a place in 
our pages; and just now, Nov. 1, as I am 
starting out for my southern home, I have 
received a tremendous backing to my little 
plea for at least one meal a day on apples 
alone. It comes about in this way: Once 
in my life I had the pleasure of seeing Pres- 
ident Taft, and of hearing him speak; and, 
more than that, I have a very good friend 
w^ho has had several personal interviews 
with our President; and on a quite recent 
occasion he had an appointment for a short 
conference with President Taft. He reach- 
ed the place of meeting about one o'clock, 
and was informed by the attendant that 
the President was eating his dinner; but 
when the President learned who he was that 
was waiting for him he said, " Bring Mr. B. 
right in. Tell him it is my request." W^ell, 
when Mr. B. commenced to apologize for 
intruding during the dinner hour he found 
the President's dinner consisted of — what 
do you suppose? Why, it was just nice mel- 
low apples and not/ting else. When my 
good friend uttered an exclamation and 
said, "W'hat! is that your idea of what a 
dinner should be?" the President leaned 
back in his chair, threw back his head, and 
laughed heartily, declaring that his idea of 



54 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



a good dinner was just nice mellow apples 
and nothing else." 

Now, friends, I do not suppose it makes 
much difference what meal in the day shall 
be the fruit meal; but I do believe that one 
meal of apples alone would conduce greatly 
to the health and longevity of the whole 
human family. It might transpire in the 
end that some of you city chaps would have 
to get outdoors and learn to grow apples; 
but I think it would not only give you bet- 
ter health but more enjoyment than you 
ever had before in your life. And, by the 
way, is it not a wonderful thing once more 
to notice how "great (?) minds run in par- 
allel channels " ? Of course, when you take 
avoirdupois for a comparison there is not 
much similarity between the President and 
myself; but we both "like apples." 

Just one thing more. Below is a clipping 
(I do not know where it came from) that 
indicates that the immortal Weston also 
eats his apple every day. 

Weston keeps cheerUil, looks on the bright side 
of life, and— eats his apple every day ! 



GOING WITHOUT YOUR SUPPER (OB BREAK- 
FAST) . 

I think it will pay you, friends, especial- 
ly those who are suffering from indigestion, 
to get World's Work for October and read 
the article headed "The Way to Health; 
my Experience with Fletcherism," by C. M. 
Cady, Professor of English Language and 
Literature, Doshisha College, Kioto, Japan. 
It is true the writer, mentions omitting 
breakfast instead of supper; but I suppose 
it amounts to about the same thing. In 
my case I prefer omitting the last meal of 
the day so that digestion may be finished 
up and cleaned up before I lie down for my 
final rest. I want to make two extracts 
from the article as follows: 

I made up my mind, with great fear and trem 
bling, to try Mr. Fletcher's own plan of omitting 
the breakfast. I feared, because I had broken down 
twice before my classes, and I dreaded that experi- 
ence again. 

I went to school on Monday morning without 
eating any thing. I got through the first hour all 
right, but the second hour I began to feel "gone," 
and the craving of the stomach for food be- 
came very strong. Instead of eating, I drank two 
glasses of cold water; that braced me up to get 
through the third hour; at the end of the third hour 
I di'ank three glasses of cold water, and so got 
through the fourth hour without trouble. Then I 
found that a very light lunch left me without any 
distress, and that I could sit down and do some 
writing. This was encouraging, because it was the 
first time that I had been able to do this for more 
than two years. 

The second day I repeated the first day's experi- 
ence, but with less and less discomfort on account 
of the absence of food in the morning. The third 
day was very much better than the other two; on 
the fourth day it never occurred to me, so far as my 
bodily feelings were concerned, that I had not had 
my regular breakfast. Evidently my hunger in the 
morning was purely what Mr. Fletcher calls a 
"habit-hunger," for it was absolutely and complete- 
ly removed by drinking. 

Now. nothing. I think, could be more encourag- 
ing than my experience in this regard. It is not 
usual for a man to pull up after such serious break- 
downs—four times repeated — but the fact was, as I 
now believe, my great trouble was largely due to 
overeating: the excess food simply poisoned my 



whole system, and the poison was the depressing in- 
fluence. My experience has been similar to many 
others, that the intellectual life has been wonder- 
fully increased. 

As soon as I was on my feet ready for work, new 
and ever-widening opportunities for action and in- 
fluence came my way — opportunities that were 
never dreamed possible, and for the taking of which 
I had never had the strength either of body or of 
mind. Now they are entered upon with prompt- 
ness and handled without hesitation. 

Before this last recovery, I seemed to be shut up 
mostly to the negative side of success — the finding 
out of what I could not do. Since last December, 
this state of things has turned quite about, and I 
have the positive enjoyment of seeing things that I 
touch move, and move, too, in the way that I push. 

I wish to call attention particularly to the 
closing paragraph. Since I have omitted 
suppers, not only a new vigor but a new 
faculty to accomi:)lish difficult things has 
come into my life. As Professor Cady puts 
it, "I have the positive enjoyment of seeing 
things that I touch move. ' ' 



SOMETHING BRIGHT FROM FLETCHER. 

We clip the following from the Woman^s 
National Daily for Oct. 28: 

WOULD YOU LIVE LONG AND CUT COST OF LIVING 

IN TWO? THKN CHEW. CHEW. CHEW, CHEW, 

SA.YS HORACE FLETCHER. 

Chicago, Oct. 27.— Would you live to a ripe old 
age, with every sense and every function and fac- 
ulty alert and active? Would you cut down the 
price of your food one-half and the amount one- 
third? Would you devote a little more than half as 
much time to sleep as you now devote, and awake 
fully refreshed? Would you, now? Would you 
really eliminate your taste for liquor and tobacco, 
and still further cut down the cost of living? Would 
you, in short, entirely rehabilitate yourself, your 
whole body, your mind, your faculties? Then 
Fletcherize. Horace Fletcher, the world-famous 
exponent of the science of eating properly, told how 
to do it in a lecture on "The Gateway of Human 
Health and Efficiency." 

"Masticate every movithful of food until no ves- 
tige of taste remains in it before swallowing," is the 
rule he laid down. He claims that proper eating 
solves even the question of sociological reform. 
" Nature certainly intends well toward men; there- 
fore nature certainly placed some responsibility 
upon men. If men, if the human race, learn to eat 
properly, then the day will come when there will 
be no necessity for social reforms; and when that 
day comes, my work will be done. 

The above suggestion in regard to sleep 
probably refers to the fact that some people 
eat so much that it makes them sleepy and 
dull; and the further suggestion that the 
craving for liquor and tobacco is caused by 
overeating, I heartily indorse. Right along 
in this line somebody has suggested that 
plenty of apples is the best thing to induce 
an intemperate man to forget his cravings 
for liquor. 



MORE PROFIT FROM A FARM OF TWO ACRES THAN 
FROM ONE OF FIFTY. 

Mr. A. I. Root: — For a number of years I have ta- 
ken your journal. I don't keep a bee: but the read- 
ing just suits me, especially the Florida articles. I 
have relatives living in Polk Co.. by the name of 
Lilllbridge. They conduct a postofflce by the same 
name. I am a veteran of the civil war, 65 years of 
age. I get a small pension. I am told that I am as 
active as many men of 40. I use neither rum nor 
tobacco. Some years ago I owned a fifty-acre farm. 
I gave it up. taking a little place of two acres in the 
thickly settled portion of this town. I get more 
clean money from the two-acre place than I did 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



55 



from the fifty-acre farm. I raise fancy berries 
which are sold right at the door to peddlers who 
supply the summer residents. As an example, last 
summer ordinary berries sold at 25 cts. for two box- 
es. Mine brought 20 cts. My first berries bring me 
25 cts. at wholesale. I make ray own fertilizer, and 
that is one secret. Another is, I set in August and 
get berries next June which average 20 to the box; 
but in your last issue I find the Florida growers 
have me " beaten to a standstill;" that is, you set 
plants in October and get berries in January. Why? 
I now want to ask some questions. You claim that 
you are comparatively free from catarrh, while my 
life is made miserable by it. Some years agoa man 
asked of the editor of the Rural New -Yoimr this 
question, " Could a man farm it in the North, gath- 
er the crops, and go to Florida and raise another? ' 
I don't think the question was ever answered. Dis- 
tance lends enchantment. I have had some litera- 
ture sent me by the Seaboard Air Line, also by the 
North Tampa Land Co. My people in Polk County 
keep writing for me to go there. Now, this passage 
keeps recurring to me: " Prove ail things; hold fast 
to that which is good." 

I hate to be idle. I had not taken a vacation in 
five years until I took a week off this fall; but I re- 
mained away only three daj^s. Now, if I take up 
this task of raising two crops a year the two most 
prominent reasons will be, first, to get rid of my 
catarrh; and, second, to keep busy. 

Now, for the questions: 

1. Is it necessary to have irrigation? If so, do you 
have to go down 400 feet? and if so, what would be 
the cost? 

2. Could a man dispose of. say, 20 crates per day 
locally? 

3. Can I get the right kind of pickers? 

For over thirty years I have been in the berry 
business. My berries are picked early in the morn- 
ing by schoolchildren. The berries shine like dia- 
monds. Other people pick their berries and keep 
them till the next day, and then they look like an 
old piece of liver. 

And now, Mr. Root, in all kinds of business it is 
the small things that pay. In reading Gleanings 
it is easy to see who are the successful ones. I hope 
you will not think I am too presuming in writing 
to you, but I felt impelled to. 

East Hingham, Mass. Geo. A. Douglas. 

My good friend, the readers of Gleanings 
want that "secret" about fertiUzers. As 
you will see by our strawberry-book, the 
finest berries I ever grew were from plants 
set as you mention, in August. My nearest 
neighbor, Mr. Rood, sets his plants in Au- 
gust and September, and gets berries from 
the same before Christmas; but he grows 
his own plants right near his fruiting- 
ground. He gets his original stock, from 
which to grow plants, from the North in 
March and April, or earlier. 

For five winters I have had very little 
trouble here from catarrh; but for the past 
ten days I have had some of it. I think it 
came from passing three nights in the poor- 
ly ventilated Pullman sleepers. I noticed 
the question you mention in the Eural, and 
rather decided the trouble would be to find 
a man (say like my neighbor Rood) who 
could stand it to run " high-pressure garden- 
ing " twelve months without any "rest u})," 
instead of six months or less. I think you 
can do it (at least after a little experience) 
if you can keep up your enthusiasm both 
winter and summer, without any rest. Now 
for your questions: 

1. Mr. Rood did some of his best berry- 
growing before he had an artesian well; but 
he had water in a shallow ditch that could 
be dipped up right through his long rows of 
berries. Artesian water is found at from 3 
to 500 feet, and the cost depends on the size 



of the well— say 75 cts. per foot for 3-inch, 
and about $1.00 per foot for 4-inch. 

2. In a town of, say, 2000 or 3000 people, I 
think you could market 20 crates a day at 
20 to 40 cts. a box, depending on the season. 

3. I think there are plenty of colored wo- 
men and children who will do good picking 
if the boss is right on hand and holds them 
down to it. 



THE SEAKS AUTOMOBILE — SEE p. 674, AUG. 
15, 1910. 

My automobile was just two months on 
the way, and it did not show up until the 
shippers wired me that it was probably lost, 
and wired to know if they should ship 
another that showed up. An automobile ^ 
a queer thing to "get lost," it is true; and 
this long delay is, I am led to believe, very 
unusual, for two of my Ohio neighbors have 
just received, each of them, a carload of 
household goods, and they were only from 
ten days to two weeks on the way. Wesley 
and I, with the help of Mr. Rood's team and 
teamster, got it out of the car and hauled it 
down to our auto-house in one forenoon, 
and by next morning Wesley and I had it 
ready to start the engine; but we could not 
get it to "budge." It happened, luckily, 
that neighbor Rood had just bought a new 
Everet machine; and his chauffeur coming 
along at just that time, we applied to him 
for advice. He said: 

"Drop a little gasoline into the pet-cocks 
of each of the cylinders." 

We did so, and, "presto!" Off the en- 
gine went, a flying. I hereby give notice 
to the makers to make haste and put this 
simple thing in their instruction-book. 
Several times since, we have been obliged 
to resort to the same thing in first starting 
up on a cold morning. 

Well, I have had the car now about ten 
days, and it has proved indeed "a thing of 
beauty," and promises to be "a joy for- 
ever." I have got stalled once, it is true; 
but it was on a dark rainy Sunday night, 
the second night after 1 got the machine, 
and I was going up a very sandy hill. The 
storm-curtains were all on; and as I could 
not see very well I got out of the track in 
the wet sand. I backed down to the bottom 
of the hill several times, but this only sank 
the wheels in deeper every time, and I balk- 
ed always at the same spot. I finally walk- 
ed about a quarter of a mile and found it 
was so rainy there was no Endeavor Socie- 
ty before the sermon, and three of the boys 
readily offered to help me out. 

A little help at the right spot sent us up 
hill a flying; and before we reached the top 
the three were all aboard and we were mak- 
ing for the church. 

Now, it was no more than natural that 
even Endeavor boys should (even on Sun- 
day night) ask the question, " How fast will 
she go?" By the way, I am something of 
a boy myself, even if I am past 71; and it 
was so dark and rainy the streets were all 
clear of obstruction of any kind; and, tak- 



56 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Jan. 15 



ing it all together, we whizzed past the 
church before I knew it, and w-as wondering 
why the boys seemed so anxious to "get 
out" all at once. 

Just as I had finished the above paragraph 
on my new typewriter, Mrs. Root suggested 
she thought it very unwise for me to rush 
into print with so good a report of that ma- 
chine before I had made even one trip of 
any length over bad sandy roads. Some of 
you may remember the time years ago 
when I started out to write the chapter in 
the ABC book on bee-hunting. When I 
came to realize I really knew nothing, com- 
paratively, about bee-hunting, I stopped my 
work, went and hired an old veteran bee- 
hunter, and, after laboriously tramping aft- 
er him for .several days, I wrote my "chap- 
ter." Well, my neighbor Abbott had been 
wanting to see some bees about ten miles 
away, across as bad sandy roads, perhaps, 
as any in this region. When we started out 
yesterday morning Mrs. Root said if we got 
back before dark she would feel very glad. 
Well, we made the trip easily, finding the 
bees in excellent condition (heavy with 
honey), and, after taking friend Abbott 
home, I was back at my own home before 2 
o'clock; and the machine went so finely we 
called on another neighbor, then went to 
prayer-meeting in the evening; and I have 
just looked at the speedometer, and it shows 
the car made just about 30 miles yesterday, 
and many of the miles were over about as 
bad sandy roads as any you often find in 
Florida. The long trip really improved the 
lunning of the machine, and, I tell you, it 
"improved" mightily the "feller who ran 
it." 

Some days ago the machine got hot, and 
we had to wait for it to cool off; and when I 
finally got home every thing was smoking 
at such a rate I was almost frightened, and 
began fearing the "air cooling " was not go- 
ing to work so well after all. Being in a 
hurry, I told Wesley to look it all over and 
see to all the oiling arrangements, etc. 

AVhile he was eating his dinner he called 
to me: 

"Mr. Root, there was a pretty good rea- 
son for the car getting hot. The belt was 
clear off from the fans, and they had not 
been running at all." 

You see we had neglected to watch the 
new round leather belt that runs the "blow- 
ers " that cool the engine. They had first 
stretched and become loose, and had finally 
slipped off entirely, and I had been running 
the car perhaps a mile or two, with no help 
from the /ans at all. I cut off a little of the 
belt and hooked it on in a minute, and 
since then we have had no trouble from 
heating; and, to my great relief, I found 
that getting the machine so hot had done 
no harm at all. You see every thing about 
it is made to stand a high temperature with- 
out injury. 

As nearly as I can make out, the makers 
have a sort of "correspondence school" ar- 
rangement that enables them to care for 
their customers in a very Christianlike way. 



Here is one of their recent letters: 

There is sometimes a little trouble about water 
slopping on to the friction parts; but this dries off 
very quickly, and it is for only a few feet that your 
friction slips. Water does no harm whatsoever to 
the friction-wheel unless it gets thoroughly soaked, 
as the friction created by the wheel coming in con- 
tact with the aluminum disc quickly dries any 
damp places on the wheel. 

We wish to advise you that the proper way to run. 
the car is to run it with the speed-lever forward, 
and cut down your supply of gasoline. You will be 
able to make the same speed in this manner that 
you would with your speed-lever retarded and 
throttle clear open. Then, too, it is liable to heat 
your engine to run on low speed too far. This is- 
what caused your engine to get warm when. run- 
ning home the other day. 

On fairly level roads .\ou should run with the 
speed-lever advanced and the throttle open; and we 
wish that you would try this, as we are especially 
anxious to have you start out right with your car. 

Now, we want you to write us, Mr. Root, when- 
ever you experience any difficulty with your car, 
as we should much prefer to offer you advice from 
this office as to the proper method of running your 
machine than to have you take it to inexperienced 
garage men who invariably give the wrong advice, 
and get you into more trouble than ever. If you 
will take it easy, however, and follow the instruc- 
tions given in the instruction booklet, we know 
that you will be able to run the car all right, and 
hope to hear from you in the near future, telling us- 
of your experience with the machine. 

On good roads it is an easy matter to 
make 25 miles an hour; but that is faster 
than I care to ride, as a rule. AVith fair 
roads from 12 to 15 miles can be kept up, 
without trouble, all day. After I had run it 
a few days I was very agreeably surprised to 
find it would start with the magneto as well 
as with the batteries; so we might almost 
say we have an automobile that not only 
dispenses with the necessity of water, has 
no "cogwheels" to get dry and make a 
racket, but can be run (at least as a rule) 
without the need of troublesome batteries. 

Later: 

A. I. R. AND HIS NEW CAR NEW YEAR'S DAY. 

Oh! but that new auto is a "daisy." 
There is nothing to "forget" about it. 
Just "jump out" when you get there; and 
when you want to "go" again, it is all 
hitched up, and no lack of "muscle" to 
grind out the miles, sand or no sand. 



TEMPERANCE IN ARIZONA. 

Some time ago I informed the readers of 
Gleanings that in Arizona they had a 
queer sort of law, to the effect that temper- 
ance people had to have two dry votes to 
one wet vote to get saloons out of Arizona 
towns. The letter below informs us that 
the law has been amended so that the ma- 
jority can now rule. 

Mr. A. I. Root: — The last legislature amended the 
local-option law by allowing a majority to rule ; 
but later it segregated the towns, allowing them. In 
case of elections, to vote separately. 

We had an election on the 17th, taking in our en- 
tire valley and Graham County. We beat the sa- 
loon crowd in each of the three towns, and the 
county went dry about four to one. I will try to 
send you the printed returns. This will close eight 
more of their crime-making dens. We carried eve- 
ry voting-place, and one was 106 to 2. Two voting- 
places had no wet votes to count. When I bade you 
goodby at the train in our little town 1 promised 
you that we would fight them as long as they were 
in town. 

Saflford, Ariz., Oct. 28. W. E. Gi-ascock. 



Ptiblished by The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

BL H, HDC-T, Assistant Editor E. R, Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. 1. P^ooT, Editor Home Department J. T. Calveht, Business Manager 

Eutersd at the Postoffice, Medina, Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



FEBRUARY 1, 1911 



NO. 



Editorial 



Ohio bee-keepers are reminded of the 
State convention to be held in Cincinnati, 
at the Grand Hotel, Feb. 16 and 17. Fuller 
particulars given in editorial notice Jan. 15. 



SHIPPING CARLOADS OF BEES TO A WARM 
CLIMATE TO PASS THE WINTER. 

We take the following from the I^os An- 
geles Examiner, which will explain itself: 

THREE CARS OF BEES AKRIVE; UTAH HONEY-GATH- 

KRER3 SHIPPED TO CALIFORNIA TO ESCAPE 

COLD WINTERS. 

San Bernardino, Dec. 15. — Three carloads of 
honey-bees arrived in this city yesterday from 
Utah. They are the property of M. E. Miller, John 
Chantry, and George Hale, Utah bee-men. and they 
will winter in the vicinity of Colton and llighgrove. 
The bees are unable to survive the cold Utah win- 
ters. Next spring they will be taken north. 

"We shall be pleased to have a full report 
of the success of this experiment from either 
of the interested parties. 



AN EFFORT IN MICHIGAN TO GET A NEW 
FOUL- BROOD LAW PASSED. 

We received the following notice from E. 
D. Townsend, President of the Michigan 
Bee-keepers' Association, regarding the ef- 
fort that will be made toward getting new 
foul-brood legislation in that State. We 
hope that no bee-keeper who lives in Michi- 
gan will put off writing these letters, for the 
expressions of the people have great influ- 
ence, as every one knows, with the legisla- 
tors. Let no one imagine that, because his 
bees have never had the disease, they never 
will have it. Foul brood is spreading at an 
alarming rate, and very stringent measures 
are necessary to stamiD it out. 

ATTENTION, MICHIGAN BEE-KEEPERS! 

At Grand Rapids, last November, at our State 
meeting, a legislative committee was appointed to 
draft a new bill pertaining to bee-diseases in Mich- 
igan, and introduce it to the Legislature now in 
session. At this date, Jan. 9. the proposed law is 
nearly ready to introduce, it being along the line of 
the one proposed by Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the Apia- 
rian Department at Wa-shington. We are asking 
for considerably more money in the shape of an ap- 
propriation and the privilege to appoint several in- 
spectors instead of one. as our present law provides. 
There are but two or three months in the year suit- 
able for inspecting bees, and one inspector can do 
but little in this limited time. We should have ten 
men ready to start out next spring, and ive ivill have 
them provided we can get this law passed. 

Hon. Geo. E. Hilton, who represents the bee-keep- 
ers, will go to Lansing this month (January), and 
introduce the bill. Now. the object of this notice is 
to ask every Michigan bee-keeper to write both his 
Representative and Senator, now at Lansing, to 



lend their support to the bill. If this is not done, 
we might as well do nothing, for Gov. Osborn has 
already sent a mes.sage to the Legislature advising 
economy in all branches, and it will be a hard pull, 
at best, to get this bill through. 

Remember, brother bee-keepers of Michigan, we 
are depending upon you. and you alone, to get this 
measure through, for our task will be a hopeless 
one unless we all lend a helping hand and keep 
*■ digging '■ at our legislators until they simply have 
to vote for this bill to get rid of us. Let us all re- 
member our duty. Fraternally yours, 

E. D. Townsend. 



APICULTURE AT SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY. 

We understand that the Zoological De- 
l^artment of Syracuse I'niversity, under the 
direction of Prof. W. M. Smallwood, plans 
to give a short course in apiculture early in 
May. The University is now adding 
courses in agriculture, and the course above 
mentioned will be one of the first of the 
special courses open to students. 

The plan for the first year includes about 
four lectures, to be given by some of the 
leading bee-keepers of the region. These 
lectures will be followed by demonstrations 
of the actual manipulations of bees, dis- 
eases of bees, etc. The University is fortu- 
nate in having, within a few miles radius, 
some of the best bee-keepers in the State, 
and we feel sure that these men will be de- 
lighted to assist in any way possible. 

While a few of the State agricultural 
courses have had courses in bee-keeping, 
this is probably the first time that any other 
educational institution has given such a 
course. Bee-keepers have not been aw^ake 
to the desirability of such courses, but there 
can be no doubt that, if well-trained zoolo- 
gists have their attention called to the prob- 
lems of bee-keeping, it will result in inves- 
tigations of great interest and value to the 
practical bee-keeper. We are pleased to ex- 
press our approval of this movement, and 
we congratulate especially the bee-keepers 
of New York State on this advance. We 
feel sure that the interest in the course will 
warrant its continuance. 



BEE-KEEPING IN NEW ZEALAND. 

Bee-keepers of this country are apt to 
pay little attention to the industry as car- 
ried on in other parts of the world, espe- 
cially in those countries that we do not 
hear so much about. Bee-keeping in New 
Zealand, however, is in a very healthy 
state, and an able apiarian department is 
conducted in the New Zealand farmer. 
Stock, and Station Journal, which, by the 
way, is larger and better illustrated than 
any other farm paper that we have ever 



58 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



seen. In the December issue, a large clear 
engraving shows the twenty-six members 
of the newly formed North Otago Bee-keep- 
ers' Association, of which John Allan is 
president. This association holds field days 
and regular conventions, and is as up-to- 
date as any association in this country. At 
a meeting held on Nov. 5, during a discus- 
sion on the question of foul brood, the Mc- 
Evoy treatment was endorsed as one that 
gave the greatest benefit. After this fol- 
lowed a demonstration of fixing foundation 
in frames. The question of the disposal of 
the honey-drop was also taken up in detail. 



MORE PROOF THAT FARMERS ARE NO 

LONGER "KILLING THE GOOSE THAT 

LAYS THE GOLDEN EGG." 

One of our subscribers, J. R. Mintle, of 
Glenwood, Iowa, has sent us a clipping 
from the Mills County Tribune, on the sub- 
ject of sweet clover. One of the local at- 
torneys, who owns a ranch in Northern 
Nebraska, is reported as saying that his 
cattle are being fed from a stack of sweet 
clover, and that they not only like it, but 
are doing well on it. He plans on putting 
in ten acres of sweet clover in the spring. 
A near neighbor has a forty-acre patch. 

One of the Professors from the State Ag- 
ricultural College, at Ames, Iowa, in a re- 
cent address at Glenwood, stated that sweet 
clover would soon come into more general 
use, as farmers have ceased treating it as a 
nuisance, as they did formerly. 



OUR DEPARTMENT EDITORS. 

On page 71 of this issue we present a pic- 
ture of each of the department editors, some 
of whose faces may, perhaps, be unfamiliar 
to our readers. 

Dr. Miller and G. M. Doolittle, whose de- 
partments appear each issue, need no intro- 
duction, for they have been considered 
sound authorities in bee culture for scores 
of years, we might say — at least for consid- 
erably more than twenty years. And for 
years to come the writings of these two will 
live on, extending and perpetuating their 
good records. Whenever we think of these 
two old friends we understand a little more 
clearly why it is that some men never die. 

Wesley Foster, Mrs. Acklin, and J. L. 
Byer, whose departments appear in the first 
issue of each month, are the newer members 
of our staff. Mr. Foster has appeared before 
our readers long enough to show that he 
has made good. Mrs. Acklin, whose de- 
partment, " Bee-keeping in Southern Cali- 
fornia," started last summer, has also prov- 
ed that she is alive to the bee-keeping inter- 
ests in her territory. Mr. Byer, who takes 
Mr.Holtermann'splaceinfurnishing"Notes 
from Canada," as mentioned in our Dec. 
15th issue, appears for the first time as head 
of the Canadian department in this issue. 
We have known him for some time as an 
occasional contributor, and we are sure that 
his comments will be no less valuable, com- 
ing, as they will, from now on, every month. 



Louis H. Scholl and J. E. Crane, whose 
departments appear the second issue of each 
month, have also been with us long enough 
so that our readers know them to be safe 
counselors. Mr. Scholl stands rather high 
in the world, being nearly six and one-half 
feet tall; but Mr. Crane, though not so large 
has shown himself to be a good "sifter." 

EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD; MORE PROOF OF 

ITS EUROPEAN ORIGIN, AND HENCE 

THE FITNESS OF THE NAME. 

Evidence is beginning to accumulate, 
showing that European foul brood, or what 
we formerly called "black brood," is more 
or less common in England and on the Con- 
tinent. Indeed, there is a possibility that - 
it is the common brood disease in Great J 
Britain. After carefully analyzing the * 
writings of some of our European authori- 
ties, particularly of our British cousins, we 
are convinced that, when they sjeak of a 
"mild type" of foul brood, most of the lar- 
vae dying before they are sealed, they are 
unwittingly describing European foul 
brood; that when they give the symptoms 
of the more advanced stages, after the 
brood dies when sealed up, they are de- 
scribing the genuine foul brood, or what we 
call American foul brood. Let us take, for 
example, two or three references. Turning 
toDzierzon's "Rational Bee-keeping, " Eng- 
lish edition for 1882, page 273, we find the 
following: 

FOUL BROOD IS OF TWO KINDS. 

There is one kind that Is mild and curable, and 
another kind malignant and incurable. Both kinds 
are, however, contagious. 

The curable occurs In this way: More of the lar- 
vae die still unsealed, while they are still curied up 
at the bottom of the cell, rotting and drying up to 
a gray crust that may be removed with tolerable 
ease. The brood which does not die before sealing 
mostly attains to perfection: and it is onlv excep- 
tionally that foul-brood cells are met with sealed. 

This is exactly reversed In the malignant kind of 
foul brood. In this the larva' do not generally die 
before they have raised themselves from the bot- 
tom of the cell, have been sealed, and begun to 
change into nymphs. The rotten matter is. there- 
fore, not found on the cell floor, but on the lower 
cell wall. It is brownish and tough, and dries up 
to a firm black crust, both in consequence of the 
heat prevailing in the hive, and of a small opening 
bitten in the depressed cover. This matter the 
bees are not able to remove; and when they are in 
some strength they can at most get rid of it by en- 
tirely biting down the tainted cells and making 
fresh ones. 

It is a marked characteristic of European 
■foul brood that most of the larvae die before 
they are sealed. In other respects the sec- 
ond paragraph exactly describes the dis- 
ease. The last paragraph undoubtedly re- 
fers to American foul brood. 

Again, we turn to Samuel Simmins' book 
entitled "A Modern Bee-farm," edition 
1904, page 10.3. In speaking of the cure for 
foul brood he says: 

Cheshire considered that the queen should not be 
removed; but, on the contrary, if it is intended to 
save the combs I have found the first step toward a 
rapid recovery is made by deposing the reigning 
queen and giving a young and vigorous queen bred 
from clean stock, when the entire attitude of the 
bees Is changed, and great determination and ener- 
gy take the place of the former utter inability to 
clear out the foul stuff. 



1911 



GLEAXINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



59 



If the disease begins in the early spring and is not 
noticed, it is very likely the colony will go down at 
a rapid rate, while the remnant will not be worth 
troubling with, and should be cleared out by fire 
after sulphuring the bees. This should be done in 
the evening when all the other stocks are quiet, 
taking care to foul as few things as possible. Burn 
all you use that are not of much value, and the 
rest disinfect thoroughly. 

European foul brood shows up strongest 
in the spring or early summer. Observe, 
also, that Simmins refers to the possibility 
of curing by changing the queen and sub- 
stituting a vigorous queen (a part of the 
Alexander treatment for European foul 
brood) . He also mentions the ability of the 
bees to clear out the "foul stuff." We have 
our doubts whether colonies, unless very 
powerful, will clean ordinary American foul 
brood out of the combs; but there is no 
doubt now but that they can and do remove 
the grubs dead of European foul brood. 

Again, we turn to a card sent out by the 
British Bee-keepers' Association, showing a 
photograph of what looks like the old-fash- 
ioned American foul brood in an advanced 
stage. On the reversed side of the card we 
find the following: 

1. How to recognize Foul Brood in its earliest Stage. 
—Healthy brood is recognized by being compact, 
and the larvse of a pearly whiteness. When young 
they are curled up at the bases of the cells in the 
form of a C. If any of the larvte are attacked by the 
disease, instead of being curled up and plump they 
are extended horizontally in the cells, are flabby in 
appearance, and are of a pale yellow color, chang- 
ing to brown, and begin to decompose. They then 
dry up, leaving only a dry brown scale on the side 
of the cell. (For "chilled" brood the dead larvse 
turn gray and not brown.) 

2. Later Stage. — When the larvis die after the 
cells are capped over, here and there cells will be 
found with cappings slightly indented, and darker 
than those of heaithy brood. The cappings are also 
frequently perforated with irregular holes. 

3. Adranced Stage.— This is weU illustrated in the 
photograph of a comb badly affected. It will be 
seen that the capped cells are in irregular patches, 
indented, and most of them perforated. If the cap- 
ping of a cell is removed, and a piece of stick intro- 
duced, a putrid, ropy, sticky, cofTee-colored mass 
will be found — all that remains of the larva — often 
emitting a most disagreeable stench. 

The disease is extremely contagious, and prompt 
measures should be taken to prevent its spreading 
by medicating the food with naphthol beta and by 
using naphthaline as a preventive. 

The first paragraph, referring to "early 
stages," is an exact description, so far as it 
goes, of European foul brood. The next 
two paragraphs, referring to "later" and 
"advanced stages," clearly describe Amer- 
ican foul brood. 

In Cowan's "Hive and the Honey-bee" 
we find practically the same description, 
and very possibly the foul-brood card of the 
British Bee-keepers' Association was writ- 
ten by Mr. Cowan himself. 

Still again, we find quite a conflict of 
opinion among se.veral of these European 
writers. Some of them, including Cowan, 
Cheshire, and Simmins, recommend drugs 
of various sorts; others appear to believe 
that they have no value. In this country, 
at least, practically all of our authorities 
have agreed that any form of medicine or 
spray applied to the combs of American 
foul brood is a waste of time and material; 
but, so far as we know, these same authori- 
ties, in this country, have never tried germ- 



icides of any sort on the European type 
of the disease, and there is a possibility that 
they may have some value. The fact that 
some of our friends across the water persis- 
tently recommend them for the disease 
they have is significant. 

And, again, let us turn to the testimony 
of the bacteriologists. Chene and Cheshire 
(English) discovered a microbe that was 
apparently always present in the foul brood 
that they examined, and Cheshire later 
called it Bacillus alvei. Dr. G. F. White, 
of our Bureau of Entomology, Washington, , 
D. C, always finds this microbe in the Eu- 
ropean type of disease, but rarely in the 
American, if we are correct. Burri and 
Maassen, eminent European bacteriologists, 
have described a disease which is certainly 
our European foul brood, and no less an 
authority than Erne recognizes our claims 
with reference to the cause of American 
foul brood; namely, that it is Bacillus lar- 
vae (White) , and not Bacillus alvei. Mai- 
den, another eminent British bacteriologist, 
whose paper we recently reviewed in these 
columns, page 542 of the Sept. 1st issue of 
last year, confirms the work of our own Dr. 
White, and, apparently accepting our terms 
for the two types of disease, uses the names 
European and American. 

A recent article by Mr. Samuel Simmins, 
author of "A Modern Bee-farm," above 
mentioned, who appears to have in mind 
American foul brood, seems to be really de- 
scribing the European type of the disease. 
He tells of the value of requeening with vig- 
orous Italian or Carniolan stock, and says 
that it is not necessary to destroy the combs. 
He also refers to the value of certain drugs, 
particularly "izal," as one that will effect a 
complete and permanent cure. 

Taking all the evidence together, we are 
forced to the conclusion that at least some 
of our European authorities, especially in 
view of their conflict of testimony, have 
been describing two different diseases; that 
when they refer to the ability of the bees to 
clean out the combs, removing the dead 
grubs, they unwittingly refer to European 
foul brood. In various references we find 
they make mention of what they call chill- 
ed brood. While we have chilled brood in 
this country, from certain described symp- 
toms it appears that our British cousins are 
talking about European foul brood. 

Possibly our friends across the water may 
take issue with us; but the exact work of 
their own bacteriologists is very significant 
as pointing to two types of disease — signi- 
ficant, further, because these same scientists 
seem to confirm Dr. White's work in many 
very important respects. 

It remains to be seen yet whether Bacil- 
lus alvei is really the microbe responsible 
for European foul brood; but the fact that 
European scientists have found it so often 
in their specimens of affected brood indi- 
cates that they must have and have had a 
great deal of w'hat we have named (and cor- 
rectly so (as we view it) European foul 
brood. 



60 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



Stray Straws 

By Dr. C. C. Miller, Marengo, 111. 



F, DuNDAS Todd, page 22, speaks of a fol- 
lower in ten-frame hives. Have manufac- 
turers really made that desirable addition? 

Oliver Foster's first bees were bumble- 
bees, p. 6. So were mine; only, instead of 
being on a window-sill, mine were in a hay- 
mow. 

The honey-extractor was invented in 
1865 by an Austrian, Major Franz Edler von 
Hruschka, who was born at Vienna in 1819, 
and died at Venice, Italy, 1888. 

"What kind of a mile? " I am asked, p. 
32, is meant, where the bees were four or 
five minutes getting over % niile. It was 
given in meters, and I translated it into U. 
S. miles. 

A. Snyder, when he wants to talk honey 
to a grocer, sets on the counter an observa- 
tory hive, six by eight inches in size. That 
secures the attention of the grocer at once. 
— Revieiv-, 310. 

J. L. Byer said at the National conven- 
tion that it is necessary to have a large stock 
of extracting-combs in order to get a good 
crop of honey, and just as necessary in order 
to get a crop of good honey. 

A VERY OLD brood-comb weighed 36 >^ oz.; 
a new one that had not been bred in weigh- 
ed 11 oz. That means that there might be 
a difference of about 16 pounds in the weight 
of two ten-frame hives, each containing the 
same amount of bees and stores. Some 
colonies have probably starved because 
heavy old combs fooled the bee-keeper into 
thinking they had stores enough. 

C. B. Palmer, you say, page 38, that I 
didn't know where to put loaits when no ex- 
cluder is used. Well, I do now — put 'em 
just the same as with an excluder. You 
are mistaken in concluding that I used an 
excluder. Never. There may be no law in 
Nebraska against your way of doing, but I 
wouldn't do some things you do. I wouldn't 
use a bait partly filled with comb, and I 
wouldn't have a droi^ of honey in it. I 
wouldn't use a bait in any super after the 
first; I'd use them all in the first. General- 
ly I have only baits enough to put a single 
one in the first super, and I put that in the 
center. With my way I never knew a queen 
to lay an egg in a bait. 

R. V. Cox, you advise, p. 52, to read Alex- 
ander's treatment for European foul brood, 
and " follow it to the letter." But do you 
follow it to the letter? You say "queenless 
26 days," and then "a first-class Italian 
qneen." He says, 1905, p. 1125, queenless 
20 days, and then "a ripe queen-cell or a 
virgin just hatched." He says the old 
gueen may be given after 27 (not 26) days, 
but advises against it. Mr. Alexander de- 



serves great credit as a pioneer blazing a 
way through a pathless forest; but if any 
one finds a way only half as long, do you 
think it is disloyalty to Mr. Alexander to 
follow the shorter way? 

Mr. Editor, you say, p. 52, for cell-build- 
ing, to feed queenless bees syrup daily. Will 
feeding make any difference when a heavy 
flow is on? [Of course, it is not necessary 
to feed up when a heavy honey-flow is on. 
One of our queen-breeders says he much 
prefers not to have a heavy flow. He can 
secure better results when the bees are fed 
moderately or when the yield of honey from 
natural sources is only moderate. A flood 
of honey upsets cell-building to a great ex- 
tent. — Ed.] 

"If the combs become so thick and the 
cells so small as to leave too little room for 
young bees they had better be melted up," 
p. 52. That scares me. It will be 50 years- 
next summer since I began keeping bees, 
and I never yet melted a comb because old. 
Do you suppose my cells are too small? 
How shall I tell? Would you advise me to 
melt up all my old combs? [You are put- 
ting up a hard question; and yet if you will 
take our statement literally it Mill not nec- 
essarily imply that you will have to melt 
up your combs. Authorities do not quite 
agree; but the majority seem to think that 
when the cells become too small, by reason 
of accumulations of cocoons, the bees remove 
the surplusage until the cells are large 
enough to admit of the rearing of brood. 
Assuming that to be true (and we believe it 
is) , you would not have to melt up your 
comb. In the quotation, page 52, we are 
not assuming that it would be true, but 
only making the statement that, if the size 
of the cells is reduced by many years of 
brood-rearing, combs with such cells should 
be melted up. 

We may say we believe it would be a good 
practice to melt up all old combs since brood 
diseases have become so prevalent all over 
the United States. p]xperience shows that 
disease lurks for years in old combs, and 
then when conditions are favorable it will 
break out. Let us suppose a case where a 
comb contained the spores of American foul 
brood; that those spores were covered with 
several layers of cocoons; that the bees re- 
move several layers of cocoons in a certain 
season, exposing the spores covered up for 
years. What happens? An outbreak of 
the bee disease. That this is not an idle 
theory was proven at one of our outyards, 
where we had American foul brood some 15 
years before. All of a sudden foul brood be- 
gan to break out in that yard. An exami- 
nation showed that it appeared only in 
those hives that had some of those original 
combs. We then began melting up every 
one of those combs whether disease showed 
up or not, and, presto! foul brood stopped 
coming back. We know that diseases that 
infect the human family may lie in old gar- 
ments for decades; then why not in "old 
garments " occuj^ied by baby bees? — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



61 



Bee-keeping in Southern 
California 

BY Mrs. H. G. Acklin, Glendoka, Cal. 



The State Association convention has 
been postponed till this month. Too many 
other irons in the fire the latter part of last 
December. 

According to tradition, black sage must 
needs have an off year occasionally; and as 
last season was an " off " with a vengeance, 
may be this year will be a good one if Jupi- 
ter Pluvius regards us favorably. 

It seems that my own town, too, is get- 
ting its "fill " of apiaries. A friend in the 
real-estate business told me recently that 
two men had been looking through the 
foot-hills for a bee location, and went home 
without finding a suitable place. 

During the holiday vacation the four col- 
onies of bees back of our friends' house at 
the beach were as busy as Minnesota bees 
are in summer time. They kept right on 
attending strictly to business, paying no at- 
tention to me whatever as I went prowling 
around their hives. 

While at one of the beaches around holi- 
day time a man came to our friends' house 
saying he had caught a swarm of bees and 
wanted a "gum" to put them in, as they 
were then in a nail-keg. A runaway swarm 
of bees just before Christmas! What do you 
know about that? 

Does it pay to sow seeds of honey-produc- 
ing plants in our canyons? I infer that it 
does from meeting a bee-keeper who had a 
snug little sack full of such seed for a bee- 
keeping friend. I inquired the names of 
the plants from which the seeds were gath- 
ered, but he did not know, saying there 
were two or three kinds in that one sack. 

I note, p. 718, that Mr. Gibson is in favor 
of leaving the latch-string out for tidy bee- 
keepers. But how shall we know till the 
whole transaction is done whether the new 
comer will flavor his honey with dead bees 
or not? But to me a mature bee in honey 
is not as repulsive as larvae. Of all the api- 
aries I visited last season, only one was in 
working order; consequently my knowledge 
as to the neatness of our bee-keepers is lim- 
ited. 

4^ 

One could never imagine the great num- 
ber of bees kept in this country by taking a 
trip on the steam-cars. They are clustered 
behind hills and up canyons till I never ex- 
pect to see an apiary from a railroad train 



any more. So it was on a recent trip to 
Redlands. We saw only one little cluster 
of hives, and I felt sorry for the poor bees 
left there on those stones. 

Mr. B. G. Burdick, President of the State 
Association, met us at the station, and took 
us directly to his home, where we had a 
cordial welcome and a warm supper. The 
next day I changed my mind as to the 
number of bees in the vicinity of Redlands, 
as Mr. Burdick took us sailing around over 
hills, through valleys, and up canyons. 
That bee-keepers are gradually being driven 
further and further back into the mountains 
was evident everywhere. Eight - horse 
teams pulling heavy disc plows were follow- 
ing each other around steep hillsides, pre- 
paring the same ground for a crop that for- 
merly was covered with button or black 
sage. Mr. Burdick's apiary of 250 colonies 
is located in Live Oak Canyon, a pretty 
spot; but the ground is cultivated on one 
side nearly up to the hives. He is planning 
to move the bees further up the canyon. 

One novel feature about the place is a 
honey-house built from parts of old Harbi- 
son hives, and it is a pretty fair honey- 
house too. One thing I liked about it was 
the way in which extracting-supers are 
managed. Two doors in the back lift up, 
and are just near enough the ground so su- 
pers from a wheelbarrow can be shoved in 
easily. Inside there are smooth strips nail- 
ed to the floor for the supers to slide on. 
Empties are pushed out the other door in 
the same way, and loaded on the wheelbar- 
row, without much lifting. One advantage 
in this way of manipulating supers is that 
the front door of the honey-house is shut 
most of the time, keeping out the throng of 
bees which sometimes follow the supers. 

If I remember correctly, this yard is six 
or seven miles from Redlands, and not near 
orange-groves, although the principal crop, 
which was good for this year, was orange 
honey. The principal forage around here is 
orange and sage; but there are many minor 
honey-producing plants and shrubs on the 
foothills and mountains. 

Every town has its "bee-man," and Mr. 
Burdick seems to enjoy that peculiar dis- 
tinction in this little city of beautiful 
homes. Frequently he is called upon to re- 
move swarms of bees from some of those 
handsome houses, and has to be very care- 
ful to leave the buildings in as good condi- 
tion as he found them, which must be a 
difficult task, considering the almost im- 
possible nooks and corners into which the 
bees go. Whoever has the good fortune to 
visit Redlands must, of necessity, see the 
parks and other beauty spots. From Smiley 
Heights the view is magnificent. Looking 
across San Timoteo Canyon some large api- 
aries can be seen. R. H. Burdick, son of B. 
G. Burdick, has an apiary of 250 colonies in 
this canyon. Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Bullock, 
who have an apiary of 250 colonies in 
Moreno Valley, twelve miles from Red- 
lands, called at the Burdick home in the 
evening. 



62 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



Bee-keeping Among The 
Rockies 

By Wesley Foster. Boulder, Colo. 



I certainly should like to have a winter 
nest constructed as the illustrations Editor 
Root shows in the January 1st issue. There 
are plenty of empty cells in our combs, but 
there is a lack of sealed stores arranged in 
proper relation to the brood or clustering nest. 

Referring to what I have said regarding 
retail packages for extracted honey, I will 
add that the Mason jar is the most econom- 
ical jar for honey, for the reason that it can 
be used the second time. But it is not a 
suitable jar for shipping, and fhe cap luill 
not hold the honey so it will not leak. A 
plain jar with a tight cap about the size of 
the pint Mason jar is about the best size for 
honey. Since taking the picture shown on 
page 17, and writing the article, I have seen 
honey put up in the tall thin bottles that 
olive oil is so often sold in. These packages 
hold six or eight ounces, and were marked 
at 25 cts. On inquiry I found that many 
customers thought they held as much hon- 
ey as a pound comb of honey. The con- 
sumer was paying from fifty to sixty cents 
a pound for an average grade of extracted 
honey! The glass bottle would cost as 
much as or more than the honey it contain- 
ed when bought of the producer. 

I have a two-frame nucleus, which, how- 
ever, is but little smaller than the average 
colony this winter, that I am wintering in 
an observatory hive placed in our dining- 
room window. They have an exit through 
the sash and are shielded from the light ex- 
cept when some one wishes to look at them. 
They are a source of interest to the children, 
and I am curious to know how they will 
come through the winter. Their stores are 
mainly sugar syrup fed to them in October, 
half sugar and half water by weight. I no- 
tice a few hard granules on the bottom of 
the hive that they can not manage. There 
is about a quart of bees, and from Nov. 19th 
to Christmasday those bees ate just IGounces 
of their stores. That is a trifle less than a 
half-ounce per day. So far but very few 
dead bees have been carried out, not over 
fifteen or twenty, for their exit opens out up- 
on our porch, and if any dead bees are drag- 
ged out they are easily seen. A half-dozen 
dead bees is all that I have seen so far. They 
do not seem to be anxious about flying when 
the weather is rough outside, even though 
their hive is in a room that has a tempera- 
ture of from 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit. 

4)- 

WHY COMB HONEY IS USED MORE THAN 

EXTRACTED IN COLORADO. 

Taking the markets of Colorado as a 
whole, I believe that four pounds of comb 
honey is eaten to one of extracted. There 
are two main reasons for this, the first being 



that comb honey looks so much more at- 
tractive on the table, and is more of a deli- 
cacy, while the extracted honey seems more 
of a syrup. The second reason is that peo- 
ple fear adulteration; in fact, there are many 
who hold this opinion against almost any 
thing that one can say. Here is where we 
must get in our house-to-house work, and 
educate the people to the fact that there 
need be little fear nowadays of adulteration 
of bottled honey. We can do this by tell- 
ing the housewife the methods and appli- 
ances used in raising extracted honey. So 
many think that, because extracted honey 
is so reasonable in price, this is proof that it 
is adulterated. A well-known writer un- 
muzzled his ignorance by voicing this idea 
not long ago in one of the large monthly 
magazines. How prone we are to ascribe 
wrong motives to the other fellow when the 
fault lies in our own ignorance! 

THE CAUSE OF THE HIGH WINDS IN COLO- 
RADO. 

The gray, level, buffalo-grass-covered 
plains slojie away to the east of the Rocky 
Mountains for five hundred miles. The al- 
titude of this great plains region ranges 
from five to six thousand feet at the foot of 
the mountains down to two or three thou- 
sand feet, five hundred miles east of the 
Rockies. The whole area is semi-arid, and 
the irrigated portions take in but little more 
than the river valleys, which, when drawn 
on a map in their comparative size, look 
like small fine tracings or narrow ribbon-? 
drawn across this great wide region. This 
gray expanse draws the warmth of the sun's 
rays on our bright days, which succeed each 
other almost indefinitely during the fall and 
winter. Now, as this plains region becomes 
warm, the warm air rises, and the cooler air 
from the mountains rushes down from the 
snow-capped ranges and foot-hills and across 
these plains at a terrific speed. If it were 
not for the rarity of the air much damage 
would be done; but this light air does not 
exert the pressure that heavier-weighted air 
does. However, many windows are blown 
out of houses, roofs lifted, and, of more con- 
cern to the bee-keeper, the covers blow off 
the hives, the hives tip over, and piles of 
supers left out are scattered in every direc- 
tion. A single brick is not sufficient to hold 
an average cover on unless the bees have it 
firmly sealed. Colonies of bees that are 
light in weight are often blown over. 

Now, this wind has some advantages, 
for it does not begin till there has been a 
snowstorm on the range for one or more 
days. While this snowstorm has been go- 
ing on in the mountains ttie plains have 
been warming up from the many days of 
bright sunshine. This brings about the 
rush of cold mountain air from the snowy 
peaks out to the plains. This wind will 
blow from one day to two weeks, and will 
drift the snow into the ravines and gulches 
in the mountains, saving it in the deep 
drifts till it is needed late in the next sum- 
mer for irrigation. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



63 



Notes from Canada 

By J. L. Byer, Mt. Joy, Out. 



Those moving pictures shovving Mr. Met- 
calfe's assistant at work are good; but it 
seems to me, by the bend in the oi)erator's 
back, that the hives are too low down for 
comfort. This is a fault in too many yards, 
including some of my own, and in the future 
I want to have the hives higher than they 
have been in the past. A man can work 
all day at a job if he can be upright most of 
the time, without getting fatigued; whereas 
if he has to be stooped OA'er most of the time, 
half the amount of work will tire him. 
<^ 

Somewhere, in our house, search would 
reveal one or more pairs of trousers with the 
legs scorched on the inside below the knees, 
It is not necessary to say that said scorch- 
ings, and burnt holes sometimes too, have 
been the subject of inquiry on the part of a 
certain woman in the household. Imagine 
with what elated feeling the writer read to 
this woman the words of Mr. Metcalfe, page 
791, Dec. 1, where he says that, if a man 
came to him asking for a job to take off 
honey, and he noticed that his overalls were 
smoked and scorched between the knees, 
he would sav "yes" without asking him 
a single question. It might not be out 
of the way to add that one time, at least, 
the damage was more than smoke or scorch- 
ing, and that a fair-sized fiarne was in evi- 
dence before the fire was extinguished. 

That picture showing the interior of Hans 
Matthes' house, page 15, Jan. 1st, certainly 
gives one a cosy feeling. The open fireplace 
a ad comfortable old-fashioned chairs around 
the table remind one of many homes in this 
Iticality some years ago, as this section was 
originally settled with Dutch who came 
here from Pennsylvania. As I showed an 
aunt of mine the picture, she at once re- 
marked, "Those chairs are just like those 
grandfather used to make;" and I might 
add that at all sales where a few of these ar- 
ticles of furniture are now offered they 
bring good prices from people who make a 
fad of saving up old-fashioned things as rel- 
ics. We have but one of these chairs in our 
home; and I confess that, although not a 
relic-hunter, yet it would take quite a price 
to buy that chair, as every time my eye 
rests on it I am reminded of the dear de- 
parted grandfather who made it years ago. 
This same grandfather, by the way, was a 
very successful bee-keeper when bee-keep- 
ing was hardly looked upon as a specialty 
as it is now; so it will be seen that, what- 
ever bee-keeping blood the writer may have 
in his veins, it has been inherited. 

The Dominion Railway Commission which 
has had the express companies of Canada on 
trial, as it were, have handed in their judg- 



ruent, which is sweeping in its denuncia- 
tion of the accused. The tariffs are declared 
to be altogether too high, and many of the 
provisions attached to the printed contracts 
to be unfair to the shippers. The compa- 
nies are given three months to revise and 
formulate new rates and contracts, and to 
hand the same to the Commission for their 
inspection at the expiration of that date. 
The officials of the companies met in Mon- 
treal; and, although some of them were in- 
clined to kick at the verdict, yet they wise- 
ly concluded to accept the ruling in view of 
the fact that they could not well do other- 
wise. We notice that the chairman of the 
Dominion Commission, J. P. Mabee, and 
Martin A. Knapp, Chairman of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission of the U. S. 
A., have come to an agreement regarding 
the control of railways crossing the bound- 
ary, and this is certainly a good omen to- 
ward the successful formation of an inter- 
national commission in the near future that 
would have the same power over all the ex- 
press companies, as the Dominion Commis- 
sion now has over the Canadian companies. 
This is of interest to the bee-keepers; for if 
any class of producers have to pay the price 
with a vengeance, we certainly do. The 
powers of the Dominion Board are supreme, 
and it is only by the show of the "big 
stick" that heartless corporations can ever 
be brought to time. 

■^ 
In stepping into the breach caused by 
the retirement of friend Holtermann from 
this department, it is with a feeling that 
perhaps we are "biting off more than we 
will be able to chew," and certainly if left 
entirely to our own devices such an outcome 
is but a logical conclusion. However, we 
feel that many bee-keepers on this side of 
the line will give us their active support; 
and to such we would say that at all times 
it will be a source of pleasure to us to have 
items of news sent in; and if any one has 
practical suggestions to offer as to how this 
page can be made of more interest to the 
apiarists of Canada in particular, these will 
be thankfully received and given due con- 
sideration. At the same time, be it under- 
stood, the editor has given me a free rein, 
and liberty to meddle in the affairs of the 
people in other parts of the country — in 
fact, has even given me the privilege of dif- 
fering with him on any matter whenever so 
prompted — a privilege pretty sure to be 
taken advantage of quite freely, and we 
warn the aforesaid editor to keep his "blue 
pencil " well sharpened. Mr. Holtermann 
was often able to give extracts from the dif- 
ferent German bee journals; and I am sorry 
to say that, from now on, as long as we are in 
charge of the department, extracts of that 
nature will be conspicuous by their absence. 
While the writer has quite a percentage of 
German blood in his veins, yet he is not 
familiar enough with the language to speak 
it, let alone make intelligent interpretations 
of printed matter. Perhaps some of our 
German friends will come to our aid. 



64 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodino 



TIME OF DAY SWARMS ISSUE, ETC. 

Would you tell us about what time in the day the 
prime swarm and after-swarms issue? My neigh- 
bors and I do not seem to agree. I claim that prime 
swarms issue only between the hours of nine in the 
morning and three in the afternoon; while one of 
my neighbors claims he has had prime swarms out 
as early as six in the morning and as late as five in 
the afternoon, and some of the others are inclined 
to share this opinion. 

Prime swarms usually issue between nine 
in the morning and one in the afternoon, if 
the weather is fair, right along day after 
day; but if there comes a rainy time, with 
clouds and cool winds, swarming is delayed, 
and then prime swarms are almost as errat- 
ic as after-swarms. Several times during 
the past forty years I have known swarms 
to be kept back by bad weather, when the 
colonies were rich in stores, till the young 
queens began to "quahk"in their cells. 
When young queens are thus mature, and 
the swarming fever has not been satisfied, I 
have known of one or two prime swarms 
coming out as early as a quarter of five in 
the morning. This was a nice, clear, warm 
morning, following a full week of weather 
when the bees were shut in by bad storms. 

Again, under similar circumstances, I had 
two swarms come between five and six 
o'clock in the afternoon, when it cleared off 
so the sun shone out warm and bright, for 
the first, at about 5 p.m. But under such 
circumstances there seems to be a division 
among the bees, a part of them taking sides 
with the young quahking queens, and the 
others with their old mother, so that, when 
such prime swarms issue, under the condi- 
tions given above, there are fewer bees with 
the swarm, and more with the ripe queen- 
cells. If the weather continues fine, 1 have 
known what is called a ' ' second swarm ' ' to 
issue two days later, with one or more of 
these young queens, and a beginner having 
no experience along this line, when such a 
state of affairs exists, rushes into print de- 
claring tliat second-swarms often come two 
days after the first one. 

Then cases are not infrequent when a col- 
ony, nearly or quite strong enough to swarm, 
loses the old mother-queen just before the 
swarming season, on which loss the bees 
start a lot of queen-cells to replace her. On 
the maturing of tliese cells, the flow of nec- 
tar becoming abundant, the bees are almost 
sure to swarm with these young queens; 
and in this case the first swarms do not hold 
to usual hours any more than do after- 
swarms, but come out at "any old time." 
If my memory serves me rightly, I once 
wrote about such first swarms with a young 
queen, calling tliem "prime swarms," when 
Dr. Miller straightened me out in great 
shape by telling the public that only swarms 
having the old or mother queen with them 
could be properly ca,Ued priine swarms. And 



Dr. Miller was right in the matter. As I 
now understand it, a prime swarm must al- 
ways be a, first swarm; but a first swarm is 
not always a prime swarm. 

And this leads me to say that an after- 
swarm always has one or more young virgin 
queens; but all swarms issuing with one or 
more virgin queens are not after-swarms. 
Regarding the time of day when after-swarms 
issue, as hinted above, there is little depend- 
ence to be placed upon them, for they come 
at any time between five in the morning 
and seven at night. However, if the weath- 
er permits continued nectar secretion, with 
a clear sky, the majority of such swarms 
will come between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m., while 
fully half may be expected between 9 a.m. 
and 1 P.M. 

WAX FROM OLD COMBS. 

This same correspondent wants me to tell 
how to render very old combs that are part- 
ly filled with pollen into wax. For such 
combs I know of no better way than the 
water plan. I prefer to put such combs in 
a sack made of burlap, tramping the sack as 
the combs are put in so as to break the co- 
coons as much as possible; for with very old 
combs these cocoons, spun one after the 
other, as the multitudinous generations of 
brood are perfected, become so thick and 
hardened that, without some care, they hold 
most of the wax in the septum of the comb 
from coming out, even with water render- 
ing. An old kettle is the best thing I know 
of for the desired purpose. Set it on three 
stones so you can build a fire under it and 
fill it two-thirds full of water. Now build a 
fire; and when the water boils, carefully 
lower the tied-up sack filled with the old 
tramped -in combs into the water. Allow it 
to rest for a few minutes till the water pene- 
trates all through it, then with an old hoe 
press and roll the sack over for about five 
minutes, when it will appear nearly empty. 

If you have more comb, bring out the 
mouth of the sack, untie and fill again, go- 
ing through the same working and squeez- 
ing with the hoe as before, and so on till the 
sack becomes two-thirds full of refuse or 
you have all your comb in. 

Now provide a piece of plank rounded 
somewhat to fit the bottom of the kettle, 
nailing another piece to it with the grain of 
the wood running in the opposite direction, 
so it will not split. Then nail through both 
to the end of a piece of scantling about one- 
third longer than the kettle is deep. Put 
the rounded-plank end on the sack, thus 
joressing it to the bottom of the kettle; and 
after hanging a heavy weight on the upper 
end of the scantling, and propping it in an 
upright position, allow the fire to go out. 
The next morning you will find the wax all 
nicely caked on top of the water in the kettle. 

[This plan of rendering will work all right 
on a small amount of comb, so that lots of 
time can be given one batch; but if there is 
quite an accumulation of comb to render, a 
good strong press will be found to yield a 
greater quantity of wax in a much shorter 
time. — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEK CULTURE 



65 



General Correspondence 



THE WINTERING PROBLEM IN ONTARIO, 
CANADA. 



A Good Depth of Sealed Honey above the Clus- 
ter a Necessity; the Winter Nest Not as 
Important as Plenty of Honey in the 
Upper Part of the Combs. 



BY J. L. BYEK. 



Notwithstanding the fact that many writ- 
ers haveclaimed that the wintering problem 
has ceased to be a problem, yet every once in 
a while (perhaps our own experience) we 
hear of heavy losses both in outdoor and 
cellar methods, proving conclusively that 
the matter of wintering of bees in the north- 
ern sections of the country is still an im- 
portant subject. That there are still widely 
different opinions on this very important 
phase of bee-keeping was brought forcibly to 
the mind of the writer as he read with much 
interest that article by the editor, p. 19, Jan. 
1, entitled, "The Winter Nest of a Colony." 

Now, while I do not profess to be an au- 
thority by any means on the matter of win- 
tering bees, yet some hard knocks in the 
way of winter losses when they could be ill 
afforded have taught me a few essentials of 
successful wintering outdoors in "our local- 
ity," and it may seem a bit strange on my 
part to have to confess that, when I saw 
that engraving entitled "An Ideal Comb to 
Form a Winter Nest," I involuntarily re- 
marked to myself, "Why, that is the very 
picture I would desire if I wanted an illus- 
tration to show what constitutes a death- 
trap in the way of outdoor wintering in a 
country with cold winters like ours." 

Before going any further I wish to say 
most emphatically that, if we found a colo- 
ny of bees in a Langstroth hive with the 
center combs like the one illustrated, hav- 
ing a depth of only about two inches of 
honey under the top-bars in the middle, we 
would put on a feeder about the first of Oc- 
tober, or earlier, and give the colony at least 
15 lbs. of syrup made on a two-to-one basis. 
Then we would feel that the colony was in 
an ideal condition for wintering, and quite 
likely the matter of an "ideal winter nest " 
would never be given a thought. 

Please let it be understood that what I 
have said and may say further is for condi- 
tions as we have them here in Central On- 
tario, about fifteen miles north of Lake On- 
tario, where the bees frequently go for four 
rnonths, and sometimes five, without a 
flight, the thermometer dropping for a day 
or two at a time to 20 below zero. However, 
I can not see how a warmer climate would 
make any difference in this matter; and, in- 
deed, from the nature of the arguments of 
the editor the very opposite should be the 
case. 

I have already called that comb a "death- 



trap," so now it is either my duty to retract 
or prove that I have reasons for using such 
an expressive term when in an argument 
with so well posted and able a debater. 

In the first place, I wish to iBake it un- 
derstood that I have not the slightest doubt 
but that thousands of colonies are wintered 
each year on combs much in the same con- 
dition as the one illustrated, simply because 
that is the natural condition the combs will 
be in, provided there has been no late fall 
flow of honey nor artificial feeding. On the 
other hand, that same condition of combs 
here in Ontario is responsible for at least 50 
per cent of the winter losses, with the possi- 
ble exception of winters when honey-dew or 
other poor stores are present in the hives. 
Last winter was mild, and the bees had an 
opportunity to have quite an early flight in 
the spring; consequently, losses from any 
causes were almost nit so long as there was 
enough honey in ani/ place in the hives to 
keep the bees from starving. Other winters 
in the past have told a different story, and 
from all indications the present winter is 
going to be an "old-fashioned" one, and I 
look for heavy losses wherever the bees 
were not well prepared in the fall, and al- 
lowed more than two or three inches of hon- 
ey below the top-bars in the center combs 
of the hives. 

The statement is made that colonies often 
starve right in the brood-nest when honey 
is only a few inches from the cluster. That 
is quite true. I have seen dozens of cases 
where the honey was all gone over the clus- 
ter, and the bees dead while there was hon- 
ey at the far ends of the combs; yet I have 
never once seen a colony dead with honey 
above the cluster. I have very serious 
doubts that a strong colony of bees ever per- 
ished in such a condition, as the very na- 
ture of the problem suggests to my mind 
that it would be an almost impossible oc- 
currence. 

This past fall and winter up to the pres- 
ent (.Tan. 7) has been very cold, and the 
bees have not had a real good flight since 
the latter part of October. Assuming that 
colonies have gone into winter quarters with 
the center combs having but two or three 
inches of honey beneath the top-bars, what 
will happen toward spring or even in Feb- 
ruary in some colonies if the present cold 
weather continues? The honey will be con- 
sumed from both sides and above the clus- 
ters, but much faster from alwve than from 
the sides, for the colder the weather the 
more rapid the consumption of stores above 
the cluster. By the time mentioned, many 
colonies will be right at the top of the combs 
with all the honey above them consumed, 
so that they will have to depend on drawing 
from the sides for future maintenance. 
With a real cold snap comes the contracting 
of the cluster away from the honey, and 
then the colony starves. Very often the 
bees thus stranded gorge themselves on pol- 
len ; and even if some of them survive star- 
vation till the weather moderates, dysentery 
later on claims them as victims. This is a 



66 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



very common condition here in Ontario, 
and I have not the slightest doubt that 
nearly all bee-keepers here in this Province 
who winter outdoors, or who have visited 
apiaries wintered outside, will bear me out 
when I say that I have not misstated con- 
ditions in any way. The remedy is obvious. 
See that the combs in the center are filled 
with good stores at least half way down; 
pack the bees away comfortably, and don't 
worry about the clustering-space for the 
bees. 

In view of my experience, and what I 
have noticed with others, I can not put the 
stress on the "cold slabs of honey" idea 
that some do; and while the theory ad- 
vanced seems reasonable, yet results are 
more convincing, and I think we are prone 
to forget that a very small clustering-space 
is necessary in real cold weather. Indeed, 
the writer of the article we are commenting 
on says that the cluster of a strong colony 
will be reduced down to a space about equal 
to that of the doubled-up fist. Personally 
we incline to the view that no strong colony 
gets into a space that small; but the small- 
er the cluster, the stronger the argument 
that only a small clustering-space is neces- 
sary. That bees do not at will come up 
among sealed combs in moderately cold 
weather is a mistaken idea — at least, my 
bees do not refuse thus to accommodate 
themselves. A few days ago, when the 
thermometer was below zero I carefully lift- 
ed the corner of different sacks of packing 
on top of the hives, and, turning up the 
quilts, looked down between the frames. 
The frames in these hives have top-bars but 
%-inch wide, so a good view could be ob- 
tained. All the colonies thus examined 
showed bees in from six to eight spaces, 
and the clusters in the most of them were 
about half way or more up the combs — said 
combs being 12 inches deep. Above the 
bees the sealed stores showed in evidence 
plainly; but in so far as I could see with 
such a slight examination, the bees were 
for the most part below the honey. To-day 
the weather is milder (20 above zero) , and a 
visit to those same colonies shows that the 
bees are clustered right under the cushions 
at the top of the combs, so at least four or 
five inches of sealed honey are covered by 
the bees with the weather as it is. 

This past fall, while talking with H. G. 
Sibbald, one of our most successful winter- 
ers, he told me the amount of feeding he 
had done to his 450 colonies in preparing 
them for winter; and while I do not feel at 
liberty to state the quantity, yet all can rest 
assured that it is not likely there is a comb 
in the whole outfit that is empty of stores 
half way up to the top-bars. I do not think 
he is worrying about the matter of cluster- 
ing-space, and it will be a big surprise to 
me if he loses a single colony from any 
cause in the line of stores. Then what 
about friend jNIcEvoy? He limits the num- 
ber of combs for the bees, and has every 
comb solid in September, so whatever clus- 
tering-space in the way of empty comb the 



bees have is made after that date. His rec- 
ord in wintering is too well known to need 
any comment. 

This article is too long already, and I will 
close by repeating that all a set of combs 
like the one illustrated needs to make them 
an ideal winter nest is the addition of 15 or 
20 lbs. of sugar syrup about Oct. 1st. 

Mt. Joy, Ont., Can. 

[There are two conditions that might 
cause our correspondent and ourselves to 
come to different conclusions. The first is, 
that it is somewhat colder in Canada than 
in the locality to which we referred; second, 
we judge by what he says that he has ab- 
sorbing cushions on his colonies, and not 
the sealed cover, which we use. At all 
events, we have every reason to believe that, 
under like environments, if the two of us 
could look over the same set of bees we 
would come to exactly the same conclu- 
sions: and, even under different conditions, 
we see evidence in Mr. Byer's article that 
goes to show that bees prefer the winter nest 
?/ they can have it. For example, turn to 
the third from the last paragraph. When 
the thermometer was below zero, Mr. Byer 
says, "So far as I could see with such a 
slight examination, the bees were for the 
most part below the honey." Exactly! and 
just what we have contended all along. 
When it turns very cold they will seek out 
these empty cells below the honey if they 
can find tliem. When it warms up they 
will move up on the sealed honey, just as 
Mr. Byer describes. There is no difference 
between us on these points. 

In the next to the last paragraph he refers 
to Mr. McEvoy as having "every comb 
solid in September; so whatever clustering- 
space in the way of empty combs the bees 
have is made after that date." This is our 
practice, when we have time to feed early 
enough; and so far Mr. McEvoy is doing 
what we would do. It is probably true in 
Mr. McEvoy's case, that the clustering- 
space is made after the combs are fed up 
solid; for from the first of September till it 
turns continuously cold the bees can make 
quite a nice little winter nest; and in our 
locality they will form one about like the 
one we illustrated in Gleanings by about 
Dec. 1. If the bees are fed early enough 
(and all bees should be fed early when pos- 
sible) they will make their own clustering- 
space, and that clustering-space will be 
about right as cold weather comes on. 

The fact that bees in a natural or undis- 
turbed state will make this space shows 
that we ought not go contrary to nature. 

In one place our correspondent has mis- 
read us. He quotes us as saying " that the 
cluster of the strong colony will be reduced 
down to a space about equal to that of the 
doubled-up fist." What we actually said 
was this: "When the temperature pulls 
down to below zero, a strong colony will be 
compressed into a space about equal to a 
doubled-up fist. ' ' Notice, we put in the con- 
dition. But we will frankly say that what 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



67 



we meant was the double fists, and we sup- 
posed that was the language until we saw 
"doubled-up fist" instead. At this point 
we stand corrected; but on the iiBportance 
of the winter nest, and letting bees make it, 
and feeding the bees early enough so they 
can make it, we do not take back one word 
— especially so as our correspondent de- 
scribes the conditions in his hives exactly 
as we find them, viz., that when it is cold 
his bees go down below the honey. And 
why ? for the very purpose of getting their 
bodies together. When the weather warms 
up, the cluster spreads on the sealed honey 
just as they do in Medina. 

We should be glad to have this question 
discussed by those correspondents who have 
opened up their bees during mid-winter, 
time and again, to see how the clusters are 
placed. In the mean time, while we have 
had letters confirming our position regard- 
ing the winter nest, we place just one of 
them, from a fellow-countryman of our cor- 
respondent, before our readers. He evident- 
ly has much the same conditions as those 
surrounding Mr. Byer; and yet his experi- 
ence has been exactly ours as the reader 
will observe. He writes: 



THE WINTER NEST BETTER THAN SOLID 
COMBS OF HONEY. 



BY J. I. BEAUHRB, C. E. F. 



I have read with interest the article by E. 
R. Root, "The Winter Nest of a Colony," 
page 19, Jan. 1. I have had similar experi- 
ences for a good many years, viz., that bees 
wintered on combs as described by Fig. 1 
came out every year ahead, both in condi- 
tion and amount of honey consumed, of 
those that were wintered on solid combs of 
honey. It seems to me that the bees spend 
more of their energy in heating these thick 
combs of honey. Bees will not waste their 
vitality in generating heat when they are 
separated by only a thin wall. But if they 
are wintered on combs that are solid with 
honey from the top-bar to the bottom-bar 
they will eat more honey in order to gener- 
ate the necessary heat needed to warm up 
this solid mass. 

Some bee-keepers notice this condition in 
wintering bees, but they do not pay enough 
attention to it; and some, even if they do 
pay attention to it, are not able to find out 
the cause. 

A few years ago I read an article in Glean- 
ings about the wintering of bees on solid 
combs of honey. If I am not mistaken it 
was a very hot argument between C. P. Da- 
dant. Dr. C. C. Miller, G. M. Doolittle, and 
several others whose names I do not remem- 
ber. Being much interested in this I start- 
ed out the following winter to find out for 
myself. The preceding fall I had six eight- 
frame colonies, three of which had solid 
combs of honey, and the other three, combs, 
as described in Fig. 1, p. 19. At one time I 
thought that the colonies in the last three 
hives would run short of stores: but on the 



1st of April, the following spring, when I 
got them out of the cellar I was surprised to 
note the ditTerence. The three colonies of 
lot No. 1, wintered on solid combs of honey, 
had eaten nearly twice as much. The colo- 
nies in lot No. 2, the preceding fall, weighed 
less than those of lot No. 1; but after win- 
tering over, they had more honey to con- 
tinue brood-rearing. The temperature in 
the cellar ran between 43 and A.Q degrees all 
through the winter. 

Since that year I have always tried to get 
the brood-nests in the same shape as de- 
cribed in Fig. 1, and I have always had suc- 
cess. Each of the combs next to the wall 
on each side of the hive is nearly solid with 
honey, the next two combs in the same or- 
der have a clear spot of about five inches in 
height and 8j^ inches in length, the top 
having the form of an arch. 

Ottawa, Can. 

[Our Mr. Bain, who \\i s had much expe- 
rience in wintering bees outdoors at Medina 
and elsewhere, says he has repeatedly found 
that bees have died where the winter nest 
has been disturbed or eliminated entirely, 
just as cold weather came on. We have re- 
peatedly observed the same thing; and Mr. 
Beauhre has had the same experience. — Ed.] 



NON-SWARMING STOCK. 



An Extended Record of the Progeny of a Queen 
Whose Colonies Rarely Swarmed. 



BY E. 8. MILES. 



In the fall of 1896 I purchased two queens 
of a well-known breeder, and introduced 
them to a couple of weak colonies, one of 
which, however, starved the winter follow- 
ing, as this was before I knew that a weak 
colony would consume nearly, if not quite, 
as much stores as a normal colony. The 
other colony came out strong in the spring, 
built up rapidly, and did so well in every 
way, besides storing more surplus than the 
average, that I was very favorably impress- 
ed with the queen; and when the bees win- 
tered again perfectly, and were able to se- 
cure enough for a living, while all of my 
other colonies had to be fed between fruit- 
bloom and clover, I decided that this queen 
was the one I wanted for restocking my 
yard. 

As this colony had not swarmed, and 
showed no signs of it, I was compelled to 
try my hand at queen-rearing. Up to this 
time I had been a believer in nature's ways, 
as a great many writers at that time laid 
great stress on the value of queens reared 
under the natural-swarming impulse, ex- 
plaining further that the only perfect queens 
were those reared by nature's methods, etc. 
However, I then had the good fortune to 
get a copy of that masterly book, " Scientif- 
ic Queen-rearing," by G. M. Doolittle, in 
which we are told how to rear the best of 
queens without violating nature. So I de- 



68 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



termined to rear some queens from this col- 
ony by the Doolittle plan. 

The season proved poor, and I was bun- 
gling in my operations, so that I succeeded 
in getting only three colonies that season, 
headed with queens from this stock. The 
next winter I lost the original colony through 
a blunder; and as the season following was 
not very good I did not make much increase, 
but did get three more queens from the 
best of the first three queens that I reared 
the season previous. However, it was a 
couple of years before I began to notice that 
the colonies having these queens seemed 
not only capable of getting a living when 
common bees had to be fed, but that they 
did not swarm. 

For about ten years after starting with 
this strain of bees, and until I probably had 
forty or fifty colonies of them, I had no 
swarms whatever, while fifty per cent or 
more of the colonies having queens of other 
stock in the same apiary swarmed, although 
they had the same treatment in every re- 
spect. 

It should be mentioned that I make no 
effort to control the mating. I always try 
to prevent a heavy production of drones of 
undesirable stock, yet sometimes there were 
a great many common drones flying. 

From 1901 to 1903 inclusive I reared a few 
queens from colony No. 7-4, whose queen 
was a granddaughter of the original queen. 
I may have lost the record of a few colonies, 
but I have a complete record of eighteen 
colonies whose queens were reared originally 
from No. 74. Of these eighteen, during 
1901, '2, '3, fourteen did not cast a swarm, 
the other four swarming once each — three 
of the four casting swarms only when con- 
ditions were more than ordinarily favorable 
for swarming, and when all colonies of com- 
mon stock were swarming excessively. 

Of the progeny of No. 74 I selected No. 32 
for a breeder, and I have before me the rec- 
ord of 79 colonies with queens from this No. 
32, which were reared during the seasons of 
1904 to 1907. Of the 79, 62 have not swarm- 
ed to date; 14 have swarmed once each, and 
3, twice. 

Now while it can not be truthfully said 
that this stock is exactly non-swarming, 
yet it must be remembered that, during all 
this time, I purchased and brought into 
this apiary over 50 colonies of common bees, 
besides having 25 or 30 colonies of various 
grades of hybrids. I have also purchased 
of breeders over two dozen Italian queens of 
different strains, and in addition to all these 
drawbacks I have not tried very hard, as I 
said before, to prevent common drones from 
flying. 

Among these colonies that have not 
swarmed are some that have superseded 
their queen themselves, a few of which have 
done this more than once. For instance, 
the breeder No. 74 that was reared in 1900 
was superseded in 1904, and the second was 
superseded in 1908, the third queen still be- 
ing in this same colony. No. 132 is a daugh- 
ter of No. 74, reared in 1903, and was super- 



seded in 1907; and the second one is now in 
this same colony, and they have never 
swarmed. No. 9 is another colony which 
has the same record. No. 3, one of the first 
reared from breeder No. 32, never swarmed. 
She was superseded in 1909. No. 24 is one 
of the four daughters of No. 74 that I men- 
tioned as swarming, yet this is hardly cor- 
rect, for the original queen in No. 74 did not 
swarm, and she was superseded when four 
years of age; her daughter swarmed only 
when I was forcing the colony to finish sec- 
tions by feeding. This season this same 
colony did not swarm, even under these con- 
ditions. 

I also wish to say that, while I was breed- 
ing these queens, I was working primarily 
for bees that would do good work in sections, 
and that were not too cross. If I had been 
selecting queens especially for non-swarm- 
ing alone I am quite certain I could have 
made more progress, for I was obliged to 
discard for breeders several colonies that 
were non-swarmers but had some other ob- . 
jectionable qualities. 

Now, I have no queens for sale, and please 
let no one ask me whether I believe I can 
breed the tail off a sheep or cat, for I have 
never seen a bobtailed cat or sheep that had 
not been operated on with the knife; but I 
can produce a strain of hornless cattle if I 
have a good muley heifer. Likewise, if I 
tried to j^roduce a non-swarming strain of 
bees I should want to start with a colony 
that would not swarm under normal condi- 
tions. I am convinced that a strain that is ^ 
practically non-swarming is entirely pos- I 
sible. " Like ])roduces like," whether color, 
shape, or disi30sition. 

Dunlap, Iowa. 



AN INCREASING DEMAND FOR COMB HON- 
EY IN CARTONS. 



The Opinion of a Comb-honey Dealer, 



BY H. R. WRIGHT. 



I should like to offer a few suggestions 
which may be of value to bee-keepers who 
have not yet ordered shipping-cases for the 
coming season. We know that there is an 
increasing demand for comb honey in car- 
tons; and bee-keepers who use the proper 
style of cartons get the best and first sales. 
I do not recommend the closed thin paper- 
box affairs, for they have brought cartons 
into disrepute, as they are so quickly glued 
fast to the bottom of shipping-cases by 
the least dripping of honey, that they are 
generally torn to pieces w^hen the honey is 
removed from the case. A stout, heavy, 
w^ood-pulp board carton, on the other hand, 
ivith no top or bottom, never sticks fast 
to the shipping-case. Such cartons pay for 
themselves in weight, as the buyer does 
not object to having the carton weighed 
with the honey. They need no glass front 
on the shipping-cases except on one section 
to show handlers the contents. Such car- 
tons can be ordered of any paper-box facto- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



69 



ry to fit any particular size of section, and 
they cost about So. 00 a thousand. 

No change is necessary, except that the 
shipping-cases must be a little larger. 
About X inch more for each section is need- 
ed lengthwise of the shipping-case, also 
sidewise, if no wedging space is ordinarily 
left. 

Any section that weighs a pound or a lit- 
tle under is all right. There are very few 
sections now that weigh over a pound. 
The cartons are especially necessary where 
plain sections are used, for the honey, being 
flush with the edge of the section, causes 
abrasion of the cappings in handling, so 
that, when the grocer wraps the section in 
paper, it almost invariably reaches the con- 
sumer in bad condition. 

Twenty years ago we were the pioneers in 
advocating sections weighing not over a 
pound, and this made a great improvement 
and increase in the sale and consumption 
of honey. V\'e should now like to see a 
standardized case of honey holding 24 sec- 
tions, and weighing from 22 to 24 pounds 
net, all sections being enclosed in these 
substantial cartons. This would save a lot 
of work, and would cause a honey-package 
to be as standard and as well known as a 
barrel of flour, etc. Odd sizes and different 
styles, varying according to the whim or 
notion of the producer, cause lots of confu- 
sion in the trade. Moreover, wholesalers 
are seldom able to duplicate an order with 
the same style, etc. 

Shipping-cases need no non-drip bottoms. 
Corrugated paper is best, but ordinary pa- 
per is sufficient protection when these heavy 
thick cartons are used. 

Albany, N. Y. 



ANOTHER COMMUNITY HIVE. 



BY LEON C. WHEELER. 



In a late issue of Gleanings a description 
is given of a community hive, and the edi- 
tor asks if any one else has had any experi- 
ence "along this line." Several years ago 
I built a hive with this idea in view; and 
while it is, of course, not the same as the 
one described, still it is the same in princi- 
ple. The original idea with me was gotten 
from the Ferris hive described in Glean- 
ings several years ago. Instead of simply 
putting two colonies together, as Ferris did, 
however, I doubled the dose as the fellow 
did who thought that, if a small dose of 
medicine was good, more would be better. 
My hive was made to hold 24 frames on a 
side with a division through the center; in 
other words, there were 48 frames in the one 
body. 

Other divisions were made in each side to 
make it into either four or eight compart- 
ments as desired. The big division through 
the center of the hive, and also the other 
cross-divisions, were all made partly of wire 
cloth, thus giving a free passage of air 
throughout the hive and giving a common 



scent to all the bees. The first year I used 
it I started it with eight nuclei which built 
up till I had a hive running over with bees 
about the close of the clover-flow. The su- 
per I used was made to hold 26 frames on a 
side, or 52 in all, with free intercouse through- 
out the whole. This was accomplished in 
the case of the division through the center 
by means of little strips of wood set a bee- 
space apart, extending the whole length 
along the bottom and about 2>< inches high. 

This super, which I put on at the begin- 
ning of the buckwheat honey-flow, was fill- 
ed full, and I extracted 127 lbs., if I remem- 
ber correctly— nearly as much as that ob- 
tained from all the other colonies in the 
yard— as this was a very poor year for buck- 
wheat. Since that year I have used the 
hive only for rearing nuclei, for which pur- 
pose it is very good; but I am confident that 
one could get an enormous amount of hon- 
ey from it by starting in the spring with 
fair-strength colonies. This would be espe- 
cially true in a poor year when the ordinary 
colonies would store but little. I rather ex- 
pect to try it again next year any way. 

To avoid trouble with queens getting in 
the wrong entrance I made some small en- 
trances at the sides of the hive to use when 
mating, which gave two entrances at each 
side of the hive, and I never had any trou- 
ble with queens getting in the wrong en- 
trance. Of course, if one were to use this 
hive for honey he would have to have a 
special apparatus to handle the supers, or 
else handle by frames. This would not de- 
ter me from using the hive, however, if I 
can get the extra honey which my experi- 
ence would seem to indicate that one might 
get by the use of this hive. 

THAT UNIVERSAL HIVE AND SECTION. 

This is a subject quite thoroughly discuss- 
ed by men better posted than I; but my 
choice of a hive is the old reliable ten-frame 
Langstroth hive with Hoffman frames; and 
I prefer the i^^Xi'/Xl'A plain sections. It 
would take quite a lot to hire me to change 
this combination, and I think you would 
find the same thing true in the majority of 
cases. 

But we all have our own ideas, and I think 
you will find it's about like talking to the 
wind to try to get bee-keepers to see near 
enough alike to accept the same styles of 
hives and sections. 

Barry ton, Mich, 



BEE-KEEPING IN MINNESOTA AND CAL- 
IFORNIA COMPARED. 



The Profits in Either Locality About the Same. 



BY F. A. GRAY, 



For the past four seasons I have been per- 
sonally operating my apiary in San Diego 
Co., Cal. I also have two apiaries in Min- 
nesota, which, during this time, have been 
run by my two sons up to August 1 of each 
season, when I return to Minnesota and 



70 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



take charge. I have been keeping bees in 
Minnesota the past fourteen years. 

I can see no reason for giving southern 
Cahfornia a black eye relative to the bee in- 
dustry, for, on the average, large returns 
are secured every other year. I can not say 
why this is, but that has been the record of 
my apiary for the past twelve years, and a 
goDd year will give much more than any 
one season in Minnesota; but, taken as a 
whole, there is about as much profit in 
Minnesota as in California. In my vicinity 
the bees in California sell for about $3.50 a 
colony in two-story extracting-hives. In 
Minnesota I can get from $5.00 to ?6.00 in a 
one-story hive. 

At the present time I do not think that 
California is overstocked. We have bees 
enough, however, for the poor seasons; but 
in good seasons many more could be kept 
on the same territory. I would advise any 
one w^ho wishes to locate in southern Cali- 
fornia to buy out an established apiary, as 
many are for sale. "While the bees gather 
honey any month in the year, yet the sur- 
plus is obtained usually only during April, 
May, June, and .July. 

jNIany will be surprised to learn that the 
reason for a poor crop is on account of too 
cool a season. My apiary is eight miles 
from the coast, and some years apiaries 
twenty miles from the coast get honey when 
I have practically a failure, the reason being 
that their locality is warmer. Rain, no 
doubt, is quite a factor; but all the plants 
are dry-weather plants, and very often with 
a little rainfall a good crop of honey is se- 
cured. Warm balmy air with heavy fogs in 
the morning gives a heavy flow of nectar. 

Mr. Gibson has touched on a very impor- 
tant factor controlling the price of honey, 
when he speaks of the importance of clean- 
liness, proper grading, and the crating of 
comb honey. Far too many go into the 
bee business who are not adapted to it. 
Having been told there is big money in 
bees they try it for two or three years, then 
realize their mistake, go out of the business, 
usually after experiencing a loss. Bees in 
any country must be run on a business 
basis, the same as any thing else. A yield 
in one season of twenty dollars per colony 
will get a lot of people into the business 
when they know nothing about it; but they 
think they can do the same the next sea- 
son, when, in fact, this yield comes only a 
very few times in the life of an experienced 
bee-keeper. 

Let no one be deceived about the amount 
of work required with bees in southern Cal- 
ifornia, at least during the honey-flow. It 
is necessary to begin to extract on Monday 
morning, and keep it up until Saturday 
night, and during a heavy flow this is hard 
work. Tiering up does not answer here as 
in Minnesota, for the honey becomes too 
cold to extract unless it is close to the 
brood-nest. I have found that the bees can 
not be run the same in California as in Min- 
nesota, for new tricks have to be learned. 
All these things, of course, cost money. 



There are some good locations for bees in 
San Diego Co. at the foot of the mountains. 
However, they are so far from the market 
that I would not care to take them up. In 
locating an apiary, I know bee-men usually 
follow the golden rule — that is, doing to oth- 
ers as they would be done by. This cer- 
tainly pays, for otherwise failure is the sure 
result. More capital is required in Califor- 
nia than in the East, the reason being that 
there must be supplies on hand for a big 
crop; and if there is an entire failure the 
supplies must be carried over for another 
season. 

Redwood Falls, Minn. 



BEES AND COLORS. 



Some Proofs that Bees are More Hostile to Black 
Clothing than to White. 



BY M. E. PBUITT. 



On one occasion we had dealings with an 
enraged colony, and I thought I would just 
pull a couple of black stockings over my 
hands (not being able to find my gloves at 
the moment) , so that I could replace a cou- 
ple of frames and put on the cover so that 
they would not so easily detect the scent of 
stings already received. Oh how I wished 
I hadn't! They just simply covered my 
hands; and when I retired from the field the 
color of my "gloves "was changed from 
black to i^epper-and-salt. 

The year before last I was wearing a navy- 
blue skirt, and the bees seemed to delight 
in puncturing it. I changed the navy blue 
for a light tan, and all was peace. 

We have a Holstein cow; and every time 
she passes by the yard, and the bees are ir- 
ritated, they invariably make for the black 
spots. 

When we are hitching up the sorrel and 
the bay horse I notice they begin operations 
on the black mane of the bay. When we 
tiave the black horse and one of the others 
together, the black comes in for the most 
points. 

Our white chickens are not molested when 
scratching in the yard; but the Minorcas 
are allowed to stay hardly long enough to 
locate a hunting-ground. 

When bees want to sting a person they 
generally make for the shaded parts, such 
as about the eyebrows, behind the ears, and 
in the nostrils; and, oh what a tender spot 
that is! 

Eola, Texas. 



About that Wasp-nest in a Section of Honey. 

In regard to that cut of a wasp-nest in a section of 
honey, page 16. Jan. 1. I will make these assertions: 

1. That wasp was what is known as a mud-wasp 
or mud-dauber; 2. The nest was put there when 
there were no bees in the super; 3. The wasp never 
passed through the brood-chamber in its trips to 
and from its nest, as bees and wasps do not har- 
monize. 

Rocky Ford, Col., Jan. P. A. S. Parson. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



71 




OUR DEPARTMENT EDITORS. SEE EDITORIAL. 



72 



i;lkaxl\'l;s i:; i^.!:i'. cl'i.tluf. 



Feb. 1 



THE OVARY O F THE QUEEN-BEE. 

BY DR. BRUBNNICH. 



All human beings, as well as plants and 
animals, were once nothing but one very 
small cell compoaed of a membrane, a nu- 
cleus, and a little protoplasm. There is al- 
most no difference between the embryonic 
cell of an elephant and that of a tiny tiy. 
By continual division from that single cell, 
two are formed; then four, eight, sixteen, 
etc., until there are millions, and with the 
multiplication of the cells their qualities 
and offices begin to differentiate themselves 
until the wonderful being is built up. In 
the first little cell there is latently contain- 
ed the whole future animal with all its va- 
rying psychic ([ualities. Is there on the 
face of the earth any thing more mysterious 
and wonderful than this minute cell, whose 
diameter is perhaps not more than j^o of 
the width of a line? 

Among the higher animals — insects in- 
cluded — the eggs are formed in a dou- 
ble organ called the ovary. With the 
help of the illustrations let us look some- 
what closely at the ovary of the bee. The 
queen, beneath the back of the abdomen, 
possesses two ovaries, each of which is 
composed of about 200 fine threads of its 
own contexture. For the beginning, near 
the breast the thread consists of cells of the 
general character, the mother cells; then 
comes the differentiation into two different 
shapes, the eggs and the dodder-cells, 
which alternate to the end. The dodder- 
cells are made up of a conglomerate of little 
cubes of albumen, in the form of a length- 
ened egg. These are for the purpose of 
nourishing the eggs and furnishing the 
necessary reserve (albumen) ; for, as we all 
know, the little embryo lives and develops 
for three days on this albumen only, with- 
out the help of nurse bees. 

To every dodder cell there belongs an 
egg, as the figures show distinctly. The 
eggs, like the dodder-cells, are very small at 
the beginning, but at the end they reach 
their full size; neither, however, changes in 
general structure. The egg consists of the 
little embryo (nucleus), the dodder-sub- 
stance, and the membrane. The latter is 
formed of thousands of prismatic cells (epi- 
thet), with chitinous membrane, each with 
its kernel (nucleus), and represents an elas- 
tic, rather firm and fine skin which serves 
to protect the egg from outside injuries. 
Where the front end of the egg touches its 
nutritive cell there is a small hole where 
there are no epithelic cells, this hole effect- 
ing the communication between the dod- 
der-cell and the interior of the egg. After 
the egg is expelled with its dodder-cell, this 
hole is the so-called mlcropyle, the only 
spot where the spermatozoids can penetrate 
into the interior. Immediately after this 
process (fecundation) the surrounding epi- 
thelic cells join closely together and thus 
shut the hole. 

The eggs at the end of the thread are the 
ripe ones, which are successively expelled. 



In the meantime the others follow, their 
places being taken by new ones that are 
formed from the young embryonic mother- 
cells at the beginning of the thread. 

The room between the different egg- 
threads is tilled partly with blood and part- 
ly with a tight web of tracheas whose finest 
terminations spin around the egg and dod- 
der-cells. 

In dissecting a fertile queen the ovaries 
may easily be seen, for they are about the 
size of a pea. Without a magnifying-glass 
one may see the little moniliforms. The 
ovaries of an unfertile queen are not as 
easily seen, as they are less solid and much 
smaller, both the eggs and dodder-cells be- 
ing shorter and thinner. But far more in- 
significant still are the ovaries of the work- 
er bee, which normally can not be seen, for 
they are too minute. In case of a laying 
worker it is possible to find the ovaries with 
some preparation; but they are also very 
slender, consisting of only about ten of the 
above-mentioned egg-threads. 

Rheinau, Zurich, 8witz. 



BEE-KEEPING FOR BEGINNERS, ILLUS- 
TRATED. 



Ten-frame Hives the Best for Either Comb or 
Extracted Honey Production. 



BY B. D. TOWNSBND. 



What hive to adopt is always an interest- 
ing proposition. A few years ago I thought 
that the solution of the question dependetl 
upon whether one produced comb or ex- 
tracted honey, and at that time I would 
have recommended an eight-frame hive of 
Langstroth dimensions for comb honey and 
a ten-frame for extracted honey. Now, aft- 
er having had experience with the ten-frame 
hive for comb-honey production, I advise 
that size for both comb and extracted hon- 
ey production. A frame of Langstroth di- 
mensions (ITfs inches long by 9's inches 
deep) is the one that I would recommend 
for either comb or extracted honey. If a 
frame shallower than the Langstroth is 
used, pollen is likely to be stored in the sec- 
tions in the supers above. Of course, this 
may be avoided to some extent by an ex- 
pert, as he is able to arrange the supers and 
manipulate them on the hives so that little 
pollen gets into the sections; but when these 
shallow hives get into the hands of the ma- 
jority of comb-honey producers, trouble be- 
gins. A frame of Langstroth dimensions is 
as shallow as I should like to use in a brood- 
chamber, and deej:) enough for an extract- 
ing- super. 

HOFFMAN FRAMES FOR BROOD-CHAMBERS. 

We are now using both loose hanging 
frames and Hoffman frames side by side in 
the brood-nests; but we are now buying 
nothing but the HolTmans, as thev are bet- 
ter for our methods of management than 
the loose frames. A somewhat different 
style of frame is used in the super or upper 



1911 



GLEANINGS IX BEE CULTURE 




ENLAEGED VIEWS OF THE EGGS AND DODDER-CELLS IN TJIE OVARY OF A QUEEN. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 




THE TEN-EKAME HIVE AS USED BY E. D. TOWN 
Fig. 1 shows the old form, and Figs. 2 and 3 the new. 
last two also show the cover raised for ventilation. 



story, however, than in the brood-nest, for 
our extracting-frames do not have the wide 
end-bars that form the self-spacing feature 
of tJie Hoffman, but, instead, they are % 
inch wide clear around, including the bot- 
tom-bars, hence they are what is known as 
the hanging or non-spaced frames. Such a 
frame has no projections to hinder the un- 
capping-knife, which is a valuable point. 
Then one may use just as many or as few in 
the upper stories as he sees fit, as they are 
spaced by hand. 

We use eight of these frames in our ex- 
tracting-supers, which are 14^ inches wide, 
the usual ten-frame size of hive. As the 
eight-frame hive is usually built 12}i inch- 
es wide, seven frames is a desirable number 
for such an upper story. There are several 
reasons for the wide spacing of the extract- 
ing-combs, the most important one being 
that the combs are thereby built out beyond 
the edge of the frame, so that they are 
"fat." Another reason is that, instead of 
ten, there are only eight combs to uncap 
and extract; furthermore, more wax is se- 
cured with the cappings than if only a very 
thin layer were removed with the knives, as 
in case of thin combs. In our experience, 
two ten-frame stories containing eight 
combs apiece may be uncapped in the same 



'I lime that would be required to 
y uncap one story containing ten 
.'li combs. 

THE HIVE I USE. 

Many times I have been asked 
for a description of the hive that 
I have adopted; and, to make ev- 
ery thing plain, some photographs 
were made of our hives, as we use 
them every day. These are shown 
in the accompanying engraving. 
We order the hives made of white- 
pine lumber cut heart side out. 
SEND. This means that, if there is any 
The warping of the lumber, there will 

be no spreading apart at the top 
and bottom of the corners — the 
opening, if anywhere, being at the center, 
where it is easily nailed up. The truth of 
the matter is, however, if the lumber is put 
together with the heart side out, and fairly 
well painted, there is no gap staring one in 
the face every time he looks at a hive. 
Most of the large hive-manufacturers have 
seen the importance of this, and, as far as 
possible, are cutting all material heart side 
to the weather. 

Hive No. 1 in the illustration is of an old- 
er pattern, showing the old style of Excel- 
sior cover and a %-inch-thick bottom-board. 
Nos. 2 and o are of the latest pattern, and 
are of the style that we are now buying. 
They are regular stock hives as manufac- 
turers list them, except that the longitudi- 
nal piece at the side of the bottom-board is 
made the whole length of the bottom-board. 
Aside from the greater rigidity of this bot- 
tom, there is a much better opportunity for 
fastening the bees in while moving. As 
the width of the bottom inside of the side 
pieces is the same as the inside width of the 
hive (14X inches) pieces of lath 14X inches 
long are nailed securely, with 3d wire nails, 
to the front of the hive so that the edge ex- 
tends down to the floor of the bottom-board, 
thus closing the entrance. This prevents 
the hive-body from "shucking" sidewise 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



75 



while being moved; and, even if there is a 
slight movement lengthwise of the bottom- 
board, no bees can get out, as the entrance- 
block slides with the hive and is held in 
place by the above-mentioned side-pieces. 

We use no division-board or follower in 
our hives, the inside furniture consisting 
merely of the ten self-spacing Hofifman 
frames as they are regularly listed. 

We have some covers so built that a thin 
inner cover is necessary, so that two covers 
have to be handled at each opening of the 
hive. There may be some advantages in 
these double covers, but we have decided 
there is not enough in them to offset the ex- 
tra work of handling two instead of one. 
The Excelsior covers as shown in the en- 
gravings are very good, and we are now buy- 
ing that style exclusively. 

VENTILATION DURING HOT WEATHER. 

In Figs. 2 and 3 the covers are raised a 
little and slid forward until the rear cleat 
rests on the back of the hive-body. This 
forms a V-shaped opening the whole length 
of each side of the hive. This is the way 
that we ventilate our hives during the time 
between taking off the early m hite honey 
and the darker fall flow (in those locations 
where we get a late flow), and also in loca- 
tions where no supers are put on the hives 
after the early white honey is removed. 
This ventilation is needed during the hot 
weather following the white honey-flow, for 
the colonies are rather strong in numbers at 
this time of the year; and if we were to crowd 
the bees into a single story they would clus- 
ter out on the front. We also follow this 
same plan for ventilation during extremely 
hot weather during the honey-flow. 

While all, or nearly all, of our hive-bot- 
toms are reversible, one side having a yi- 



inch entrance and ttie other %, we use the 
^-inch side exclusively, depending upon 
the ventilation at the top, as described, 
when needed, as we think that the smaller 
entrance is better at other times. It must 
be remembered that I am not writing for lo- 
cations or states south of me, but for my 
own location, where there are but few hot 
days when there is need of more ventilation. 
Remus, Mich. 



BEE-KEEPING 



IN THE HIGHLANDS 
MEXICO. 



OF 



Yucca-trunk Bee-hives; Running Bees for Wax 
Only; Bitter Honey. 

BY O. B. METCALFE. 



Continued from last issue, page 50. 

My next stop after leaving Monterey was 
at San Luis Potosi. Here I soon learned, 
by making inquiry, of Mexicans about the 
park, that there were some bees kept in the 
city, but that in the low hot lands toward 
Tampico there are a great many bees and 
professional bee-keepers among the na- 
tives. However, I could not learn of a sin- 
gle modern bee-keeper in tbat region. It 
seems that the native bee-keepers run bees 
more for wax, the honey being of an inferior 
quality. 

For a few cents I hired an old Mexican to 
conduct me to the house of a professional 
bee-keeper who spends part of the time in 
San Luis Potosi, and keeps a few stands of 
bees there, but who has the bulk of his bees 
at Liones. Figs. 1, 2, 3 were taken at his 
home in San Luis Potosi, and show, accord- 
ing to all accounts, the type of hive used in 
the Tampico region. 

Fig. 1 shows the arrangement of the hives 




Fia. 1. 



-YUCCA-TRUNK BEE-HIVES AT SAN LUIS POTOSI, MEXICO, SHOWING ARRANGE- 
MENT OF HIVES ON SCAFFOLD ALONG ADOBE WALL. 



(iLEAXIXCS IX BKK C'ULTrRE 



Feb. 1 




FIG. 2. — BEES CLUSTERED IN THE FRONT OF YUCCA- 
TRUNK HIVES AT SAN LUIS POTOST, MEXICO. 



on ix rack against an adobe Mall. They are 
commonly kept in this manner except that 
they are not always along an adobe wall. 

Fig. 2 shows fairly well the structure of 
these Mexican hives. The trunk of a yucca 
or a small palm is cut off about four or five 
feet long, and hollowed out. In this the 
swarm is hived and a plug of the same ma- 
terial is set in front to keep out most of the 
weather. Over these spongelike hives some 
water-shedding substance is spread to pre- 
vent the rain from soaking them. Fig. o 
shows one of these hives with the end plug 
taken out and the bees smoked back so as 
to show the natural honey-comb. The bees 
build from their brood in the middle both 
ways; and when the liollow is full to both 
ends the Mexican bee-keeper is ready to 
"take ofT honey." Beginning at the large 
end shown in the cut, the operator keeps 
smoking the bees back and cutting out the 
honey until he reaches the brood. If he is 
a practical bee-keeper he leaves the honey 
in the little end for the bees at all times. 

These yucca-trunk hives are much more 
practical than they would at first sight ap- 
pear, and the owner of the ones shown in 
the cuts claims to get from them an average 
of from ISO to 240 lbs., according to the sea- 
son. I can see easily enough that, with 
these hives, which cost nothing but a few 
minutes' labor, a great quantity of honey 
could be taken with little expense. If the 
honey were of too low a grade to sell, it could 
be fed back to the bees, and the wax sold at 
the good price it brings in Mexico. There 
were, however, some two or three carloads 



of honey exported from Tam- 
l)ico this year, and that shows 
that some of it, at least, is sal- 
able at some figure. As to the 
l)ees making from ISO to 240 
lbs. i)er colony. I have my 
doubts; for, by talking a long 
lime about times of taking 
honey, etc., with the old man 
I am speaking of, I surmised 
ihat he really got about half 
that amount. 

As I have said before, this old 
San Luis Potosi bee-keeper has 
bees at Liones, about 100 miles 
away. He claims that at Liones 
the honey is made mostly from 
a weed which grows abundant- 
ly on the hills, and that it is 
fco bitter it can not be eaten, 
and that, therefore, he runs his 
bees there exclusively for wax. 
So liere I had found a bee- 
keeper who kept bees for the 
production of wax only. I was 
at once very much interested, 
for this was one of my Mexican 
get-rich-quick ideas; but as soon 
as I began to talk to this old 
man about his methods of ren- 
dering wax and preparing it for 
market I saw that the plan had 
been pretty well tried, for there 
seemed to be little that I know 
of modern wax craft that he did not know, 
even to the bleaching of beeswax in thin 
sheets by sunlight. They melt up the hon- 
ey and wax after straining out what honey 
they can, and then dip off the wax, about 
as we do. The refuse is then transferred to 
strong sacks which are securely fastened by 
one end to a tree or post. A small strong 
stick to twist with is then folded in the oth- 
er end, and the sack is wrung as long as 
any wax drips. As the pure wax begins to 
cool, wet boards are dipped into it and the 
thin scales of wax which adhere to them are 
scaled off and laid in the sun to bleach. In 
this shape it brings the best price for mak- 
ing candles to burn in the churches. They 
all shake their heads, and say there is no 
supplying the demand for this wax at $1.00* 
per pound. 

Leaving San Luis Potosi early in the 
morning I had a splendid opportunity to 
study the flora as we traveled south toward 
the city of Mexico. Very soon after leaving 
San Luis Potosi the railroad is along the 
edge of a great valley in which there are 
many farms, and a few alfalfa -fields are 
seen "here and there. Getting off at the nu- 
merous stations I learned that a few colo- 
nies of bees were kept all along. At .Taral 
de Berrios I was told that a good many bees 
were kept, but that the honey was dark and 
strong. The Mexican I was talking to on 
the station platform said that some ate the 
honey, but not many, and that it would 
not sell. He said they took the wax to San 

* Equivalent to 50 cts. in American money. 



1911 



(^LEAXIXOS IX BKE Cl'F/l I'llK 



Luis Potosi, 
and that par- 
ties there made 
the profit on it. 
At this point 
I noticed a 1 1 
along the foot- 
hills a growth 
of yellow weed 
— a strong 
shrubby ])eren- 
nial something 
like the yellow 
dock from 
which our bees 
make a strong 
yellow honey 
in the fall. I 
imagine that it 
is from this 
w^eed that the 
bees along this 
valley make 
the bad honey. 
Further on, 
the railroad 
climbs out of 
the valley on 
to a high table- 
land country, 
and in places 




FIG. o. — NATURAL HONEY-COMB IN YUCCA TRUNK 
POTOSI, MEXICO. 



HIVE, SAN hVlS 



there were patches a few miles square com- 
pletely covered by a diminutive suntlower. 
It did not grow over a foot high, but was 
evidently of the genus Helianthus with our 
common sunflower, and I should think that 
bees would do well on it in the fall. 

About the line of the state of Guanajuato, 
which is one of the most fertile states of the 
republic, among the highlands, I saw the 
first chayotillo plants, but not enough in 
any one place for a bee location. The chay- 
otillo plant is, perhaps, Mexico's greatest 
honey-plant, and in another article I expect 
to discuss it and give a picture of it. 

Mesilla Park, New Mexico. 



EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. 



A Study of the Conditions and Environments 
which Have a Bearing on the Cure. An Ex- 
planation of a Great Many Failures. 



BY F. B. CAVANAGH. 



Jn Three Chapters. Chapter One. 



When we located at Hebron, two years 
ago, it was with a certain knowledge that 
European foul brood, commonly called 
black brood, existed in the vicinity. At 
that time our law had not been passed pro- 
viding for an inspector, and black bees were 
suffering considerably from the disease. 
One fact stood forth, however, that honey 
crops were still being secured, and this de- 
cided me in coming here. I took the chance, 
trusting to my past experience in shipping 
bees to abridge my supply in case the dis- 
ease reduced the number of colonies. Friends 
thought the move a mistake, which it no 



doubt was from a rational standpoint. How- 
ever, not being built on rational lines I 
wanted to "know" from actual experience 
— to " beard the lion in his den," as it were. 
I therefore shipped some SOO colonies into 
that diseased location, all of which were 
healthy. Believe me, though, that lion 
was the most ferocious monster I had ever 
met, and it had me badly seared before the 
summer was half over, although 1 did not 
cease fighting. 

As I relate the following experience with 
European foul brood it is wnth the realiza- 
tion that I have been favored in many w^ays. 
Our foul-brood law, recently passed, has 
proven efficient under the splendid organiz- 
ed work of our inspector, Mr. Demuth. The 
disease has, by the application of advanced 
methods, and with Italian bees, proven 
more easy to cure than I at first anticipat- 
ed. While we have secured but little honey 
during the past two years, I am glad to 
have had the experience of winning a real 
battle with the disease; and the following is 
given with the hope that it may help other 
bee-keepers to defeat the enemy. 

During the spring of 1909 I made the fol- 
lowing shipments: About April 20 the Ayles- 
worth yard of three-banded golden Italians, 
Cyprians, Carniolans, and Caucasians; May 
20, the George yard, from Wisconsin, which 
was excellent stock, about half dark hybrids 
and the rest three-banded Italians. .lune 5 
I purchased the Berdine yard of 50 hives, 
about half Moore's strain and the rest dark 
hybrids. In all there were about 300 colo- 
nies, all of which were healthy. 

The disease soon made its appearance in 
every yard; but in each case I was sooner or 
later advised by some neighbor that ray 



78 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



bees had robbed his hives. Also in every 
case, when inspecting later, I found these 
neighbors' yards diseased. My bees, being 
principally Italians, were easily identified, 
and lined to the nearest apiary. Realizing 
now that the location must be cleaned up if 
a permanent cure were made, I finally con- 
sented to act as deputy inspector, covering 
as much territory as possible surrounding 
my yards. This trip, unfortunately, caused 
some temporary bad feeling among neigh- 
bors who failed to grasp at once the intent 
of the law; but, happily, the work proved a 
success in eradicating the disease. 

We used the McEvoy treatment entirely, 
and also required disinfection of hives by 
burning them out after burying the diseas- 
ed combs. Black bees prevailed in these 
small apiaries; yet where the work was faith- 
fully performed I know of no failures in the 
cure. 

My story shall deal principally with ex- 
periments, systems, and results, actually 
obtained in my own and neighbors' apiaries. 
I shall draw some conclusions and advance 
some theories; but the latter, however, are 
given merely for what they are worth and 
with the earnest hope of contradiction and 
correction by any brother who may know 
better; for as yet we are too ignorant of 
this disease to be sure of theories. 

Dr. Phillips and Dr. White, at Washing- 
ton, D. C, are studying the disease from a 
bacteriological standpoint. It has proven a 
tough proposition, acting in most uncertain 
and unreasonable ways. As Dr. Phillips 
aptly remarks, "The man who knows the 
least about the disease, usually thinks he 
know the most." When the work at Wash- 
ington shall have been completed, the ex- 
citing cause determined, and other intricate 
l^roblems worked out concerning bacilli and 
spores, we may then learn things which will 
call for material changes in our treatment. 
We now know that, when we do certain 
things under certain conditions, the disease 
becomes cured; but having, perhaps, done 
several things, or having done the same 
thing under peculiar circumstances, we can, 
in reality, only conjecture the real cause of 
the cure. Until these problems shall have 
been worked out, therefore, we can not af- 
ford to accept too seriously a mere theory. 

SYMPTOMS OF EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. 

Early stages show an occasional dead lar- 
va (unsealed) apparently about four or five 
days old, and which is slightly yellow or 
cream-colored. Sometimes the larva will 
extend the length of the cell in a partially 
dried-down dark-colored scale. Mature 
brood may be found hatching, but there 
will be scattering open cells in the midst 
where larvtB have died and been cleaned 
out. The unsealed larvae are invariably the 
principal sufferers. 

Advanced stages show only an occasional 
young bee hatching and but little sealed 
brood; some cells will be found containing 
dead larvti; with the cappings broken into, 
and the diseased combs filthy and ill-smell- 
ing. The majority of cells will be found un- 



sealed, containing dead larv* in all stages, 
and varying from a yellow to a dark muddy 
color. The older larvse slump into a shape- 
less irregular mass on the bottom or side of 
the cell, while the younger ones are some- 
times curled up in a natural position. In 
rare cases the mass will rope out for about 
half an inch, but never any thing like 
American foul brood. Also the diseased 
matter occasionally assumes a salve-like 
granular ajipearance. It is then almost 
chocolate-colored and ill-smelling, and it 
lies on the bottom of the open cell. 

Where the disease has been treated, mild 
returning cases may be detected most sure- 
ly by a scattered appearance of the brood. 
This condition is usually found among Ital- 
ians which are doing a good job of cleaning 
out dead larvae, but whose queen is not up 
to standard. Such colonies should in no 
case be overlooked, for they are not only un- 
profitable, but they are sources of future 
danger and contagion as well. 

ELEMENTS OR SOURCES OF CONTAGION. 

Infected honey is, no doubt, the principal 
cause for the spread of this disease from one 
apiary to another. In my yards, in every 
instance it was started through easily trace- 
able robbing. Mr. Simmins, an English 
authority on European foul brood, suggests 
that the infection may be carried on the bod- 
ies or feet of the robbers by reason of their 
fighting in masses over filthy brood. He also 
suggests that honey might be mixed with 
material from diseased cells if these combs 
were extracted. No doubt honey on the 
market might be thus infected; but I dis- 
like very much to think that any bee-keep- 
er would violate a pure-food law, and, fur- 
thermore, a law of common decency, by ex- 
tracting and selling honey from combs con- 
taining diseased material. However correct 
this theory may be, I feel satisfied that 
there are times when honey may be infect- 
ed in other ways than the above, and I offer 
the following examples as positive proof 
that colonies under certain conditions will j 
contract European foul brood from diseased ■ 
honey. One bee-keeper in southern Indiana i 
fed his bees honey which was purchased of 
Mr. Alexander about the time the disease 
was in his yards. Another case was brought 
to my notice where a small dealer in honey 
allowed the bees to clean out cans in which 
he had purchased honey. The infection 
which was started in the apiaries of these 
men was clearly of this origin, for no such 
trouble had ever been known in the vicinity 
of either. Admitting, as we do, that these 
men were extremely careless, let us forever 
explode the theory that the germs of Euro- 
pean foul brood can not be carried and trans- 
mitted to bees through the medium of honey. 

During the inspection of Indiana, in 1909, 
our force found that about one-half of the 
new swarms from diseased apiaries carried 
the disease with them, or at least they show- 
ed it at the first hatching of brood. Was 
the disease carried in honey? did the nurse 
bees carry it? or was it transmitted in some 
other way? Those who have had experience 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



79 



are entitled to several guesses on these ques- 
tions. 

Another element of contagion we found 
in old combs which had contained diseased 
larvae when the bees had died. A small 
bee-keeper had sold hives having a small 
piece of this comb attached for "a starter," 
and which proved to be a fine "starter " for 
foul brood, and that with the first hatching. 
Remember, then, that, while combs can be 
cleaned out and safely used by methods I 
will give later, until this is accomplished 
they must not be used from a colony that 
has died in a diseased apiary — at least, not 
for hiving new swarms thereon. 

Disease is spread in the hive through the 
nurse bees eating the juices of the dead lar- 
vae while cleaning them out. I have seen 
as many as three at a time doing this, and, 
as Dr. Miller suggests, the infected milky 
fluid is no doubt fed back to other unsealed 
larvae, thus giving them the disease. 

Here we have at least three mediums of 
contagion — honey, old comb, and diseased 
larvae. How many more there are is diffi- 
cult to surmise; but it seems certain that 
the disease is transmitted through the air 
from one hive to another. Frequently I 
have found one-half, more or less, of a row 
in an apiary where nearly every hive was 
diseased, while the remainder of the row 
were almost entirely free from the trouble. 
Also some very weak colonies in the George 
yard, which were practically used up by 
poor wintering, followed by long confine- 
ment in shipping, became the worst diseas- 
ed soon after the strong colonies had devel- 
oped the malady from robbing. 

Hebron, Ind. 

To be continued. 



THE HAND SYSTEM OF CONTROLLING 
BEES, 



How to Manage when All Colonies are Strong 
May 1, 



BY J. B. HAND. 



I have received the following inquiry from 
a subscriber whose home is in New York. 
As there may be others who would like fur- 
ther information along the line mentioned 
in his letter I will reply here. The com- 
munication is, in substance, as follows: "I 
am especially interested in the Hand sys- 
tem of controlling bees as described in re- 
cent numbers of Gleanings. Now, Mr. 
Hand, in case you had 100 colonies in sec- 
tional hives all strong May 1st, with a fair 
prospect of a copious honey-flow, how would 
you manage them for the production of 
comb honey with no increase? ' ' 

In the first place, the condition that you 
mention, that of having 100 colonies all 
strong May 1, would be an abnormal one 
for the latitude of New York, where bee- 
keepers as a rule consider themselves fortu- 
nate if 75 per cent of their colonies are in 
that condition by May 15. At least that is 
the condition that usually prevails in North- 



ern Ohio, which is considerably south of 
New York. However, if we had 100 colo- 
nies in the condition mentioned May 1st or 
15th, we would lose no time in giving them 
each a third division to increase the capaci- 
ty of the brood-chamber; if nectar were being 
gathered in excess of present needs I would 
provide also a super of extracting-combs 
above a queen-excluder, for these strong col- 
onies must not be allowed to contract the 
swarming fever at any time, and especially 
at this stage of operations. 

When the harvest from clover has nicely 
begun, and the prospect bids fair for a copi- 
ous flow followed, perhaps, by another from 
basswood, let no one wait until the bees are 
on the verge of swarming, but nip the 
swarming impulse in the bud in the follow- 
ing manner: Assuming that each colony is 
provided with a double switch-board, place 
the top division, containing honey and bees, 
but no brood, down on the vacant side of 
the switch-board beside colony No. 1. Ex- 
change the central comb for a comb of brood 
and bees from No. 1, including the queen. 
Upon this division place another, contain- 
ing frames filled with fouadation; put on a 
queen-excluder and a super of sections, and 
throw the switch. In 48 hours practically 
all the flying bees will have joined the new 
swarm through their accustomed entrance, 
and all that will be left in No. 1 will be a 
hive full of brood and a lot of young bees 
that have not yet flown from the hive, 
which will be sufficient to care for the un- 
sealed brood. However, if the nights are 
cool, and it is feared that some of the brood 
might perish for want of bees to maintain a 
normal temperature, one of the safety-valves 
on the side should be opened a few days be- 
fore shifting, to retain sufficient bees to 
meet the exigency, so that no brood is lost. 

In about a week there will be a consider- 
able force of young bees flying from No. 1, 
which are in turn switched over to re-en- 
force the swarm, which will be continually 
increasing in numerical strength during the 
next three weeks. At the time of making 
the second shift, place a specially construct- 
ed bee-escape in the entrance of No. 1 back 
of the switch-lever, which is pushed up 
tight against it. The exit from this dis- 
charges the bees close to the main entrance, 
into which the returning bees from No. 1 
must enter, since no bee can again enter 
that hive. When the brood has hatched 
and the bees have all been transferred to 
the swarm automatically, the hive and 
combs may be used as desired. 

If there is any foul brood in the apiary, 
this system will eradicate it without any ex- 
tra manipulation, and without interfering 
with the honey crop; in which case, how- 
ever, we would use full sheets of foundation 
in both divisions of the new hive and make 
sure that the comb of brood came from a 
healthy colony. Thus by working in har- 
mony with the instinct of bees we pay trib- 
ute to nature. The swarming instinct is 
satisfied, and the bees are placed in that 
highly desirable psychological condition 



80 



GLEANIXCIS l.\ JiEE CULTURE 



Feb 1 



that is essential to best results in honey 
production, and winch can neither be pro- 
duced nor maintained in any other way. 

In case full-depth hives are used we would 
place upon the hives early in the season a 
full-depth upper story of extracting-combs 
above a queen-excluder, which, at the be- 
ginning of the harvest, is used for a new 
brood-chamber exactly as above described. 

The secret of successful swarm control is 
not in swarm prevention (a thing that ex- 
ists only in the minds of brainless philoso- 
phers), but, rather, in swarm control by 
forestalling the event by substituting the 
artificial for the natural. 

Birmingham, Ohio. 



BEE DEMONSTRATIONS ONE OF THE FREE 
ATTRACTIONS AT A STREET FAIR. 



BY M. B. BOND. 



At our street fair last October I gave dem- 
onstrations with bees every day, a feature 
which was advertised at 4 p. m. for each day 
in the printed programs, together with high 
dives, bicycle dives, etc., at other hours in 
the day. 

My cage was 6 ft. square and 6 ft. high, 
and was made of inch strips covered with 
wire cloth. It was erected in the center of 
the street on a platform supported on tres- 
tles, which placed it above the crowd. For 
the demonstration I used a colony of black 
bees that I purchased from a neighbor; and 
as there was brood in all stages I made spe- 
cial explanations in regard to it, and the 
crowd seemed to appreciate it very much 
when I told about the time required for the 
bees to hatch, mature, etc. 

Each day I shook the bees from the 
combs in a large pan, and tumbled them 
around in the pan until they would form in 
a ball, then put a ball of bees first in one 
hand and then the other, then in my hat, 
and finally I placed the hat on my head. 
1 then threw my head back and shook the 
bees into my mouth, at which moment the 
crowd held their breath, thinking I would 
be stung to death. I had paper cones, like 
ice-cream cones, that I filled with bees and 
offered to sell, etc. I wore a thin gauze 
shirt with two-inch sleeves fitting tightly 
about the arms. It had a low neck, but 
there was little chance for bees to get under 
it. I also had bicycle-guards on my trou- 
sers, so that the bees could not crawl up. 

By giving the bees a few puffs of smoke 
at the entrance before opening the hive I 
had no trouble in doing any thing with 
them that I wished. I made the demon- 
stration for four successive days, closing 
the entrance in the evening with wire cloth 
and keeping it closed until I was ready to 
make the demonstration the next day. I 
was obliged to do this, as I kept the cage 
covered all the time. 

Some said I had taken a vinegar bath, 
and others thought the bees were chloro- 
formed. Some one started the story that I 
had clipped the stings from the bees; but 



\\lien I ollercil them a handful they de- 
clined lo accei)t them. I exhibited modern 
hi\es, together with tools and materials 
used; and the last day of the fair the street 
was so crowded for a block that many could 
not get close enough to see. 
Winimac, Ind. 



MINNESOTA BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 



Report of State Meeting. 



BY C. A. PALMER, SEC. 



Those who attended the sessions of the 
Minnesota State Convention in Minneapo- 
lis, Dec. 7 and 8, 1910, returned to their 
hoaies hapjoily conscious of having learned 
much in regard to obtaining more than or- 
dinary crops of honey. 

The program was certainly well stocked 
with pointers from professional men. E. L. 
Hoffmann, of Janesville, who secured, dur- 
ing 1909, from his 100 colonies, an average 
of 100 lbs. of honey per colony, was present, 
and explained his full method. Mr. Hoff- 
man is an enthusiastic student of bee cul- 
ture, and his knowledge of methods prac- 
ticed by prominent bee-men of the country, 
combined with his own lifelong experience, 
makes him especially interesting as a speak- 
er, and helpful in answering questions. 

Dr. L. D. Leonard, of Minneapolis, gave 
an exjilanation of his method of getting rid 
of foul brood. Those who heard Dr. Leon- 
ard could not doubt that his unique meth- 
ods solve this vexing problem successfully. 
It is a method very easy to follow, besides. 

Both these papers were strengthened 
much by the fact that the speakers made 
use of actual hives with frames of comb and 
all other fixtures, except the bees, to make 
their meaning unmistakable. The talks 
were thus real demonstrations. 

A great deal of interest was also elicited 
by the demonstration given by C. F. Green- 
ing, of Grand Meadow. He used small hive 
models to show his way of getting the great- 
est amount of honey from the smallest 
number of colonies with the least work, and 
also to show his plan of controlling swarm- 
ing. An effective commentary on the suc- 
cess of Mr. Greening's methods was the fact 
that Lyman Smith, of Wayzata, who had 
Mr. Greening a year ago, put the plan into 
practice the past season, and was rewarded 
with 2000 lbs. of honey from only ten colo- 
nies. 

A committee was appointed to consider 
needed changes in the State law concerning 
foul-brood inspection. Action was also 
taken looking toward the securing of recog- 
nition for the bee-keeping industry in Min- 
nesota by the creation of a chair of apicul- 
ture in the Agricultural College. 

The association endorsed the resolution 
passed by the National Association at the 
conclusion of President York's address at 
the Albany meeting. The Minnesota offi- 
cers feel hopeful that the next National 
meeting will be held in this State. 

St. Paul, Minn. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



81 



Our Homes 

By A. I. Root 



Who forgiveth all thine Iniauitles; who healeth 
all thy diseases.— Psalm 103 : 3. 

For he knoweth our frame: he reniembereth that 
we are dust.— Psalm 103 : 14. 

Wherefore let him that thlnketh he standeth take 
heed lest he fall.— I. Cor. 10 : 12. 

A few days ago my heart was made glad 
by the sight (oace more) of some of the fa- 
miliar handwriting of our good friend E. E. 
Hasty, and here is the letter: 

Brother Hoot: — Yesterday's Gleanings, where you 
confess to such a bad memory, moves me to write 
you about the subject. We too easily settle down 
in the belief that it can't be helped. I feel convinc- 
ed that to a certain extent it can be helped. You 
are among the foremost (a la Terry and others) to 
help the body's disposition to go to the bad. Is the 
body of so much more value than the mind that it 
must have all the pi'opping up, while the mind goes 
completely to pieces with no effort to save it? 

Some three years ago or more my memory got in- 
to a desperately bad condition [couldn't shut the 
milk-valve before I strained the milk ini ; utter ina- 
bility to get along with the daily duties of life seem- 
ed just ahead; and a solemn feeling that something 
must be done about it came upon me pretty strong. 
Not far from the same time I read some remarkable 
articles in a magazine written by a doctor in Phila- 
delphia. The gist of the matter was that the failure 
of the faculties could be halted, and in some meas- 
ure recovered — yes, better memory and better senses 
and better thinking be secured by persistent mas- 
saging of the head and neck. 

Well, I went in pretty strong; have kept it up ever 
since, with brief intervals. As for results, I must 
admit that my memory is still pretty bad; but I 
think it is not so extremely bad as it was three 
years ago. And surely to have prevented the natu- 
ral further deterioration for the three years between 
67 and 70 is doing a good deal. 

The why and wherefore of the thing was not put 
Into very clear words in that doctor's papers; but I 
take it to be something like this: A refreshed and 
aroused condition of living tissues tends to commu- 
nicate Use.'/ to tissues nearest by: and thus, although 
we can not massage the brain directly, we can indi- 
rectly. 

And I take it that this is not a matter of a few 
days nor even a few weeks, but a matter comparable 
to the grinding of a pretty big facet on a diamond 
— those need not begin who have not persistence to 
keep on awhile. 

The doctor seemed careful not to say one word 
about the modus operandi. I had to invent all that 
for myself. 1 think I did fairly well at inventing 
and learning a modus. 

The time I chose was just before I got up in the 
morning, while still lying in bed — wouldn't do lor 
two-in-a-bed arrangements. It is important enough 
to justify some changes to one-in-a-bed arrange- 
ments. 

As for me, I use it in company with other mas- 
sages and motions conducted at the same time, but 
having different objects in view. All of them, with 
the desirable intervals between, take about an hour. 
These which I am now recommending to you take 
about fifteen or twenty minutes. 

One difficulty that I encountered at first was that 
the arms, having to work in an unnatural position, 
and higher that the heart, got bloodless and awful- 
ly tired too soon. That gradually improved until 
at present I seldom think of it. I used to make 
haste to straighten arms down aside, and let the 
blood flow into them again, while the rocking of my 
head was in progress; for forcible rocking of the 
head from side to side is one resource that I think 
very highly of. 

But my experience with rocking seems to give a 
hint that it may be dangerous for some persons. 
My eyeswould get suffused with blood by the burst- 
lug of little vessels. After the first few weeks there 
was no more of that — nature evidently strengthened 
her works to match her mauling. 



This rocking exercise can't very well be done 
standing up— and that's the main objection to hav- 
ing the whole performance someother time or place. 
And if you should happen to take on this I will glad- 
ly tell you more about it. 

Toledo, O., Dec. 6. E. E. Hasty. 

I don't know how many times I have read 
the above letter over and over, and every 
time I read it it takes a mighty hold on me. 
By all means tell us more about it, friend 
Hasty. I think it must be about three 
years ago when I first began to feel I was 
"going to pieces "in regard to memory. 
There were certain things I could remember 
and other things I could not remember. For 
instance, my great and grievous trouble was 
(and to a great extent is even yet) to re- 
member to put my letters in the mail-box 
when I went after my mail every day. Our 
postofRce is about a mile away; and every 
evening when I take up my eggs I go to the 
office; and as it is troublesome and untidy 
to tear open letters that have been once 
sealed, I do not seal any of my letters until 
I have looked over my mail to see that there 
is not a postscript to be added to one or 
more of them. Now, the trouble comes in 
here; even when young, and through all my 
life, whenever I give my whole undivided 
attention to any important matter I become 
more or less oblivious to all that is going on 
around me. This is especially true when I 
have some hard problem to solve; and I often 
say, "Just let me have this thing all by my- 
self and I will make it come, you see if I 
don't." In taking charge of a great busi- 
ness, as I did for so many years, there were 
often times when I could not be let alone. 
A train was due, or a gang of men were idle 
until I could make a decision. Well, I dis- 
covered long ago that this pulling me oflf by 
force, as it were, from one thing to another, 
was exceedingly wearing on the nerves: and 
it is not at all strange that I finally broke 
down and had to call the boys home from 
college. 

Now let us get back to the postoffice. 
When I began to open the letters of most 
importance, and give my mind wholly to 
the contents, I forgot every thing else; and 
if there was nothing to be added to any of 
the letters in my pocket I forgot all about 
them, and did this thing ove?' and over 
again. I "turned over a new leaf," made 
a mighty resolution that I would never be 
guilty of such a silly trick again, and did 
all right for perhaps a couple of weeks, and 
then I was back at the old habit again. I 
think I had better confess to you that I wor- 
ried and prayed over this thing (yes, pray- 
ed) until the sight of the postoffice almost 
threw me into a nervous chill, and then I 
went and did that very same thing, in spite 
of the "nervous chill." Once when I for- 
got some letters that were very important I 
went straight back to the office; and, al- 
though I was mad every foot of the way, I 
came home with the letters still in my pock- 
et. There were a few other errands besides 
the letters, it is true; and by some queer 
feature of the matter I seemed capable of 
remembering every thing except to post the 



82 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



letters I had taken so much pains to write. 
I seemed to be like the little girl who came 
in crying because she could not count the 
chickens. She said she counted them all 
but one, and that one ran about so "ever- 
lastingly" she could not count it. Mrs. 
Root laughed about it and said it was be- 
cause I still had too much care and worry, 
and suggested I should stop trying to raise 
so many chickens, etc.; but I told her I 
should die sure if I was not kept busy at 
something. 

After praying over the matter as I have 
told you, I soon began to see that this trou- 
ble was worse when I did not feel real well, 
especially when my digestion was bad; and 
when I dropped my suppers, as I have told 
you about at length, there was at once a verj^ 
marked improvement. After I took up a 
daily sponge bath, as I have also explained 
at length, there was another very great im- 
provement; and as I took this sponge bath 
I have practiced massaging, something as 
friend Hasty refers to, as nearly as I can 
make out. 

I tried many expedients to overcome the 
trouble. For instance, I kept all my letters 
in my hand when I went into the office; but 
I was compelled to lay them on the desk 
w^hen I opened my mail, and then I, like an 
idiot, went off and left them all on the desk, 
which was worse than leaving them in my 
pocket. Of course I could have carried my 
letters in my hand and mailed them before 
taking my mail out of the box; but I did 
not once propose giving way a single iota to 
this strange infirmity, for where would it 
end? 

It has doubtless occurred to more than 
one of you that my account of battling with 
this infirmity sounds strangely like battling 
with real sin; and, to come right down to 
the truth of it, forgetting is a sin, and at 
times a most grievous sin. Witness the loss 
of life and limb that has resulted several 
times lately where a motorman has forgot- 
ten himself and run on some other car's 
time. Let me digress a little: 

Years ago, before I became a Christian, I 
got to thinking one Sunday afternoon about 
a certain thing in my life that needed cor- 
rection, and really had to be corrected. I 
remember vividly going out alone into the 
woods and sitting down on a log and think- 
ing it over. After some serious meditation 
1 arose, and, raising my right hand, took a 
solemn oath before God that henceforth and 
for ever I would he free from this thing that 
threatened my peace, my happiness, and 
my life. I have just been reminded of this 
incident by what our good pastor and others 
have been saying about "New Year's reso- 
lutions," as this is only the third day of 
.January as I write. Do you remember 
when Peter said, "Though 1 should die with 
thee, I will not dpny thee"? The Master 
said to him that Satan should sift him as 
wheat, and Satan "sifted" my poor proud 
self within a couple of hours after. I held 
up my head in a manly way in the woods, 
and declared /would be master henceforth, 



and not a foolish silly inclination, and I 
walked home from the woods with my head 
up, feeling manly and glad to think I was 
through with the conflict with evil. Do you 
wish to know how it turned out? Before 
the sun went down I was deeper in the 
"slough of despond " than I had ever been 
before. I was so completely whipped out 
and discouraged that for a time I gave up. 
I was like the intemperate man who said to 
me some years after, "Mr. Root, this is a 
horse I can not manage. When he gets me 
on his back I must go where he carries me. 
I really can no^ help myself." That "horse" 
did finally (as I told him it would) carry 
him to a drunkard's grave. 

Now, dear friends, here is the great point 
of my long story. After I had said several 
times, "Now I know I will never do this ri- 
diculous thing again as long as I stay in 
Florida," and then found myself back in 
my old tracks before the day was gone, I 
began to think of that scene in the woods of 
long ago, and to reflect on how deliverance 
came. When poor Peter stopped telling 
what he could or would do in his own 
strength, and suiu. a. he did when sinl<ing 
in the water, "Lord, save or I perish," ihui 
he became a great apostle of righteousness. 

When I was forced to acknowledge that 
A. I. Root, with all his grit and vehemence, 
was only a frail willow twig in the hands of 
Satan, and when, instead of calling on God 
to witness what / would do, I sat at the 
feet of the dear Savior and depended on his 
strength and not my own, I got out of my 
troubles; and, more than that, helped others 
out. 

Terry, Fletcher, Battle Creek, and a host 
of others are doing grand things toward 
helping us to care for, in a sensible way, 
these bodies of ours; but with all these helps 
let us remember Him who said, "Him who 
Cometh to me I will in no wise cast out;" 
and I am sure this promise includes the for- 
getfulne&s of old people, even in such a mat- 
ter as failing to mail the letters that are al- 
ready in their jjocket, ready to go. 

I do not believe that out in the woods (or 
anywhere else for that matter, all by your- 
self) is the best place or condition for a 
New Year's resolution, nor for a resolution 
of any sort, to break away from sinful hab- 
its. Make your pledge in the presence of 
your good wife or sister, or, better still — yes, 
far better, in your weekly prayer-meeting, 
and let all your brothers and sisters in the 
church hear it, and ask them to pray for 
you. This is the common-sense way, and 
the one the Holy Scripture endorses. 

At the close of a business letter my good 
friend Terry takes in a similar thought. 
Here is what he says: 

Dear Mr. Hoot:— Glad you are well. Really it 
wouldn't look very well for you to be any other 
way. And I am glad, also, that you have a type- 
writer. It is well to keep up with the times — keep 
growing if we want to stay here. When we stop we 
stagnate and begin to die. God smiles on a progres- 
sive fighter— that is, if he lives in accord with the 
Creator's laws. 

Hudson, O., Dec. 17. Terey. 

Do you see the connection? It certainly 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



83 



would not look well for either Terry or my- 
self to be caught sick after all we have said 
about getting well and keeping well. In 
the same way it would look very bad for 
one who had confessed his sin before his 
friends in the church to go back and be 
found guilty of the same thing once more. 

Let us remember Him who is not only 
able to "forgive all our iniquities, "but who, 
as well, "healeth all our diseases, and who 
also knoweth our frame. He remembereth 
that we are but dust." Let us also remem- 
ber that beautiful little text that has for 
generations been learned by heart and re- 
peated by thousands of children, "Where- 
fore, let him thinketh he standeth " in his 
own strength, "take heed lest he fall;" for 
the only strength that can carry us safely 
through all life's battles as we'd as through 
the failing faculties of old age, and not only 
through life but through death, is the 
strength that comes through Christ Jesus, 
the Savior and Redeemer of all mankind 
throughout the whole wide world.* 

In my talk above there is one thing I 
omitted to touch on. We should use every 
means to relieve the memory of unnecessa- 
ry burdens. To illustrate: For years past I 
have been sure to leave my umbrella some- 
■w here, whenever I started out with one. 
Finally I headed off the trouble by always 
placing my cap on my umbrella as I stood 
it in a corner; and when I went for my cap I 
was always reminded of the umbrella. In 
this wav we can make sure in similar cases 
of avoiding causing useless steps and de- 
lays, not only for ourselves but for our 
friends and neighbors also. With my old 
Olds mobile there were serf n different things 
to be done in starting, and almost as many 
to be remembered in stopping. Well, for a 
time it seemed that I never could remem- 
ber all of them; and the consequence was 
that I left the oil or gasoline (or both of 
them) turned on when I stopped, and 
then there was not only trouble in start- 
ing next time but a waste of fuel, and 
unsightly grease spots all the time, more 
or less, on the cement floor of the auto- 
house, making it almost impossible to 
keep things looking tidy, even if we tried 
never so hard. Well, I finally learned by 
sad experience to get over forgetting these 
trifling matters most of the time. I almost 
forgot to mention that leaving the switch 
turned on when I stopped might result in a 
total loss of the expensive batteries. Xow 
listen while I try to tell you how the great 
inventors of the day have helped old people 
and every one else right along in this line. 
When you start the new machine, if you 
start on the magneto there is no switch to 
be turned off, for there is no electric current 
for ignition until the machinery is run- 
ning, and, as a consequence, when the ma- 
chinery stops the electric current is already 

* None but CJirist Jesus can unlock the clutches of 
Satan when he once gets a poor sinner well in his 
terrible grip, " For there Is none other name under 
heaven given among men, whereby we must be 
saved."— Acts 4 :12. 



stopped. In a like manner the oil is fed to 
the bearings by a little pump that pumps oil 
only when " the wheels go round." When 
the wheels stop, the oiling stops. In a like 
manner the gasoline is fed only when gaso- 
line is needed to run the engine. In short, 
if you find the chickens over the fence in 
the garden when you get home from church 
you can hop out of your auto and chase the 
chickens without waiting to do any thing, 
if you choose. Of course, you swing around 
the two little levers when you slow up; but 
this is all done with one finger; and if you 
are going to stop but a little while you may 
leave the engine running very slowly and 
very quietly, so as to avoid the laborious 
crankmg when you want to start uj) again. 
Speaking about tbe "cranking," yes, it 
does take, at times, quite a little effort un- 
less you are pretty strong in the arms; but 
if it isn't too severe on you I think it is an 
excellent exercise to develop the muscles 
and chest. Yes, I know there are devices 
on the market for "automatic starting," 
but so far as I can learn they are pretty ex- 
pensive as yet. 

Now to get back to my subject. When I 
started out writing this talk on my new 
typewriter I was very much pleased to find 
I could write almost a page without mak- 
ing a single mistake; yes, I succeeded even 
in using a capital letter when I came to the 
pronoun "I," and nothing vexes me so 
much as to find, when reviewing my copy 
before sending it to press, to find I have 
backslid into my old habit of using a little 
"i" when speaking of myself. Do you 
wonder why I mention so trivial a matter? 
Well, there is a moral and a lesson to it. 
It is this: I find I can stand the confine- 
ment of writing only about so long without 
getting so tired that it takes a very unusual 
effort to avoid making mistakes. The 
moral is this: If you are past or nearing 
the seventies, keep busy; but don't try 
to work too long at one thing until you are 
too weary to use your memory and other 
God-given faculties to the best advantage. 
Drop your typewriter and go and see how 
the hired man is getting on in making a 
new yard for that flock of downy beauties 
that should come out of the incubator 
about to-morrow. That is just what 7am 
going to do now; so, "good by," as they 
say over the telephone. 

"the truth about sweet clover" in 
florida; also something about al- 
falfa in that state. 
After having talked with many people, 
and getting various kinds of reports in re- 
gard to alfalfa and other clovers in Florida, 
it finally occurred to me that the agricul- 
tural experiment station at Gainesville 
would most likely be able to give me the 
"truth" in regard to the matter, and at the 
same time an unbiased statement; and 
since there have been so many inquiries in 
regard to the maner I feel ashamed of my- 
self to think I did not go to headquarters. 



84 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 1 



for information long ago. Now I am able 
to give you something reliable and definite 
in regard to both sweet clover and alfalfa, 
from my good friend Professor Rolfs. 

University of Florida, ) 

Agricultural Experiment Station, /■ 

Gainesville, Sept. 9, 1910. ) 

Mr. A. I. Root:— Sweet clover grows almost spon- 
taneously all along the rocky portion of the east 
coast of Florida; also to some extent in the interior; 
but for the most part the interior is not supplied 
with a sufficient amount of lime to make the best 
growth of sweet clover. It will do pretty well if the 
soil does not get too dry, and is at the same time 
well supplied with carbonate of lime. There are 
quite a number of other legumes belonging to the 
clover class that do well under some conditions. 

Alfalfa has been tried a great many thousand 
times In this State. The general experience is the' 
same as that you had. It will grow well until the 
summer rains come on, then it can not compete 
with the weeds and native grasses. If we have a 
rainy summer it is very likely to be drowned out, 
or at least so badly injured that all sorts of root- 
inhabiting fungi attack and destroy it. We inclose 
you a copy of our press bulletin on alfalfa. The 
conditions are about the same at the present time 
as they were when the bulletin was written. I 
have a patch of some fifteen or twenty varieties of 
alfalfa that were planted out two years ago. While 
the plants live and produce considerable forage, the 
amount that they give us does not compare with 
what cow-peas, beggarweed, or velvet beans give us. 

Please accept my thanks for your book on sweet 
clover. P. H. Rolfs, Director. 

Here is the extract referred to: 

Press Bulletin No. 66, SejJt. 30, 1907. 

FLORIDA agricultural EXPERIMENT STATION. 
(Alfalfa.) 

BY P. H ROLFS. 

The fact that Florida needs a winter forage-plant 
is so well known to every one who has attempted to 
keep live stock here that no arguments in this line 
need be produced. We have an abundance of sum- 
mer and fall forage, which stock may secure either 
by grazing or by having it fed to them. The one 
thing we lack, however, is a green forage or pasture 
crop for the winter. Rye and oats have been used 
for many years, but are expensive and more or less 
uncertain. 

KIND OF land TO USE. 

Alfa, fa should be planted on land that is rated at 
least as first-class farming land. The field should 
be prepared as thoroughly as would be the case for 
either grain or corn. The land should have perfect 
drainage, but should not be of a loose sandy char- 
acter. Alfalfa planted on sandy land underlaid 
with clay has been most nearly successful. 

Stilt an E.rperiment.—llwndreAi of attempts have 
been made to secure a good st.and of alfalfa, and to 
make the field productive. In a number of cases 
the experiment has been so nearly successful that 
people have declared that they had reached the 
successful point. Up to the present, however, no ' 
field of alfalfa has succeei'ed in growing through 
the second winter and producing a crop of hay dur- 
ing the ensuing year. Numerous plots have been 
sown, and have produced an abundant crop of fine 
alfalfa hay; but these plots failed completely, either 
during the late fall or early winter; so that we can 
say that the experiment has reached the point 
where it has been almost successful, but yet not 
quite. Good fields cf alfalfa have been produced 
near Dade City. Leesburg, Monticello, and DeFuni- 
ak. Probably the most nearly successful field was 
that grown by Mr. C. K. McQuarrie at DeFuniak. 
From this field Mr. McQuarrie secured alfalfa hay 
at the rate of several tons to the acre. 

SOWING ALFALFA. 

Mr. Coburn, in his book on alfalfa, states that 
quantities all the way from six to sixty pounds per 
acre are recommended. He calculates that, if fif- 
teen pounds be used, and all the seed germinate, it 
would give us forty-tour plants to the square foot. 
This, of course, would be altogether too many plants. 
As we would not expect every seed to make a 
plant, it will probably be best to sow the seed fairly 
thickly. 

Hoii' to Sou: — The most usual way of sowing alfal- 
fa is to sow it broadcast. For experimental work 
It would probably be better to sow It in drills, espe- 



cially if one were sowing only a fraction of an acre. 
With drills it is a great deal easier to keep down 
weeds that might come up to choke out the seed- 
lings. Ordinarily there is very little trouble from 
this source, however, and it will be found that 
broadcast sowing does fairly well. 

Time to Sow.— The best time to sow alfalfa In Flor- 
ida is during the fall of the year. Just what time 
In the fall will depend upon climatic conditions. If 
the soil is moist, and the heavy rains have ceased 
to fall, any time during October and the early part 
of November will be proper. This will give the 
plants sufficient time to ma- e a considerable root 
growth before the winter arrives. During the win- 
ter the young plants will make only a small top 
growth, but the roots will penetrate more deeply 
Into the soil and produce a good system before 
spring. When the early spring rains begin It will 
be necessary to remove any large weeds or grass 
coming up in the field, either by mowing them off 
or by having them hoed out. 

Under favorable conditions two or three tons of 
hay may be made from an acre. This hay, when 
well cured, is worth at least 120.00 a ton. Consider- 
ing the value of alfalfa hay, it will pay to sow fresh 
seed every year, even if the plants should all die 
out the second fall, as has been the case. 

REPORTS OF SUCCESS. 

Repeated reports of complete success with alfalfa 
have been seen in the various papers of the State. 
Officers of the experiment station have made it a 
point to investigate all of these carefully. In some 
cases it was found that these reports were circulat- 
ed before the alfalfa-field was one year old. Success 
up to this point is no unusual occurrence. 

Other reports of success have been Investigated, 
and were found to be based on erroneous identifi- 
cation. Frequently people have mistaken sweet 
clover (MeWotus) for alfalfa. This crop, of course, 
can be grown, and the plant occurs in many por- 
tions of the State as a weed. It is, however, very 
much inferior to alfalfa as a forage-plant and also 
as a soil-renovator. 

SOIL INOCULATIONS. 

For a time It was thought that inoculating the 
soil with the nitrogen-fixing organisms would over- 
come the difficulty of alfalfa failures. A great many 
experiments have been made with the commercial 
cultures, with cultures from the Department of 
Agriculture, and with soil taken from alfalfa-fields. 
Most of the experiments with cultures have proven 
complete failures; and where they have been suc- 
cessful they have given results inferior to those ob- 
tained by the use of soil from alfalfa-fields. 



A KIND WORD FROM ONE WHO HAS READ GLEAN- 
INGS FOR NEALY 40 YEARS. 

Dear old Friend Boot: — We have never met, but I 
have been intimate with your true self for years; 
for as a man thinketh, so is he; and if you don't say 
what you think, I know of no one who does. 

I write for a double purpose — first, to thank you 
for the constant stream of wisdom and goodness 
that has flowed from your heart through your pen 
ever since I first read the pamphlet Gleanings 
down in Mississippi, somewhere in the late '70's. 
So here is a hope that you may continue to sow the 
good seed for many coming years. 

SULPHUR FOR CHICKENS, ETC. 

Second, I wish to furnish the information you 
seek about the power of sulphur, when taken inter- 
nally, to permeate the tissues of the body. It can, 
and will and does. Every doctor of experience will 
agree that, if a patient takes liberal doses of sulphur 
for two or three days, all the silver money in his 
pockets or about his person will be blackened by 
the fumes transfused through the skin, and you 
can smell brimstone whenever he is near. 

A level teaspoonful of sulphur taken every morn- 
ing for a few days acts as a harmless laxative. 

I have been much interested in the discussion as 
to why bees are so terrified by smoke, and have lis- 
tened in vain for some one to suggest that, because 
of the peculiar nature of their breathing apparatus, 
the little air-holes, being so very small. Is it not 
possible that smoke causes in them a sense of im- 
pending suffocation, so that all the fight is choked 
out of them? 

This is merely a query, not a theory. 

Mobile, Ala. H. A. Moody. 



^kattmgs tn S^^ Culture 

Published by The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

H. H. ROOT, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Managei 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department J. T. Calvert, Business Mauayer 

Entered at the Postoffice. Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



FEBRUARY 15, 1911 



NO. 4 



Editorial 



THK WINTERING OF BEES. 

So far the winter has been very favorable 
for outdoor wintered bees at least; and where 
it is cold enough we do not see why the 
bees should not be doing well in reposito- 
ries- But a winter like this, in the region 
south of the great lakes, is rather too mild 
for the best results in cellar wintering. 



We are sorry to report that our new Ca- 
nadian correspondent, Mr. .1. L. Byer, in- 
stead of recovering from a severe attack of 
the grip that he had during the fore part of 
January, had a relapse, and is now serious- 
ly ill. Mrs. Byer writes that it will be some 
time before he will be able to do much read- 
ing or writing. We are sure that our friend 
has the sympathy of all our readers, and 
we sincerely wish that his recovery may not 
be long delayed. 

TENNESSEE BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION; 
FOUL-BROOD LEGISLATION. 

The Tennessee Bee-keepers' Association 
will hold its regular annual meeting at 
Nashville, in the rooms of the Nashville 
Board of Trade, on Saturday, March 11. In 
this connection we are pleased to announce 
that the Tennessee bee-keepers are making 
a strenuous effort to get a foul-brood law. 
Those interested are respectfully requested 
to write their Senators and Representatives, 
if tliey have not already done so, urging 
their support of the bill. For particulars 
correspond with J. M. Buchanan, Franklin, 
Tenn., Secretary of the Tennessee Bee-keep- 
ers' Association. 



CORRUGATED PAPER AND BETTER SHIP- 
PING-CASES. 

Referring to our editorial on page 745, 
Dec. 1, Mr. S. D. House, an extensive comb- 
honey producer of New York, writes: 

I have read your comments upon no-drip cleats 
vs. corrugated-paper bottoms for shipping-cases. I 
wish to add a hearty endorsement to those com- 
ments, and will offer a few suggestions: That the 
cases be made of K-inch thicker end-pieces, and 
long enough to stand at each end a piece of corru- 
gated paper, which will make a cushion for sections 
endwise; also use nothing wider than a two-inch 
glass, and a cover to be nailed on in place of a slid- 
ing cover. We need a firmer shipping-case. 

Camillus, N. Y., Dec. 31. S. D. House. 

Mr. House has had a large experience in 
the production and shipping of fancy comb 
honey. This whole question is one that 



stumld receive a thorough discussion, and 
we therefore invite suggestions from others. 



MORE ABOUT "EXTRACTED HONEY." 

Since our editorial in the Jan. 1st issue 
on the "Nomenclature of Honey," we have 
received quite a number of communications 
on the subject; but we question the wisdom 
of using them for fear we may only waste 
space over a matter that, perhaps, can not 
be remedied. Moreover, almost all of the 
communications that we have received are 
conflicting, one suggesting one name, and 
one another. Several writers, however, have 
been unable to see why the term "liquid 
honey " would not fill all requirements; but 
honey in the comb is liquid, while very oft- 
en that in bottles and cans is candied solid; 
hence if the term "liquid honey" were 
used the label would often be a misnomer. 

After all, why not do away with the qual- 
ifying adjective on labels and let the liquid 
thrown from the combs be known simply as 
honey — just what it is? Bee-keepers could 
continue to speak of honey-extractors and 
extracted honey among themselves, or when 
explaining how the honey is separated from 
the combs, etc.; but the adjective, since it 
is only misleading, might better be omitted 
entirely from all labels. To the consumer, 
then, the product from the hive would be 
known as honey, granulated (not candied) 
honey, comb honey, and bulk comb honey. 

The term "extracted " honey is very mis- 
leading, and not at all appropriate. There 
are relatively few bee-keepers in the 
world, compared to the number of consum- 
ers of honey, and among this latter class 
the term "strained honey" has been used 
for years, and probably will be used for 
years to come, even though bee-keepers 
continue to use the term extracted honey. 
The average consumer, to-day, does not yet 
know what extracted honey is — has never 
heard of it, in fact. When honey is men- 
tioned in some recipe, as it occasionally is, 
in a cook-book or magazine, strained honey 
is invariably specified. What's in a 
name, any way ? Perhaps not much; but 
it does seem funny to think of customers, 
year after year, asking for strained honey 
and receiving extracted honey. 

We can not forbear giving a short extract 
from one of the articles received that we 
think hits the nail squarely onthe head. 

Since the introduction of the so-called honey- 
extractor; there has been a constant effort on the 
part of bee-keepers to change the public's Idea 
from "'strained" to "extracted," with but poor 
success. I have had some experience In selling 
honey, extending over a good many years, and In 



86 



aLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



the majority of instances, when a sample ol liquid 
honey is shown, people use the same expression 
now that they did fifty years ago— "Oh ! its strain- 
ed honey!" 

COMB HONEY IN THE CRANE CORRUGATED- 
PAPER SHIPPING-CASES. 

We received quite a shipment of nice 
comb honey packed . in new corrugated- pa- 
per shipping-cases. Although the honey 
had been pretty badly banged around inside 
of the car, the cases being piled up on end, 
on the sides, and any old way, yet the hon- 
ey, except for some breakage, reached us in 
fairly good order. 

We relieve that the greatest feature of 
protection in these corrugated-paper cases is 
the cross-partitions, which are a little higher 
than the sections are deep. Whether paper 
or w ooden cases come to the front in the fu- 
ture, one thing we are reasonably sure of; 
and that is, that cross-jiartitions of corrugat- 
ed paper will be a necessity in either style 
of case. Poultrymen have for years used 
packing-trays having a separate compart- 
ment for each egg. The glassware men, 
and those selling any kind of bottled goods, 
have for years used cross-partitions of cor- 
rugated paper, to protect their goods. It 
seems strange that we bee-keepers have 
been asleep so long that we should just now 
wake up to the importance of shipping our 
No. 1 and fancy comb honey in better 
cases. 

WINTER-KILLING OF CLOVER; PROSPECTS 
FOR NEXT SEASON. 

The winter in this section of the country 
was pretty snug and cold, with a large 
amount of snow on the ground until the 
11th of January, since whicu time the ground 
has been bare, with warm and cold spells, 
rain, sleet, and a little snow scattered in be- 
tween until yesterday, Feb. 6, when we had 
a very heavy fall of snow. We have been 
fearlul that such weather would be hard on 
clover, but some old farmers with whom we 
have talked say that the ground has not 
been wet enough nor the weather cold 
enough to do very much damage as yet. 
The heavy blanket of snow we now have, 
and which we find is quite general over the 
Northern Slates, will protect us, as long as 
it lasts, at least. We are in hopes that our 
"January thaw" is over. 

It may be well at this point to define what 
is winter-killing of clover. Different au- 
thorities do not quite agree as to what causes 
clover to die or disappear during the winter. 
The same conditions that affect wheat ad- 
versely also affect clover. It is generally 
stated that a quick hard freeze, followed by 
a rapid thaw, and this followed by another 
quick hard freeze, is more destructive to 
clover than a gradually freezing and thaw- 
ing temperature followed by continued cold. 
It is also generally agreed that, when the 
ground is covered with snow, and stays cov- 
ered almost throughout the entire winter, 
conditions are the very best for clover. If 
the ground has been frozen, and snow falls 



on it, the snow, says the old farmer, "will 
draw the frost out." Strictly speaking, this 
can not be true; but a fine blanket of snow 
will so protect the ground that the heat of 
mother Earth beneath will draw the frost 
out of the ui)per crust. All the snow does 
is to prevent the further action of the at- 
mospheric cold. 

So far, taking conditions throughout 
the country as far as reported, there has 
been no destructive winter-killing; and if 
conditions are not unfavorable from now on 
we ought to have a fair clover yield the com- 
ing season, as the soil hereabouts, at least, 
is soaking wet. We have have had two off j 
years; and on the principle that three bad I 
seasons never come together we may hope ■ 
that 1911 will break the spell. 



THE HONEY MARKETS; GOOD TABLE EX- 
TRACTED SCARCE. « 

The wholesale market is practically bare I 
of first- quality table extracted honey. There ' 
is a good supply of dark and off grades, but 
the best grades are conspicuous by their ab- 
sence. There is plenty of fine No. 1 and fan- 
cy comb honey on the market; and it is 
doubtful whether it will be all cleaned up 
before the new crop comes on. 

It is not at all strange tbat more bee- 
keepers should be turning their attention 
toward the production of extracted honey. 
The inexorable law of supply and demand 
will compel a large number more to change 
from comb honey to the production of ex- 
tracted honey; but it would be folly to go 
to the other extreme. The average person 
who has been producing comb honey would 
better produce both comb and extracted. 
Many localities favor the production of the 
two kinds on the same hive. In other 
words, the seasons are so short and slow 
that some bee-keepers find it advisable to 
use a shallow extracted- honey super to coax 
the bees upward, and then, when they are 
once started there, to put a comb-honey 
super under it. In this way both comb and 
extracted can be produced on the same hive. 
If the season begins to taper olf, the ex- 
tracting-sui)er can be removed, thus com- 
pelling the bees to devote all their attention 
to filling and cajoping over the sections in 
the comb-honey super or supers. If any of 
the extracting-combs are not quite filled, it 
is a matter of small importance. 



COMB HONEY AND COLLIER S WEEKLY. 

In our issue for Dec. 1st, page 745, we 
stated that Louise Eberle, in an article that 
she had written for Collier's Weekly on the 
subject of faking food, said, among other 
things, that the imitation of maple syrup 
was not "anywhere nearly the masterpiece 
that is turned out in honeyles^s honey in a 
beeless comb." A good many of our sub- 
scribers wrote us, protesting, and asking if 
w^e could not secure a retraction. Accord- 
ingly, on page 745, as above, we urged our 
subscribers, one and all, to write to Collier'' s 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



87 



Weekly, saying that the statement in ques- 
tion was not only misleading but absolutely 
untrue. Well, it appears that the letters 
that poured into Collier's office and to the 
writer of the article came in such numbers 
that Miss Eberle finally wrote (as if she 
wished us to call the dogs off) , saying she 
was conv inced that there was no such thing 
as an imitation comb honey. As it would 
be simply impossible for her to write to all 
who wrote her, she asked us to make this 
statement for her, which we gladly do. In 
the mean time. Collier's Weekly published 
a very satisfactory retraction. It is very 
evident that it is convinced that there is a 
bee-keeper or two in the United States who 
will fight for their rights. 

We may say that we have taken Collier's 
Weekly for a number of years. Its fearless 
stand for the right, its fight against the 
liquor-traffic and adulterated foods and 
drugs, have led us to believe that the paper 
ought to be supported; when, therefore, 
there appeared a statement in the columns 
of such a magazine to the effect that comb 
honey was manufactured, we knew it would 
do a great damage to the honey business 
unless a correction were made. We did not 
ourselves write to the paper, believing that 
the statement of our readers would have 
more effect by the mere force of numbers. 
We did, however, send two of our represent- 
atives to Collier's office, and, after a satisfac- 
tory interview, they came away, convinced 
that the paper would do wlxat is right 
about it. 

So it goes. We have now, with the help 
of our readers, secured retraction from all 
of the standard books and papers that have 
nnwittingly published that old comb-honey 
canard. We are wondering where the fake 
story will bob up again. 



THE INDIANA STATE BEE-KBEPERS' CON- 
VENTION AT INDIANAPOLIS, FEB. 2. 

The Indianapolis convention was a very 
enthusiastic gathering of bee-keepers; and, 
considering the very short notice, the atten- 
dance was unusually large, or at least above 
the average of the State bee-keepers' con- 
ventions. 

The bee-keepers of Indiana are certainly 
to be congratulated on having such efficient 
leaders. State Entomologist Benjamin W. 
Douglas, also a bee-keeper, is leaving no 
stone unturned to advance the cause of api- 
culture within the borders of Indiana. Geo. 
F. Demuth, an appointee under Mr. Doug- 
las, is one of the most capable and efficient 
foul- brood inspectors we have ever met. 
Probably no State in the Union is giving 
the question of bee-keeping, especially the 
matter of handling bee diseases, more care- 
ful and thorough attention. 

Geo. W. Williams, the newly elected sec- 
retary, Mason Niblack, and Mr. W. S. Pou- 
der, were most active in securing the pas 
sage of the Indiana foul-brood law, especial- 
ly Mr. Niblack, who understands all the ins 
and outs of legislative machinery. 



There were present at this meeting two 
men in particular who have come to be 
known all over the United States. One of 
them is F. B, Cavanagh, one of the most 
progressive beekeepers in the United States, 
and Jay Smith, who has the faculty of see- 
ing the funny or bright side of bee-keeping. 
He was generally called the "Jay" in the 
Indianapolis convention. 

It would be impossible for us, owing to 
the limited space at our command, to give 
a full report of this convention. Nor will it 
be necessary, for a full stenographic report 
will be issued later. We may say, however, 
that the work of foul brood inspection un- 
der Entomologist Douglas and Inspector 
Demuth was most strongly indorsed by the 
convention. 

Mr. Douglas gave a very interesting talk 
on the anatomy of the bee, illustrated by 
means of stereopticon slides. He is a tre- 
mendous worker and a pusher. We do not 
believe there is a man anywhere in the 
country who has done more or better work 
in combating noxious insects and giving 
valuable information to the farmers than 
Mr. Douglas. His last annual report, con- 
sisting of 2G5 pages, and many fine illustra- 
tions of actual field work is a credit to any 
State. 

Mr. Demuth gave an extended address on 
some lessons he had learned in inspection 
work in Indiana. In regard to the treat- 
ment of disease, while he recognized that 
there were several good treatments he 
thought it much safer for the average bee- 
keeper, at least, to use only the shaking 
plan. By "shaking " he meant either shak- 
ing or brushing to get the bees on frames of 
foundation. While it was possible to treat 
European foul brood without destroying 
the combs, he thought it much belter and 
safer for the average person, at least, to clean 
out all possible sources of infection. 

In this connection it is proper to state 
that Mr. Demuth has done much to advance 
the cause of bee culture in his State. In 
the report of the Entomologist, Mr. Demuth 
occupies 30 pages in giving plain directions 
for making money out of bees. 

The success of this meeting was such that 
the convention unanimously passed a reso- 
lution inviting the National Bee-keepers' 
Association to hold its next annual conven- 
tion at Indianapolis. Indianapolis is a 
great railroad center, and also the c-'nter of 
a large number of enthusiastic bee-keepers. 
We do not know of any other place in the 
Union that would draw a larger local atten- 
dance; and as the city is so accessible from 
all points of the country, there would doubt- 
less be a large number of bee-keepers from 
out of the State. It is only 183 miles from 
Chicago; 276 from Detroit; 281 from Cleve- 
land, and 111 from Cincinnati. It is in the 
heart of some of the very best white-clover 
bee-country in the whole United States; 
and we feel sure that the officers of the Na- 
tional Association will make no mistake 
if they give Indianapolis favorable consid- 
eration. 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 




Not content with making a success of 
the Irish Bee Journal, its jovial editor, Rev. 
J. G. Digges, now sends out the first number 
of Bee-keepers' Gazette. It isj beautifully 
gotten up, but has one bad spot, where it 
says Gleanings is a bi-monthly. Instead 
of appearing only once every two months, 
Gleanings appears four times as often, be- 
ing a semi-monthly. 

"Laying wobkeks do not lay in each 
cell, do they?" page 772. No; they scatter, 
laying here and there, as often as not more 
than one egg in a cell, and, likely as not, 
sticking the eggs on the sides of the cells. 
A queen-cell is their first choice, in which 
they may lay a dozen eggs; next they prefer 
drone-cells. But I have known at least one 
case in which the eggs were laid as regular- 
ly as a queen would lay them. 

Franz Koehler, D. Irnker, 326, finds 
that worker-cells built by the same colony 
vary in size from Ylh to 20 in 10 centimeters 
(4.44 to 5.08 per inch), and drone-cells vary 
from \^% to 16 in 10 centimeters (3.43 to 
4.06 per inch). The central, first-built 
combs of a swarm have the largest cells di- 
minishing in diameter as the work ad- 
vances. So he thinks uniform foundation 
not just the thing. I wonder. 

"The staples space only the top-bars 
and not the end-bars," p. 25. Surely they 
can space the end-bars, and ought to. [We 
had in mind the kind of staple-spaced frames 
usually sold by dealers. There is nothing 
to prevent any one from putting additional 
staples in the sides of the end-bars or in the 
bottom-bars. In either case the staples 
would have to be driven the right depth in- 
to the wood to secure the right spacing. — 
Ed.] 

J. E. Crane, p. 84, I'm with you in pre- 
ferring hot syrup; but the right kind of "per- 
colator feeding " takes ever so much less 
time and labor than hauling syrup ten miles 
away. Here's the way I've done lots of it: 
I took to the out-apiary dry sugar in bags; 
put the dry sugar into Miller feeders on the 
hives, leaving them uncovered; then poured 
a pint or so of water, hot or cold, into each 
feeder, still leaving them uncovered (no 
robbing ever started) ; then filled up with 
water, covering each feeder as I went. 

Editor Hutchinson says, Eevieiv, p. 25, 
that he would never think of producing 
comb honey without honey-boards. I used 
them for years; and for years, with thick 
top-bars, I have done without them, and I 
wouldn't think of going back to them. It 
is true that some comb will be built between 
top-bar and section; and it istrue, as hesays, 
that "cleaning off the burr-combs in tlie 
spring does not prevent the bees from build- 



ing another set." But if cleaned off every 
year, or even once in three years, they will 
never be very bad, whereas if never cleaned 
off they will become worse every year. Be- 
tween top-bars and honey-board they be- 
came so bad I had to clean them off"; and if 
never cleaned off I think they would become 
so bad that in time the bees would build be- 
tween the honey-board and sections. 

My assistant says: " Does Mr. Hutchinson 
know what he is talking about? Why, I 
wouldn't go back to honey-boards with the 
killing of bees, the solid mass of honey, and 
the dripping, nasty, sticky, mussy mess — 
oh!" But I can't give the disgusted ex- 
pression on her face. 

Old combs should be melted up if the 
cells have become too small for the young 
bees, p. 60. That does not assume that the 
cells do become too small, it is true; but 
what I'm afraid of is that the beginner will 
understand that it is a possibility. Indeed, 
I happen to know that a common question 
among beginners is: "How soon should 
combs be renewed because the cells are too 
small?" and it is of some importance that 
they know the truth. If there is any such 
thing as the cells becoming smaller, the 
process is gradual; and if they are too small 
when twenty years old they must be small- 
er at ten years than when first built, and at 
least a little smaller when a year old; and so 
for the very best results combs should be re- 
newed annually. Now, what I have been 
taught to believe, and what the beginner 
should know, is this: Cells do not become 
smaller with age. The bees dig away the co- 
coons at the side; but there is a constant ac- 
cumulation at the bottom of the cell, so that 
the septum may become yi inch thick or 
more. That would make the cells shallower; 
but to compensate for this the bees constant- 
ly prolong or build out the cell-walls, so that 
there never is any need tomelt combs because 
the cells are too small. Melting combs on 
account of foul brood is a matter entirely 
aside. [Some years ago, when this matter 
was up for discussion, Mr. R. Wilkin, just 
before he died, said that he had combs that 
were thirty years old, and that the bees 
reared from them were perfectly normal in 
every respect; that he had never melted up 
any of those combs; and that he prized the 
old ones because they were strong and tough. 

And yet, on the other hand, there are 
those who say that some strains of bees will 
not remove the excess of cocoons, and that, 
consequently, the bees are cramped in their 
growth. We believe, however, that we may 
safely tell beginners that they do not need 
to melt up their combs. 

There is a question, however, whether 
bees tear out the cocoons at certain intervals 
or whether they gnaw the combs down, wax 
and all, and reconstruct them. While we 
incline strongly to the tear-out theory, Mr. 
Cavanagh, of Hebron, Ind., with whom we 
talked after the Indianapolis convention, 
said he oelieved the bees gnawed the combs 
down, wax and all, and rebuilt. — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



89 



Sittings 

By J. E. Ckane, Middlebury, Vt. 



Those illustrations on page 757, Dec. 1, of 
Mr. Holtermann carrying hives are certain- 
ly fine. They show not only how to carry 
a hive but any other heavy weight. They 
also remind me of a statement made at the 
Albany convention by the editor of the 
Canadian Bee Journal, that "a man can 
be a bee-keeper and a gentleman." 

That picture of a California apiary, page 
694, Nov. 1, looks good on paper. We have 
one symmetrically arranged in a similar 
way; but what a vexation it has been to me 
the past season it would be hard to tell. I 
made a large number of new swarms with 
laying queens; but I found it very difficult 
to get those young queens fertilized; and 
when I came to look over the yard for win- 
ter I found ten or twelve queenless colonies, 
while my other yards would not average 
over two to the same number of colonies. 

4!- 

"Do we need a fool - killer? " Well, I 
should say we do, or some one or something 
to kill foolishness. We bought some honey 
in the fall, and furnished cases and ex- 
plained how it should be packed. As it was 
to go a long distance, with several changes 
of cars, we asked to have it put up in crates, 
and explained how. Imagine our surprise 
to find the corrugated cushion board in the 
case on top of the honey instead of under- 
neath, and the cases packed so the crates 
would have to stand on end, or the combs 
in the cases lie in a horizontal position! 
4iy 

R. F. Holtermann, page 683, Nov. 1, says 
his bees are in winter quarters (outer cases) 
with an eight-foot fence around them. Now, 
what we should like to know is, why his 
bees are not in that scientifically construct- 
ed bee-cellar we saw illustrated a few years 
ago. Since we saw that illustrated in 
Gleanings we have had to struggle with 
our weak human nature to keep from break- 
ing the command, "Thou shalt not covet." 
[We understand that Mr. Holtermann in- 
tends to be away from home practically all 
winter, and he thought his bees, as they 
would have to be left alone, would be safer 
out of doors on separate stands than in the 
cellar. — Ed.] 

-*- 

The editor inquires, page 746, Dec. 1, 1910, 
whether we want to court advanced freight 
rates on honey. I think we do — at least 
some of us. But have we really considered 
what this means? Our freight rates in the 
past have averaged about 50 cts. per 100 or 
more. Suppose the rate is increased io\}4 
times the present rates, it would cost us 
from $25.00 to $100, or even m^re, annually. 

Is there danger of the rates on honey be- 



ing raised to 1>^ times the present rates? 
Well, I have known at least one road that 
not only raised the rate fifty per cent, but 
doubled the late, and all because a bee keep- 
er who shipped his honey to market tried to 
collect damage for broken honey, or, per- 
haps 1 should say, succeeded in doing so. 

4ii- 
The discussion of a ten-frame vs. an eight- 
frame hive is certainly timely. What the 
editor says, page 713, Nov. 15, is worth re- 
membering: "We can always make an eight 
out of a ten frame hive, but we can not con- 
vert an eight-frame hive into a ten-frame 
hive except by the awkward manipula- 
tion of anotlier eight-frame body. ' ' For one, 
while I use eiglit frames almost exclusively 
for comb lioney, I often find it convenient 
to use a larger brood-chamber with combs 
outside the division-board for storing extra 
combs of honey while honey is coming in 
fast; or for placing a comb of honey for ex- 
tra feed in spring. My brood-chambers will 
hold eleven frames — the most of them. 

There has been some discussion in Glean- 
ings as to the utility or value of dilute car- 
bolic acid in preventing bees from taking 
poisonous mixtures used in spraying fruit- 
trees when in bloom. While in Hartford, 
Ct., last September Mr. A. W. Gates, a very 
intelligent bee-keeper and queen-breeder, 
and one of the foul-brood inspectors for 
Connecticut, informed me that he had used 
a strong solution of carbolic acid in exam- 
ining hives and apiaries for foul brood when 
no honey was coming in, to prevent rob- 
bing. He used a cloth wet with the solu- 
tion, or sprinkled some of it in front or 
about the hive, with the result that no rob- 
bers followed him or tried to enter the hives 
after they were closed. I^ater in the fall I 
used it with very satisfactory results. [We 
have an article on this subject that we ex- 
pect to use in our April 15th issue. — Ed.] 

On page 695 Geo. Shiber discusses the 
proper size for a package of honey. Now, 
it seems to me that for the retail trade we 
had better not be very particular. The fact 
is, some want a good deal of honey while 
others want but little at a time, so we try to 
accommodate the buyers, and have a far 
larger trade than if we tried to force a uni- 
form package on all. A few days ago a 
gentleman called and bought a quart of ex- 
tracted honey for 40 cts. He called again 
yesterday and wanted a gallon — said his 
children liked it on bread for school lunch 
in place of butter. I brought him out a 
gallon can of honey. He inquired the price. 
I told him it was $1.50 per gallon. He evi- 
dently would have preferred it in quart cans; 
but when he found he could save ten cents 
by buying a gallon can he took that size of 
package. 

What Mr. Shiber says on requeening is 
well worth remembering. The facts are, 
young bees accept a young queen much 
more readily than old ones. 



9J 



CLEANINGS JN 13EE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



Bee-keeping in the South- 
west 

By LOUIS SCHOLL, New Braunfels, Texas 



scholl's frame-nailing block. 
A number of frame-nailing devices have 
been described; but our own suits us better 
than any thing else that has come to our 
observation. It is very simple in construc- 
tion, made of two pieces of wood as shown, 
with two pieces of heavy tin or galvanized 
iron bent to serve as a holder for the frame 
ends. This block is set in front of the oi> 
erator, preferably on a l.w work-bench, an 
end-bar placed in each one of the holders as 



can boys, there was not a single one put to- 
gether wrong. Yes, we can go further, be- 
cause, ever since we have adopted this way 
of holding the frame ends there has been 
no trouble about getting them in the right 
]iosition. And this, together with the han- 
dy frame-nailing block, makes the nailing- 
up of the frames very easy indeed. 



NAILING SUPERS RIGHT. 

There has been considerable trouble with 
the warping of the hive and super ends and 
sides after they are out in the weather for 
some time. Es]iecially is this so in our 
southern and western localities where the 
weather seems to "have it in " for every 
thing, and this warping out of shape of the 




StV.oUMo 



Fig. 1. — Scholl's frame-nailing form. 



shown, and the top-bar nailed on from the 
top. Then the whole is removed, turned 
upside down, and set on the work-bench in 
front of the block so that the frame rests on 
the length of the top-bar, and then the bot- 
tom-bar is naileJ on, completing the job. 

To assist in nailing the frames always 
with the V-edge of the end-bars in the right 
way we practice taking up the first end-bar 
to be placed in the nading-block with the 
right hand, and in such a way that the V 
edge will fit into the V 
made by the fore fin- 
per, as shown in Fig. 
2. If this is always 
done first, and then 
the other end -bar 
l)'aced in position at 
the other end, with the 
V edge exactly in the 
opposite direction, all 
the frames will be as- 
sembled correctly, and 
the nuisance of having 
the V edges point in all 
directions (as seen in 
many apiaries)' is pre- 
vented. Last year, out of over 7000 sui'h 
frames, nailed up by two very young Mexi- 




hive parts is serious in that the leaky hives 
caused thereby make robbing easy. Some 
of the newer goods are made so that there 
is not so much trouble as with the older way 
of making the hives and supers; but since 
many are still so made, and thousands of 
old ones are in use that need repairing at 
some time or other, we have struck on the 
idea as illustrated in the two engravings 
here shown. We have gone over hundreds 
of supers and hive-bodies and renailed them 
in the proper way, and thus obviated many 
of the leaks. 

We term this the proper way. As seen 
in figure 3, A and C shows part of a wrong- 




Fig. 2. How to picli up 
an end-bar. 



^ D 8<(i«ilNo. 

Fig. 3. Wrong and right way of nailing a super. 

ly nailed super. This is the most common 
way in which the supers are nailed — two 
nails driven in the two dovetailed ends of 
the sides of the super. This allows the 



1911 



aLEANIKTGS IN BEE CUL'JURJE' 



91 



pieces to warp, leaving tie leaks as shown. 
The proper way is shown in B and D, where 
three nails are so driven that there is little 
chance for warping, and the super remains 
bee tight. 

The old way of cutting the hive and super 
rabbets allows them to warp out in many 
cases, and often they are broken out in 
handhng. To obviate this serious matter 
we drive three slim nails into the rabbet, 
Fig. 4, slanting them so that they will have 
a tendency to draw the rabbet to the inside, 




Fig. 4. How to prevent the rabbets from splitting- 

thus bracing them exceedingly well. Of 
course, this latter is extra labor and ex- 
pense, but we have found that it pays, es- 
pecially if the work is done by cheap labor. 
Several young boys can be employed for 
this work very profitably. 

THE SIZE OF WINTER ENTRANCES. 

We have recently found that sometimes 
the size of the entrance to a hive makes 
considerable difference during severely cold 
weather. Two medium nuclei were winter- 
ed each in a single shallow hive-body, and 
each with sufficient stores. One of these 
had an entrance % inch deep by the full 
width of the hive, and the other had the 
same depth of entrance, but it was contract- 
ed to only lyi inches wide. Although the 
nuclei were in the same condition, located 
in the same way, and near each other, the 
one with the large entrance succumbed 
while the other came through in fine condi- 
tion. When found a few days after the 
most severely cold spell that we have had 
for a number of years, the bees in one nu- 
cleus were stiff and starved, while the oth- 
ers were lively and in the best condition. 
Each had just the same amount of stores in 
th same shape about the cluster; but in one 
the bees were kept warm enough so that 



they could make use of the stores; in the 
other they were not. 

The proof that they were simply starved 
to death, and not killed by the cold direct- 
ly, we have in the fact that many of the ap- 
parently dead bees were "thawed" out 
again when placed in the warm sunlight; 
but, being too far starved, they soon suc- 
cumbed entirely. 

This would show that, even with sufficient 
stores in immediate reach of the bees, a se- 
verely cold spell might put the cluster in 
such condition that the Dees can not help 
themselves and prevent starvation. How 
much there is in this we do not know, es- 
pecially since we have never had such ex- 
periences here in this milder climate. Per- 
haps it pays to look after our winter en- 
trances better than some of us do — not in 
that there might be a total loss to the colo- 
nies, but the size of the entrances may 
make a material difference in the welfare of 
the colonies. 

WHO FIXES THE PRICE OF HONEY? 

This is another respect in which we ven- 
ture to say we are ahead of the bee-keepers 
of the North. From the many articles we 
have read pertaining to Northern prices we 
understand that the price in most cases is 
set by the commission houses and by deal- 
ers who buy the honey from the bee-keeper. 
Why should this be so? Not in one in- 
stance since I have been in the business ex- 
tensively have I asked a buyer what he 
would pay for my honey. It is the reverse 
here. The bee-keepers, or at least the ma- 
jority of them, know pretty well at the out- 
set what they are going to try to get for 
their honey, and the market prices are gov- 
erned thereby to a very great extent. We 
know this is true, for the simple reason 
that many of the honey-buying firms make 
their quotations at a certain figure in the 
early spring, and, later, as they find that 
honey is hard to get at these figures on ac- 
count of the bee-keepers holding at a higher 
price they advance accordingly; so also does 
the price offered by the dealers go up a cer- 
tain margin every year above the figures of 
the previous year. It has always been a 
wonder to us why we should be ahead of 
those in the North in this respect, since it 
has been conceded generally that they are 
so much ahead of us. Taking into consid- 
eration the amount of advertising in the 
North, and the amount of discussion that 
continues to appear on the subject, the con- 
ditions of selling in the North are very dif- 
ferent from what we are used to here. Our 
honey is sold quickly, as a rule, without ad- 
vertising, and at our own figures. In our 
case it is not so much how to sell the crop 
as it is how to produce enough of it to fill 
the demand that already exists and at a 
good price. We receive dozens of inquiries 
each season for our price. Then we send a 
price list with our prices, instead of writing 
for prices that some firm or buyer is willing 
to pay, as we formerly did. 



92 



(1LEAXIN(1S IN BEE CUl.TURE 



Feb. 15 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodino 



SPRING DWINDLING USUALLY CAUSED BY 
POOR WINTERING. 

"Last spring I had much spring dwin- 
dling among my bees, and I wondered if 
you could tell me how to avoid it this 
spring." 

"The best way to avoid spring dwindling 
is to insure good wintering Bees that win- 
ter well are not likely to dwindle in the 
spring very much." 

"But don't you remember the bad spring 
we had last year, and how cold it kept for 
nearly a month after the bees had apparent- 
ly got started in for a good season? From 
this I reason that such dwindling results 
from the colonies becoming chilled during 
these cold spells that may follow their re- 
moval from the cellar, or after ihey have 
had a week of warm weather, where they 
are wintered on the summer stand." 

"I can not believe that there is so much 
in the idea that spring dwindling is caus- 
ed by adverse weather conditions in the 
spring. From my long experience I am be- 
coming more and more convinced that the 
trouble is mamly, if not altogether, an ef- 
fect of poor wintering." 

"But don't you think that a cold spring 
has something to do with this matter of bad 
wintering?" 

"I do not desire to give you the impres- 
sion that I think such ail verse weather as 
we had last spring is not harmful to bees 
after they have had a week or two of weath- 
er good enough to start brood-rearing quite 
freely; but I do say that such adverse condi- 
tions are not the prime factor in spring 
dwindling. Such weather conditions I can 
consider as only secondary at most. Let 
me illustrate: Some years ago a part of the 
apiary was drifted over with snow, so that 
I lost sight of the hives for nearly six weeks, 
while the rest of the yard was nearly bare. 
When spring opened I found that those col- 
onies drifted under, becoming too warm, had 
begun brood-rearing to a great extent, and 
the bees fouled their hives about the en- 
trance with their feces, thus showing that 
they had contracted diarrhea. They were 
the first to fly when an opportunity offered. 
The colonies having no snow over them 
did not show up nearly so strong on their 
first flight; but after the cold bad weather of 
an unusually severe spring they were in 
good condition to breed up for the harvest, 
while the former kept dwindling till five- 
sixths of them were hardly better than nu- 
clei, some giving up entirely. 

"Again, I have noticed that, when colonies 
in the cellar came out and spotted the hives 
to any extent they would dwindle away 
very rapidly during April and May, while 
others which had their hives all clean and 
nice were not materially affected, even if 



theie were weeks of unfavorable weather 
during these months. Take a colony hav- 
ing bee diarrhea to any extent, and, though 
you wrap up the hive with all the material 
for spring protection you can think of, it 
seems to be of no avail; while a healthy col- 
ony standing right by the side of it, not pro- 
tected at all, continues to hold its own, and 
often makes an increase, with the weather 
conditions the same in both cases." 

"Do you intend to say that bee diarrhea 
during winter is the only cause for spring 
dwindling? " 

"No; I do not intend to convey that im- 
pression either. But I do believe it has 
more largely to do with it than any other 
trouble, while the rank and file of our bee- 
keepers consider this as a wintering trouble 
which the first flights of spring will cure. 
Other causes may also contribute toward 
spring dwindling, one, at least, of which 
may date lurther back than bee diarrhea. 
To illustrate again: One year when I was 
unusually busy building, after thebasswood 
flow was over, the parent colonies having 
cast swarms were not looked at for weeks 
after the prime swarms issued, and it was 
well into September before I found time to 
look them over. I then found several of 
these colonies had failed to get laying queens 
through loss of their young queens in some, 
way, so that I had some ten or twelve queen- 
less colonies on my hands. As there seem- 
ed to be quite a good supply of bees in each 
of these hives, 1 thought by giving young 
queens and uniting two of these colonies to- 
gether they would be fully as strong as any 
of the other colonies which had young lay- 
ing queens in parent colonies. After bemg 
in the cellar a month these united colonies 
showed as large a cluster hanging below the 
frames as did any of the rest, and apparent- 
ly wintered as well; but after their first 
flight it was plain to be seen that the other 
colonies had not lost nearly so heavily 
through their cleansing flight as had these; 
and when the cool and cold days followed, 
as they always do more or less, these old 
bees would come out and die almost in heaps 
about the entrance, some individual speci- 
mens even trying to fly, and then crawling 
as far as their legs, benumbed with cold, 
would let them, so anxious were they to rid 
the hive of their useless presence. These 
hives were protected better than were the 
others, in the vain hope of saving them; 
but all but two died out entirely, and that 
after a nice lot of brood had been got agoing 
from the young queens. Here was a cause 
for spring dwindling that was almost a year 
old, but did not show itself till the cool bad 
weather of the next spring came on. 

"Then we have poor queens as the cause 
of this same thing — queens which the api- 
arist should have superseded in August of 
the year before; bad stores, damp hives, ow- 
ing to improper ventilation, etc., all of which 
contribute to the death of colonies every 
year, while these causes are more often than 
otherwise wrongfully diagnosed as spring 
dwindling." 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



93 



General Correspondence 



IN MEMORIAM OF D, A. JONES. 



The Remarkable Career of a Remarkable Bee- 
keeper; How he Introduced New Races of 
Bees; his Foul-brood Cure; his Baby 
Nuclei, etc. 



BY E. R. ROOT. 



D. A. .Tones, one of the leading bee-keep- 
ers of thirty years ago, known all over Can- 
ada and the United States — indeed, we 
might say all over the entire bee-keeping 
world — passed away at his home in Bee ton, 
Canada, on the 20th of last November. The 
information did not reach us until we saw 
the announcement in the Canadian Bee 
Journal, 

Mr. Jones came into prominence in 1879, 
when he, together with Frank Benton, 
formerly of the Department of Agriculture, 
made a special trip to the Orient, at great 
personal risk, covering thousands of miles, 
to secure new races of bees. Mr. Jones bore 
the entire expense of that expedition, and 
after a year brought back to this country a 
large number of Cyprian, Holy Land, and 
Carniolan queens. During the years 1880 
and 1881 there was quite a furore over these 
new races, and all the prominent bee-keep- 
ers of the world secured queens from Mr. 
Jones. While the Cyprians were splendid 
honey-gatherers and breeders, they were too 
vindictive — too awfully cross — to wear well 
either in this country or Canada. The 
Holy Land bees, while not so cross as the 
Cyprians, ran excessively to brood-rearing. 
It was not an uncommon thing to find 
Langstroth combs with every cell contain- 
ing brood. The Cyprians and the Holy 
Lands themselves were very beautiful bees; 
and, while resembling Italians in the one 
fact that they too were yellow, yet they had 
quite enough distinctive characteristics, 
both in markings and temperament, so they 
could be readily distinguished. Even when 
crossed with the ordinary Italians their 
bad temper seems to go with them. On ac- 
count of these very undesirable peculiarities 
these two races have practically disappear- 
ed from the United States and Canada. But 
the Carniolans have stayed with us. The 
bee-keeping world owes a big debt of grati- 
tude to the man who, at an enormous cost 
and at great personal risk, practically set- 
tled the question for all time of the most 
desirable races of bees. While the Cyprians 
and Holy Land bees lost out in the race, 
the superiority of Italians and Carniolans 
has been established ever since. Mr. Jones, 
generous to a fault, never insisted that he 
should have the exclusive trade in the bees 
he brought to this country. He never was 
sore because others went into the business. 
His broad generous spirit, and the genial 



twinkle of his eye, had to be experienced to 
be appreciated. 

In the early '80's Mr. Jones was, no doubt, 
the leading bee keeper of Canada. He ran 
a series of outyards, and later on establish- 
ed a school of apiculture. At one time he 
had some two or three dozen students who 
went to Beeton from the United States and 
Canada to study bee culture under his 
leadership. One of these students was R. 
F. Holtermann, our old correspondent. 

During these early days Mr. Jones' bees 
contracted foul brood; but he did not realize 
at that time the seriousness of the disease. 
He seemed to regard it as something that 
one could easily handle, and he then pro- 
mulgated to the bee-keeping world what was 
called at the time the Jones or starvation 
foul-brood cure. This was an adaptation of 
the Quinby method of treating bees, and 




D. A. JONES WHEN HE WENT TO THE ORIENT 
FOR NEW RACES OF BEES IN 1879. 

was very similar to what is now known as 
the McEvoy cure. The bees were shaken 
off the combs into a wire-cloth cage, or box 
with a wire-cloth top. They were then put 
in a cool place so that they would consume 
the honey in their honey-sacs. As soon as 
some of the bees from sheer weakness be- 
gan to show signs of starvation they were 
then placed in a clean hive on frames of 
foundation, and compelled to work out their 
own salvation. The old combs were burned 
or melted up, and the old hive disinfected. 

It was later found that it was not neces- 
sary to starve the bees, because drawing out 
the foundation was found to be quite suf- 
ficient. 

Mr. Jones was generally ahead of his 
times. For example, his system of queen- 
rearing and baby nuclei, which he intro- 



94 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



duced in 1883, were similar to the systems 
later exploited by Henry Alley and E. L. 
Pratt. His baby nucleus was almost iden- 
tically the same as our twin-baby nucleus 
of to-day. We copied Pratt, but later im- 
proved the Pratt nucleus until it \\as almost 
the same as the old Jones model. 

He was the inventor of the Jones hive, 
the Jones uncapping-knife — a knife which 
may yet displace all others, 

Mr. Jones' knowledge of bee lore, of the 
domestic economy of the hive, of how lo 
produce extracted honey, was second to 
none of his day. 

To give the reader an idea of Mr. Jones' 
progressive ideas, and how he spared nei- 
ther time nor money in carrying his ideas 
into effect, we may state that he early saw 
that, in order to raise Cyprian, Holy Land, 
and Carniolan bees in their purity, they 
would have to be reared on separate islands. 
He therefore purchased or leased several is- 
lands in Georgian Bay. One he called 
Cyprus, another Palestine, and still anoth- 
er Carniola. On each of these islands he 
had a complete queen-rearing outflt and a 
race of bees according to the name of the 
island; but, unfortunately, the islands were 
barren, and it was necessary for him to feed 
his bees almost constantly. For two or 
three years he raised Cyprians, Holy Lands, 
and Carniolans on those islands; but, if we 
are correct, the venture never paid. It cost 
him enormously to keep a competent man 
there and necessary boats and camping- 
outfits, and to feed sugar to the Cyprians 
and Holy Lands that bred so rapidly that 
their owner had to feed almost continuous- 
ly; but, nothing daunted, our friend kept 
on rearing queens on those islands. 

Well do we remember the visit that we 
made to those island apiaries in 1884. Mr. 
Jones had just come from a trip to the is- 
lands when we arrived at Bee ton; but he 
was so enthusiastic over his project that he 
said he would be glad to go right back with 
us to the islands. We took a hundred-mile 
ride by train, and then a steamer at Col- 
lingwood for what is known as the Forty 
Thousand Islands, where Mr. Jones had se- 
lected three islands that were best suited to 
his purpose. How we hunted duck and 
deer, and fished, talked bees and the great 
possibilities of mating queens to select 
drones; how we could make desirable cross- 
es on other islands, it is not necessary to 
relate here; but suffice it to say we never 
met a more whole-souled and genial host or 
a more enthusiastic bee-keeper in all the 25 
years that we have been at the editorial 
helm of this journal. The reader, if inter- 
ested, will find a full account of this in 
Gleanings for 1884, pages 620 and 696. 

Mr. Jones was one of the most genial men 
we ever met. He liked a good joke, and 
knew how to perpetrate one on his friends. 
If space did not forbid we would tell how he 
got the laugh on T. G. Newman, then edi- 
tor of the American Bee Jownal, and A. I. 
Root; of how he got a "goak" on us. He 
was a leading spirit in the conventions of 



his day, and always the center of a jolly 
group of kindred spirits between sessions. 
He was at one time the leading manufac- 
turer of bee-supplies in Canada. He found- 
ed the Canadian Bee Journal over 25 years 
ago; and all through Canada we can find 
to-day the impress of this most remarkable 
man. 

During his later years, pressure of other 
business seems to have absorbed his atten- 
tion until he dropped out of bee-keeping al- 
together. He was a man of large ideas and 
large affairs; always generous with his mon- 
ey and time, he did much to advance api- 
culture in the early days, especially in Can- 
ada. 

We notice that his town paper, the 
Beeion World, credits Mr. Jones with the 
introduction of Italian bees into this coun- 
try. This is a mistake. While he did in- 
troduce Eastern races of bees, and Carnio- 
lans, as already ex))lained. the Italians 
were introduced bv Richard Colvin, away 
back in the early 'eO'f', many years before 
Mr. Jones went to the Orient. 

We can not close this sketch without 
making an extract from the Beeton World, 
the paper founded by Mr. Jones, and pub- 
lished in his own home town. He was a 
prophet in his own home town. Read what 
his own townspeople think of him: 

Although it was known he was very ill, the news 
of the death of Mr. D. A. Jones on Sunday morning 
came as a shock to all. He had always been an ac- 
tive and energetic man, both mentally and physi- 
cally, but for some months was troubled with a 
weakness of the heart, and the immediate cause of 
his death was angina pectoris. 

During his early residence here he bought a tract 
of land which now comprises part of Beeton. This 
land was surveyed into plots, and he laid out the 
streets of the village and planted the beautiful 
shade trees which now adorn the streets and will 
stand as monuments to his energies for some time 
to come. His whole aim was given to the building 
up of the town. How much the community owes 
to him it is impossible to estimate. His many char- 
itable acts and kindnesses will never be forgotten, 
but he is gone and another name is stricken from 
the ever-lessening roll of our old settlers. His very 
last act in lile was to send a consignment of cloth- 
ing contributed by himself and others to poor set- 
tlers in Parry Sound district, with whose conditions 
he was personally familiar. 

In politics Mr. Jones was a strong Liberal, and on 
two or three occasions he conducted exploring par- 
ties in the north country for the Government, pen- 
etrating the wilderness from the main line of the 
C. P. R. nearSudbury, and on one trip going through 
Hudson's Bay as far north as Baffin's Bay. 

He had been a life-long Presbyterian, and con- 
tributed largely toward the erection of the Presby- 
terian church here. When the contents of the will 
are made known it is expected that all religious de- 
nominations and the citizens generally will be ben- 
efited by a provision made for the erection of a 
mausoleum in the cemetery. 

He had been postmaster here almost continuous- 
ly since his arrival in town, 46 years ago. 

That "last act," as given in the foregoing 
extract, of sending clothing to the poor set- 
tlers in Parry Sound, is only an outcrop- 
ping of that irrepressible, generous, kindly 
spirit, the love of his fellow-men, that per- 
vaded his whole life. He was indeed a truly 
great man and a Christian brother. 

Four ministers of the gospel conducted 
his funeral — another estimate of the high 
esteem in which he M'as held by the Chris- 
tian ministry. 



i 



1911 



GLEAXINCJS IX BEE CULTURE 



95 



THE NECESSITY OF HAVING COMBS WIR- 
ED IN HIVES THAT MUST BE SHIPPED. 



BY J. L. BYER. 



While the present time of the year may 
be an unseasonable period to discuss the 
merits of wiring brood-frames, I have been 
moved to say a few words on the subject by 
reason of my having recently happened to 
read in one of the earlier editions of the A 
B C of Bee Culture what friend Doolittle 
has to say on the subject — his remarks in 
the case referred to being on the advisability 
of having all frames wired on which bees 
are to be shipped on. 

The publishers of the A B C of Bee Cul- 
ture, page 231, 1903 edition, very strongly 
advise the wiring of all frames; if it is con- 
templated to ship bees it is almost " abso- 
lutely necessary," they say. Mr. Doolittle, 
in his comments, says, page 398, same edi- 
tion, "I have shipped many colonies of bees 
during the past live years; and although 
none of the combs have been wired, I have 
yet to hear of the first injured comb. As 
my combs are deeper than those in the Ij. 
flames they would be more likely to be 
damaged than would those in the L. frames. ' ' 
it would be interesting to learn whether, 
after the lapse of another se\ en years, Mr. 
Dcolittle is still of the same opinion. 

1 am led to inquire on this point on ac- 
count of a very forcible illustration we had 
Jast season as to the advisability — nay, shall 
I rather say the necessity of wiring frames, 
if it is intended to have bees shipped on the 
combs that will be built in them. About 
the middle of last August fifty two-frame 
nuclei were ordered by myself and a friend 
living a short distance from me. They were 
sent by express, and arrived at my station 
on the 24th and 25th of August, if I have 
the dates correct. They were shipped in 
two lots, and each lot was in the customs at 
Toronto, about 24 hours awaiting customs 
clearance. 

When they arrived, the first lot seemed 
in first-class shape in so far as outward ap- 
pearance was concerned; but when we came 
to transfer them we found about ten per 
cent of the ends of the top-bars of the frames 
had been split off, showing that they must 
have received very rough handling while in 
transit. A number of the combs showed by 
the looks that, if they had not been wired, 
there would cer 'ainly have been breakdowns, 
and quite likely some of the nuclei would 
have been ruined. 

When the second consignment arrived, 
things were in much the same condition as 
with the first lot, only a little bit worse. The 
nuclei had been shipped in pairs — i. e., two 
were clamped together, as in that condition 
they made a parcel that would more easily 
stand, and one that would not be so apt to 
upset as though each one were separate. 
Xow, these bees bad been put up in splen- 
did condition, and the pairs of light ship- 
ping-cases were clamped together with cleats 
that were fastened to the cases with screw 



nails. Yet for all these precautions, one of 
the clamps had been broken apart, and I 
suspect at least one of the nuclei had come 
part of the way lying on the side instead of 
standing upright. Indeed, when we came 
to examine this particular nucleus I came 
to the conclusion that the express-handJers 
must have been using it as a football, as 
the two combs were broken loose irom the 
frames completely, with the exception that 
the horizontal wires held intact at the ends 
and held the combs like suspended boards 
in the frames. When the condition of 
things was noted, I was surprised that the 
combs had not gone "kersmash," as the 
weather at the time was quite warm, and 
the nucleus was a very strong one. Exami- 
nation showed that, in addition to the hori- 
zontal wiring, these frames happily had had 
wires pressed in the foundation vertically 
as well, in the same manner as Dr. Miller 
uses the splints. Quite likely if the wires 
that were in the foundation vertically had 
been passed up through the top-bars the 
combs would never have broken loose at all. 
On this point we can not be sure as to just 
what would have been the result, as possibly 
the top-bars might have broken down when 
the tremendous jolt took place. Any way, 
it was quite clear to me that, without wir- 
ing of any kind, the nucleus would have 
been a total loss, and, as already intimated, 
we have reason to believe that others in the 
shipment would have suffered as well. 

As it was, the suspended combs had press- 
ed together somewhat and killed a number 
of bees, but by good fortune the queen had 
escaped, and we were able to fix them up 
all right. It may be argued that this ship- 
ment received unusualiy rough handling; 
and while we will all agree on this point, 
experience has taught us that, when send- 
ing any thing by express, it is wise to pre- 
pare for this kind of treatment. It does 
seem a pity, though, in view of the exorbi- 
tant rates, that such treatment should be 
accorded such a perishable article as live 
bees; and when the damaged shipment ar- 
rived, I remarked to the local agent, who is 
a good friend of the writer, that, in view of 
the desperate treatment the bees had receiv- 
ed, I would gladly have sacrificed the dam- 
aged nucleus if some good luck would have 
released the bees in the car of the offending 
handler. 

MOVING AN APIARY ON HAND SLEDS. 

This fall we had occasion to move one 
yard of some 80 colonies about 100 yards 
from their old location. While at the On- 
tario convention, advice was asked as to 
when and how best to move them, and said 
advice ranged all the way from taking them 
any old way to the most careful method of 
carrying them all by hand. The last ad- 
vice was given by friend McEvoy, and, al- 
though I did not say so at the time, I came 
home intending to follow his plan. But 
when we tried that method it proved to be 
too hard work, for, be it understood, the 
bees were all packed in their winter cases 
and would weigh from 120 to 150 pounds 



96 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



each. While we \\eie debating the matter 
a light snowfall came, and my brother sug- 
gested trying hand sleighs for the work. 
Two of these handy implements were 
brought into use, and my brother and I 
moved the whole apiary in one day, besides 
arranging hives, stands, etc., as we went 
along. By this method we were able to take 
two at a time (one on each sleigh), and the 
work was done so quietly that the bees hard- 
ly knew they were being moved. A few 
colonies were a bit uneasy, but at first signs 
of a bee at the entrance a handful of snow 
thrown in stopped all trouble. 

The plan of moving them was much bet- 
ter than getting a large sleigh, as in that 
case it would have been necessary to close 
the entrances — a lot of work. 

While many have reported moving bees 
in the fall and winter with no bad results, 
even if the bees were badly shaken up in 
the operation, yet we confess to a feeling 
that it at least does them no good, and per- 
sonally I like to see them left as quiet as 
possible during the cold weather. If the 
present cold weather continues all winter, 
and the bees have no chance of a cleansing 
flight, this fall, at least, 1 believe bees will 
be all the better if they have not bten dis- 
turbed by moving. Just here I might re- 
mark that in our section of country the bees 
had no flight after the last of October to 
amount to any thing; and from Nov. 28 to 
this date, Dec. 16, the weather has been 
very cold continually — in fact, a record- 
breaker for so early in the season. 

Mt. Joy, Ont., Can. 



LEGISLATION IN NEW ZEALAND PROHIB- 
ITS BOX HIVES. 



BY ISAAC HOPKINS. 



Dr. C. C. Miller, p. 646, Oct. 15, 1910, calls 
my attention to your Colorado foul-brood 
law, and by so doing implies that I made a 
mistake in saying that all your acts have 
the cardinal weakness of allowing the box 
hives to exist. I am fully aware that in 
Sec. 6 of the Colorado Act it says: "The in- 
spector shall have full power, in his discre- 
tion, to order any owner or possessor of bees 
dwelling in box hives in apiaries where the 
disease exists (being mere boxes without 
frames) to transfer such bees to movable- 
frame hives within a specified time," etc.; 
but this provision does not get rid of box 
hives in their entirety; and, although it 
gives the inspector power to order the trans- 
fer of bees to frame hives, it is only "in api- 
aries where the disease exists" that he has 
that power. Following on this, after carry- 
ing out the inspector's instructions, there is 
nothing in the act to prevent the bee-keep- 
er from using box hives again the next day 
for additional bees, so that it is possible, and 
apparently legal, to have a mixed apiary of 
box hives and frame hives — a kind of pie- 
bald arrangement. You will need some- 
thing more direct than this to get rid of the 
careless and dangercus bee-keepers. 



The editor's footnote to Dr. Miller's Straw 
turns on the custom of bee-keeping in Eng- 
land. I didn't write from England, neither 
did I mention a word about it or English 
bee-keeping. I wrote from New Zealand, 
and compared our foul-brood act with yours. 
I certainly have no reason to be dissatisfied 
with your Ohio act if you are not; but it 
would not suit New Zealand bee-keepers. 
If, as you say, "it is up to the bee-keeper 
himself to transfer immovable combs," 
etc., there should be no need for even Sec. 6 
in the Colorado act. 

Auckland, N. Z., Dec. 3. 



BEE TERRITORY IN IDAHO OVERSTOCK- 
ED, 



Report of Annual Meeting. 



BY R. D. BRADSHAW. 



The Eastern Oregon and Idaho Bee-keep- 
ers' Association held its annual meeting 
Jan. 14 at Caldwell, Idaho. Owing to the 
phenomenal growth of the industry in this 
section there was a large attendance. Bee- 
keepers representing 10,000 colonies were 
present. 

The principal topics taken up were the 
marketing of the crop, and overstocking. 
Regarding the latter it seemed to be the 
unanimous opinion that, in the limited ter- 
ritory now under water and cultivation in 
this section, it is being greatly overstocked. 
In one district near Parma, about three 
miles east, there are 1700 colonies working 
on the same ground. Mr. Powers, of Par- 
ma, one of our well-known and prominent 
members, who has 300 stands in this dis- 
trict, stated that, as the numbers of bees in 
this vicinity have increased, he has noticed 
his crops have materially decreased. 

To be sure, there are several government 
irrigation projects that are being opened up; 
but as yet the acreage of alfalfa is small. 
Thousands of acres are being set directly to 
fruit alone, this being more profitable. Tlje 
market for alfalfa depends almost wholly 
on the range stock for an outlet. As the 
range is depleted, the larger tracts of alfalfa 
will be replaced by other crops. All these 
facts tend to lessen the honey-flora. 

A committee of the largest producers will 
wait upon our legislators in a very few days 
to demand an appropriation to combat foul 
brood; also to have our foul-brood law now 
in force to read, "All bees shipped in from 
other States to be inspected for disease be- 
fore crossing the State line." 

Payette, Ida., Jan. 15. 



MOVING SHORT DISTANCES. 



Entirely Feasible any Month in the Year. 



BY CLINT F. PULSIFBK. 



The moving of bees a short distance has 
come to be quite an interesting question to 
some of us; and as the experience of others 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



97 



was worth something to me, perhaps iiiy 
testimony may not be out of place. 

I had carefully read Carey W. Reese's 
plan in the January 15th issue for 1909, al- 
so Mr. O. B. Metcalfe's, April 15, 1909, but 
not until the appearance of the article by 
the editor in the October 15th issue did I 
find the simple method that, as I thought, 
seemed to fit my case and requirements. 
Of course, we all recognize that there is no 
difficulty in it, in a cold climate wheie bees 
are confined for weeks or months at a time 
without a flight, and most of us have had 
experience along that line "back in old 
Michigan " or some other place. But here 
where bees fly practically every day in the 
year it is quite different. 

Having occasion to move 40 colonies a 
distance of about 25 rods, and not wanting 
to take a chance in waiting for a cold spell 
of weather, which here might never come 
during the winter, I followed the sugges- 
tions of our editor. I closed the entrances 
early in the morning before the bees were 
flying; placed the hives in the spring wagon, 
and took them to the new stands. This 
was done before 4 p.m., and at about that 
hour (which was about one hour before sun- 
set) we began chnimminr/ them, and smok- 
ing them alternately for nearly half an 
hour, then we removed the entrance-closers 
as speedily as possible and gave the bees a 
few moments' flight before dark. 

The following day I made it my business 
to visit the old stands several times and see 
if it was necessary to place hives there for 
the returning bees to save the loss, but it 
was all quite unnecessary, for I think I 
could have carried them all in a Benton 
cage; and I have reason to believe that the 
few that were remaining had slept out of 
doors the night before they were moved. 

Tempe, Arizona. 



EMPTY CELLS OR SOLID COMBS OF STORES 
FOR THE WINTER CLUSTER. 



The Problem Modified by Outdoor or Indoor 
Wintering. 

BY DR. C. C. MILLER. 



Before any blood is spilt I'd like to see if 
Messrs. Byer and Root can not be induced 
to come to some kind of understanding as 
to having bees winter on solid combs of 
honey. I suspect there is really little dif- 
ference as to the actual belief of the two 
men. If the matter were put before him in 
the right way, I think Mr. Byer would be 
willing to say, "The bees must have some 
room for clustering that is not divided up 
by solid slabs of honey," and I think Edi- 
tor Root might make the concession, "It is 
altogether possible for a colony to winter 
well on combs filled full from top to bot- 
tom-bar." 

When bees seal over the honey in two 
contiguous combs they generally leave a 
space of about % inch between the two op- 
posing sealed surfaces. Now, Bro. Byer, 



suppose we have a set of combs sealed from 
top to bottom, with bees on them, and that 
the bees can go nowhere except between 
these solid slabs of honey. We should have 
the bees divided up into layers % inch thick, 
with a thickness of 1>^ inches of solid hon- 
ey between each two layers. You don't be- 
lieve they would make a howling success of 
wintering in that way, do you? There 
would have to be a chance somewhere for 
enough bees to get together so that there 
would be more than a ^-inch layer of them. 
I think you would agree to that. 

Suppose, on the other hand, Bro. Root, 
that we have a winter nest arranged just to 
your liking, with empty cells in the lower 
part of the central combs in a somewhat 
globular shape. Outside that space the 
combs are solid with honey. Now I sup- 
pose it would be just as well, possibly a 
trifle better, if those empty cells were 
gone entirely, leaving nothing at all in- 
side the cluster of bees. Parts of bottom- 
bars and empty combs inside a cluster can 
hardly be of any benefit. If we count, then, 
that there is nothing inside the cluster, then 
we have the bees practically on solid combs, 
don't we? 

In what shape is it best to have that clus- 
ter of bees'? Undoubtedly the sphere. Your 
two-fist arrangement, Bro. Root, is the 
ideal, just as the sphere is the ideal form for 
a hive. The nearer a hive comes to the 
spherical form, the better /or <Ae bees. But 
they will get along very well with a hive in 
the form of a cube, with a hive that is tall, 
that is shallow — in fact, in about any shape. 
So the winter cluster may be in almost any 
shape. In the case of your solidly filled 
combs, Bro. Byer, it will be semi-globular, 
under the bottom-bars, if there is space 
enough for that, flattened more and more 
as the space is smaller. With a two-inch 
space between bottom-bars and bottom- 
board I feel confident there wouldn't be the 
slightest trouble. An inch space might 
answer nearly as well, and how much less I 
don't know. But if combs were filled solid 
clear down to the bottom-bars, with only % 
inch between bottom-bars and bottom- 
board, I should expect the bees to succumb 
to a long-continued freeze. 

But in actual practice, suppose we do 
have combs solid with honey to the bottom- 
bars, how long do they continue so? Mind 
you, we don't put solid combs in the hive 
in December. We're hardly talking about 
later than September — at least that's the 
McEvoy plan. Well, in some way the bees 
have got hold of Bro. Root's idea that they 
must have a two-fist sjiace emptied out, and 
they begin at once to empty the cells inside 
of that space, and by the time the weather 
is very cold Bro. Byer's solid-comb bees will 
have things arranged to the satisfaction of 
Bro. Root. 

I suspect, however, that, if we have solid 
combs, it may make some difference how 
much space is under the bottom-bars. It is 
just possible that Mr. Beauhre, p. 67, had a 
very small space between bottom-bars and 



98 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



bottom-board, and that accounts for his un- 
favorable experience. 

We are so used to thinking of the winter 
cluster being on empty combs that some 
will object to my idea that it is practically 
the same as on full combs. }3ees, ihey 
think, must have empty combs inside the 
cluster. Well, let me say that many of my 
bees, when left to their own choice, prefer 
to have at least part of their cluster with 
absolutely nothing inside. In other words, 
the cluster hangs down below the bottom- 
bars. Some of the clusters touch the bot- 
tom-board two inches below the bottom- 
bars. 

I've just been down cellar this 3d of Feb- 
ruary at 6 A.M. Outside the thermometer 
says 27 degrees; in the cellar, 50. In the 59 
colonies that are in the upper two rows, I 
counted 48 clusters that were down below 
the bottom-bars. Some clusters were small, 
some large. In the other 11 cases some 
showed a few bees between the bottom-bars, 
and in some I could see no bees. In some 
colonies the cluster was at one side; in oth- 
ers, in the center. Some clusters were near 
the front; some nearer the back. In at 
least one case the cluster was clear to the 
outer surface of the front, closing the entire 
entrance. I don't suppose the cluster reach- 
ed back further than the center. 

The point I am making in this is that 
bees do not object to clustering on nothing. 
Perhaps I ought to add that no feeding was 
done last fall. 

Bro. Root says bees undisturbed make an 
empty space, and "we ought not to go con- 
trary to nature." That's right. But Bro. 
Byer may reply that bees will, if they get 
the chance, fill clear down to the bottom- 
bars, and "we ought not to go contrary to 
nature." (I've had bees without any feed- 
ing fill combs so full that no two-fist space 
was left.) 

My bees plainly work toward the Root 
idea, and at the same time — perhaps I ought 
rather to say prior to that time — they have 
such a strong liking for the Byer plan that 
they fill honey clear down to the bottom-bar 
if they can get it. And I like both plans. 

Marengo, 111. 

[Referring to your first paragraph, where 
you say that you believe there is but little 
difference in actual belief between Mr. By- 
er and ourself, you will see, if you turn to 
our footnote in reply to Mr. Byer, that we 
gave utterance to the same thought. That 
is to say, we agree with Mr. Byer if he 
means having combs solid with stores in 
September for outdoor wintering. By De- 
cember the bees will make in those combs 
just such a winter nest as we hold that they 
need. Taking this view of it, our beliefs 
and practices are almost identically the 
same. We do not think Mr. Byer himself 
w^ould insist on giving a colony nothing but 
combs with solid capped stores in the mid- 
dle of December. 

In all this discussion one must not lose 
sight of the question whether bees are win- 



tered indoors or outdoors. In a good cellar 
it is not so important how the stores in the 
brood-nest are disposed in the combs, pro- 
viding there are enough for the needs of the 
colony. Nearly all normal inrfoor-wintered 
colonies will cluster in the space between 
the bottom board and the bottom of the 
combs. Such colonies do not need a winter 
nest like the bees outdoors. 

In reading through your article it appears 
to us that you have in your mind's eye the 
bees in your cellar. You have never prac- 
ticed outdoor wintering to any extent, and 
therefore it would be natural for you to think 
of the condition of a colony in a winter re- 
pository; for you say, "Let me say that 
many of my bees, when left to their own 
choice, prefer to have at least part of their 
cluster with absolutely nothing inside. In 
other words, the cluster hangs down below 
the bottom-bars. Some of the clusters touch 
the bottom-board two inches below the bot- 
tom-bars." 

All through this discussion we tried to 
make it clear* that the question of winter 
nests had to do primarily with bees winter- 
ed outdoors. True it is that the inside col- 
onies may have a nest; but whether they do 
or not, the success of indoor wintering does 
not depend on that winter nest unless the 
cellar is very cold much of the time. It is 
only when the bees are wintered outdoors 
that the question assumes importance. You, 
Doctor, find your indoor clusters just where 
we find ours; but unless we draw a clear dis- 
tinction between outdoor and indoor win- 
tering we shall get mixed up in our discus- 
sions. Again, we should bear in mind that 
if outdoor bees have solid combs early in 
the fall they will probably have winter nests 
by the time actual cold weather sets in if 
they are not disturbed. 



NECTARLESS FLOWERS. 



BY JOHN H. LOVELL. 



I n a recen t number a correspondent writes: 
"There has been some discussion of late as 
to whether bees get any honey from roses. 
I believe I have seen them at work very 
freely on wild or single roses, and I see no 
good reason why roses should not yield hon- 
ey, as they belong to the same family as the 
ajople, pear, plum, cherry, raspberry, etc. 
If one species of a given family of plants 
yields honey we may expect they will all do 
so." 

It is a rule recognized by all students of 
flowers that it is never safe, from an exami- 
nation of one species of flower, to draw con- 
clusions as to another species, even when 
they belong to the same genus, much less 
when they belong to different genera or 
families. Each flower must be studied in- 
dependently. It might seem probable, in- 
deed, that, if one species of a family secret- 
ed nectar, all the others would do so; but 

*See Gleanings, page 688, Nov. 15, page 724, Dec.l, 
1909, and page 21, Jan. 1, 1911. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IX BEE CULTUllE 



99 



such is not the fact. In the buttercup fami- 
ly [Ranunculaceae) the buttercups, colum- 
bines, larkspurs, etc., all secrete nectar, but 
the anemones do not. In the large family 
of figworts [Scrophulariaceae) most of the 
species secrete nectar, but the mulleins do 
not. In the honeysuckle family {Capr'ifo- 
liaceae), the viburnums and honeysuckles 
secrete nectar, but the elders [Sambucus] 
do not. Many orchids secrete nectar, others 
do not. In the St. Johns-wort family (Ify- 
pericaceae) the marsh St. .lohns-wort se- 
cretes nectar, but the St. Johns- wort {ITy- 
pericum) does not. In the night-shade 
family {S'olanaceae) the night-shade is a 
pollen flower, but the ground-cherry con- 
tains nectar Other instances might easily 
be given. Incidentally it may be remarked 
that flowers do not secrete honey — they se- 
crete nectar. 

Your correspondent says that he believes 
he has seen bees at work on wild roses. If 
he has observed our wild roses carefully I 
do not doubt that he has seen (as I have) 
hundreds of bees at work on their blos-soms, 
but they are not collecting nectar. The use 
of the w^ord "believes" shows that his ob- 
servation is merely an impression. In the 
case of the rose the only way to tell whether 
it contains nectar or not is to examine the 
various organs under the compound micro- 
scope. He does not say that the bees were 
honey-bees, but the impression is that they 
were. They probably were not, but large 
bees belonging to the genus Andrena {A. 
carlini or A. vicina), or some other wild 
bee which nright easily be mistaken for 
honey-bees, especially at a casual glance. 

A man in this vicinity who was a bee- 
keeper for many years, and whose father 
before him kept bees, asked me this spring 
to look at his plum-trees. He told me that 
they were loaded with blossoms, and visited 
by great numbers of honey-bees. They were, 
indeed, a beautiful sight, each tree forming 
a huge bouquet of white flowers. There 
were hundreds of bees flying about among 
them, which were pointed out as honey- 
bees. A brief inspection was suflicient to 
show me that they were chiefly a species of 
Andrena. As a matter of fact, I did not 
see a single honey-bee. 

Another amusing illustration of how easi- 
ly other insects maybe mistaken for honey- 
bees occurred a few days ago. A prominent 
official of this town told me how his wife 
had called his attention to the presence of 
many bees on the windows of a shed cham- 
ber. He related how he had covered his 
head with netting, put on an overcoat and 
mittens, and finally drove them out. 

"Now," he inquired, "how did they get 
there?" 

"They were not bees at all," I replied, 
"but flies. If you will examine them close- 
ly you will find that they have only one 
pair of wings." 

Naturally he was somewhat astonished 
at this statement; but some days later he 
brought me two of the insects in a bottle. 
They proved to be, as I had expected, syr- 



phid flies, which are often found on flowers, 
and are called Eristalis tenax. The larva 
lives in wet places, and has a tail like a rat, 
though much smaller, through which it 
breathes by extending it upward to the sur- 
face of the water. It is never found with- 
out exciting curiosity. 

Perhaps another example may be of in- 
terest. One autumn day a boy told me that 
the side of his father's house had been cov- 
ered a few days before with my bees. I had 
noticed, however, on the afternoon men- 
tioned, thousands of male and female ants 
on the wing, and it was the females of these 
ants which he had mistaken for bees. 

There are thousands of flowers which do 
not produce nectar, being chiefly pollinated 
by the wind, as the grasses, sedges, alders, 
elms,' beeches, birches, and hickories. They 
are often visited by insects for pollen, and I 
have seen the honey-bee busily at work on 
the alders in early spring, and on the spin- 
dles of the Indian corn later in the season. 
The cone-trees, as the pines, produce such 
immense quantities of pollen that, when it 
is carried upward by a breeze, it is some- 
times mistaken for smoke. The so-called 
"sulphur showers " are due to the falling 
of millions of pollen grains which have been 
carried up in the air from cone-trees by the 
wind. 

Waldoboro, Me. 



LARGE VS. SMALL HIVES. 



The Eight-frame Hive all Right in its Place. 
BY HARRY LATHROP. 



I was very glad to see Mr. Aiken's article, 
page 730, Nov. 15, 1910, in which he stands 
up for the merits of the eight-frame hive. 
I have always used and preferred the eight- 
frame L. hive as he suggests, giving the 
queen two sets of combs when deemed ad- 
visable. 

Last July I paid a visit to the apiary of 
Miss Candler, at Cassville, Wis. While 
there I received what might be termed a jar 
to my complacency regarding the use of 
small hives. Miss Candler wa>4 conducting 
me through her well-appointed home apia- 
ry. The season with her was not considered 
a good one; still, there was considerable hon- 
ey in the yard, especially on hives that had 
been supplied with extracting -combs. I 
was shown a sixteen-frame L. hive having a 
set of store combs above, or 32 in all. The 
upper set was plugged with honey, and I 
said to Miss Candler, "There is 80 lbs. of 
honey on that hive, and you have lost per- 
haps 25 lbs. by not having given more room 
when needed." 

To this she assented. I said that I just 
wished I had a lot of hives like that one 
with 80 lbs. of nice honey. Visions of what 
might be done flashed before my eyes; but 
then, at second thought, it occurred to me 
that I had at home in mv yard quite a num- 
ber of eight-framers that, tiered up, had al- 
ready produced as much as 80 lbs. each; 



100 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



and in making comparison with such hives 
would I not be entitled to put two of my 
eight-frame hives against one sixteen- 
frame? Of course, I would; and when it 
comes to that, I can take two eight-frame 
hives with a good queen in each, and dis- 
count any one of Mr. Holtermann's large 
hives. If I see fit to manipulate smaller 
hives for convenience' sake, why am I not 
to be rated according to the number of 
combs used, and not by the number of 
hives? 

I believe there are many localities where 
the eight-frame L. hive is just about right, 
and it is hardly fair to upset the plans of 
beginners and cause them to begin expen- 
sive changes without having them under- 
stand that there are as many arguments in 
favor of as against the small hive as used 
by the experienced honey -producer. I 
would not say a word against the growing 
popularity of the ten-frame hive. I use 
some of them right along, and would have 
worked into them long ago, only that I 
could not see any advantage in doing so. 
But if I had a chance to start an apiary 
with all ten-frame L. hives I would not hes- 
itate a moment, for I believe they are as 
good as but no better than the eight-frame 
when properly handled. 

In speaking of her sixteen-frame hive, 
Miss Candler said it never swarmed. This 
non-swarming feature would be an advan- 
tage, of course, if it could be said that the 
eight-frame hives were never non-swarm- 
ers, but that would not be true; for if tiered 
up they also may be non-swarming. 

The sixteen-frame hive would be too 
heavy for cellar wintering where one man 
does the work. With such hives, outdoor 
wintering would have to be followed, but 
that introduces another topic upon which I 
will not enter at this time. 

Bridgeport, Wis., Dec. 6. 



ITALIANS OR BLACKS. 



The Italians Breed up Too Farly, and then 
Swarm Instead of Working. 



BY W. C. MOLLETT. 



Noticing what Mr. T. B. Mowry, of Con- 
necticut, has to say, p. 701, Nov. 1, 1910, as 
to the relative value of blacks and Italians 
in his locality, I have about come to the 
same conclusion. It would seem that the 
difference as to the amount and kind of 
honey-producing plants in a given location 
has very much to do with the question as 
as to which race is superior. This locality 
is somewhat similar to that described by 
Mr. Mowry — that is, it is covered with tim- 
ber to a considerable extent, mostly oak 
and beech, and has very few good honey- 
producing flowers since the basswood and 
whitewood have been mostly cut away. 
The past season here was a very poor one, 
the bees being upon the point of starvation 
in the first part of .lune — something never 
before known; but we had a remarkable 



honey-flow in 1909, my colonies that year 
giving an average of 90 lbs. surplus. I have 
been trying Italians for the past four sea- 
sons, and am firmly of the opinion that 
they are inferior to the blacks in this local- 
ity. Of course, in a section where there is 
plenty of white and sweet clover the Ital- 
ians may be much ahead of the blacks as 
honey-gatherers. 

The chief objection I have to the Italians 
is their prolificness, although this may 
seem rather paradoxical to most bee-keep- 
ers. They will begin rearing brood here in 
February, and by the first of May the hives 
will be crowded with bees at a time when 
there is no nectar to gather, and, as a result, 
I am usually compelled to feed more or less 
or lose the bees. No matter if the hive con- 
tains 50 lbs. of honey in the fall, they will 
use it all in brood-rearing before the first of 
June; then if the weather is not favorable 
they may be at the point of starving. 

If the weather is very favorable the Ital- 
ians will also often swarm by the first of 
May — a time when there is little honey to 
gather, and then the swarm must be fed 
until the honey-flow comes, usually about 
the middle of June. The swarm will also 
usually swarm again during the honey- 
flow, which will cause the extra labor at a ' 
time when we would rather they would be 
gathering honey. The Italians seem to 
have a perfect mania for swarming here, 
which, to a considerable extent, impairs 
their usefulness as honey-gatherers. 

The blacks, as a rule, do not commence 
brood-rearing until March, and ttien they do 
not raise as many young bees as the Ital- 
ians; and, as a result, they are not likely to 
use up their honey so soon, and so are not 
as liable to be in danger of starving. The 
past season, when I was compelled to feed 
all of my Italians, the bees belonging to one 
of my neighbors lived through without any 
feeding — they being of the common black 
variety. 

By the time the honey-flow comes, the 
blacks are usually strong enough in bees to 
gather considerable honey when the weath- 
er is favorable, and they are not nearly as 
liable to upset all of our plans by swarming. 

One season the blacks gave a fair amount 
of surplus when I got nothing from the It- 
alians but increase, which I did not want. 
I am aware of the fact that this locality is a 
very unfavorable one for bees, on account 
of too much rainfall and scarcity of honey- 
producing plants, and that bee-keeping 
does not pay here, even with the best man- 
agement; but on account of fertilizing the 
fruit-bloom I will continue to keep a few 
colonies. 

Stonecoal, W. Va., Dec. 2. 

Honey Not Broken in Double-tier Shipping-cases. 

I have been shipping a good deal of comb honey 
for the last three years. I use the double-tier ship- 
ping-case with corrugated paper between the tiers 
and at the bottom of the case. I have never heard 
of one section being broken, and I have shipped 
over two lines of railroad, and hauled over four 
tons each year on a wagon twenty miles. 

Stanfield, Ore. T. J. Barkingkk. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



101 




THE WILLOW-HERB OF NOBTHBBN MICHIGAN. 



102 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



THE WILLOW-HERB AND RASPBERRY OF 
NORTHERN MICHIGAN. 



On Account of the Leaf-mold being Burned by 
the Great Fire of 1908, the Raspberry Lo- 
cations are Not what they Used to Be. 

BY E. D. TOWNSEND. 



Willow-herb {Epilobium angustifolium) 
is often called by the first half of its scien- 
tific name, "Epilobium." It is also known 
as hawk-bill, on account of the hooked-down 
shape of the buds at the extreme top of the 
stalk, while still another name is pine pink, 
for it is of a reddish-pink color, and some- 
times grows on pine cuttings mixed with 
hard wood. It is a fireweed, and usually 
produces honey for three seasons after a for- 
est fire, and then it is crowded out by other 
foliage, and not heard from again until aft- 
er another fire, which is likely to follow in 
two or three years more, when the fire-burn- 
ed timber has fallen down, thus providing 
material for subsequent conflagrations. 

Willow-herb is at its best the second sea- 
son following the first fire after the timber 
has been removed by the lumbermen. Each 
subsequent fire burns off more of the leaf- 
mold, and leaves less nourishment that 
could produce growth, and, consequently, 
willow-herb disappears almost entirely after 
a few fires, or, at any rate, so little of it is 
left that, from a honey-producer's stand- 
point, nothing remains. The plant branch- 
es out like buckwheat, and it is nothing 
rare to see single stools with a dozen great 
thrifty shoots making a plant three feet in 
diameter. These are the ones that produce 
"showers" of honey; but little may be ex- 




FIG. 4. — CHAYOTILLO VINE COVERING OLD WALL NEAR cn Y OF MEXICO. 



pected from the plant when not in this 
thrifty condition. 

The name "willow-herb " is derived from 
the shape of the leaves, which are almost 
identical with those of the willow, which 
furnishes the bees so much pollen and hon- 
ey during the spring months. The blos- 
soms are reddish pink in color, and very at- 
tractive, and, when once seen, will always 
be remembered. In Fig. 1 an enlarged view 
of tlie blossoms is shown. Notice that, on 
the extreme top of the upper view, there are 
four or five buds not yet in bloom, while 
further down there are some in full bloom, 
and, still further down, the seed-buds. 

Figs. 2 and 3 are characteristic scenes of 
the home of the willow-herb. In the latter 
view some of the fire-killed timber has al- 
ready fallen down, furnishing material for 
another fire. 

Fig. 4 is our Springbrook yard in Charle- 
voix Co., of which I shall have more to say 
at a later time. 

Growing side by side with the willow-herb 
is the famous wild red raspberry of North- 
ern Michigan. While Figs. 1 and 2 show 
willow-herb, most of the undergrowth in 
Figs. 3 and 4 is the wild red raspberry, this 
plant being to the bee-keepers of Northern 
Michigan what clover is to those in the 
southern part of the State — the main source 
of surplus honey. The occasional years 
when willow-herb or basswood yields honey 
in sufficient quantities for commercial pur- 
poses are so limited that bee-keeping would 
be unprofitable without the raspberry. 

When we first moved our bees to the rasp- 
berry district, the bee-keepers there told us 
that it was customary for forest fires to burn 
during the month of April, and that, later, 

the foliage 

would become 

so dense as to 
shade the 
ground to such 
an extent that 
the under- 
growth would 
be too damp 
for forest fires 
that year. 
These fires 
burn only the 
dry leaves and 
limbs, and 
leave the 
ground in an 
ideal condition 
for raspberry 
and willow- 
herb. Of 
course, forest 
fires are espe- 
cially necessa- 
ry for willow- 
herb growth, as 
this plant is a 
species of fire- 
weed. 

During the 
summer and 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



103 



fall of 1908 the " fire 
rules ' ' were sus- 
pended, for the 
burning kept on 
during the period 
of full leaf. This 
season of 1908 j^rov- 
ed one of the driest 
in years, and the 
larger portion of 
the timber belt of 
Northern Michigan 
burned over. At 
this period the 
ground was so very 
dry that the turf or 
leaf-mold burned 
off entirely in many 
places, leaving only 
the naked sand to 
produce the after- 
crop of willow-herb 
and ras 13 berry. 
Those familiar with 
this section of the 
country will readily 
understand that 
the subsequent 
growth was thereby 
spindling, and the 

plants far [apart— nothing' like the thrifty 
growth of Tother times. On this account 
many think that the raspberry of North- 
ern Michigan will never be what it was 
before this fire, basing their arguments on 
the fact that many spots, where there were 
dense growths of the berries, are now, since 
the fire, only piles of ashes. Another draw- 
back in this locality is that late frosts have 
cut the surplus crop of raspberry honey in 
two, both seasons, since we have had the 
bees in that location. 

To sum up the situation, I will say that, 
in my judgment, a bee-keeper fairly well lo- 
cated in a clover location had better stay 
where he is rather than move to the much- 
lauded raspberry region of Northern Mich- 
igan. I have moved two cars of bees to al- 
sike-clover locations, and placed only half 
the number of colonies in ovir raspberry api- 
aries that we had before the great fire of 
1908. This will answer many inquiries that 
I have received about raspberry locations. 

Remus, Mich. 




FIG, 



BEE-KEEPING 



The Long-Idea Hive as Formerly Used by Carl 
Ludloff. 



BY O. B. METCALFE. 



Continued from !ast issue, page 77. 

At the City of Mexico I met a modern 
bee-keeper by the name of Fred M. Allen. 
Mr. Allen keeps about 75 colonies in eight- 
frame standard American hives, and runs 
them for comb honey exclusively. He gets 
an average of one super around, which brings 



5. — ONE OF CARL LUDLOFF'S SIMPLEX HIVES AS HE FIRST 
MADE THEM, NEAR THE CITY OF MEXICO. 



him about 40 cts.* per lb. His wax, of which 
he naturally has very little, being a comb- 
honey producer, brings him the customary 
price of SI. 00 per lb. 

Mr. Allen does not seem very well pleased 
with the business, and talks as though he 
must give it up unless the perfected Ludloff 
hive, which he is just now trying, proves to 
be better suited to the climate. He com- 
plains of hea%'y loss and weakened colonies 
from spring dwindling, which, apparently, 
is a very natural thing in his locality, and 
I doubt very much that he will find any 
hive which will materially prevent it. It is 
caused by the fact that, all the year round, 
the weather is warm enough for the bees to 
fly, and there are enough flowers to coax 
them out, but not enough to enable them to 
gather much nectar, and at the same time 
the nights are too cold for much brood-rais- 
ing. This means the wearing-out of the old 
bees with nothing to take their places. 

Mr. A. says his only honey-flow is from 
the chayotillo vine, shown in Fig. 4. This 
begins to bloom about the last of August, 
and the bees make their one super of honey 
from it. They also swarm furiously when 
the flow first starts. 

The plant chayotillo is a fine climbing 
vine which belongs to the cucumber family, 
and, like the cultivated cucumber, it requires 
abundance of moisture. I have tried to 
grow it here in New Mexico, but it seems to 
be too hot and dry for it. It did very well 
while the ground was kept wet and cool 
around it, but it had to be irrigated nearly 
every day. Such a climate as the City of 
Mexico has, where the rains are frequent — al- 
most dailyduring the rainy season — just suits 

*About 20 cents American money. 



IN THE HIGHLANDS 
MEXICO. 



OF 



104 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 




Fig. 1.— C'has. Pieicy, an electrician at the Naval Station, Mare 
Island, California, who finds time to keep up a little 
apiary in spite of the difficulties encountered. 

it, and it thrives there in great profusion, 
covering bushes, fences, and old walls with a 
solid blanket of bright green. By August 
20 it begins to bloom, and soon the whole 
vine is covered with a small white bloom. 
The bees make from it, while it lasts, a light 
amber honey of fine quality. 



It was here near the City of 
Mexico that Mr. Carl LudlofT 
made his first attempt at ex- 
tensive bee-keeping in the re- 
public. He is now located at 
Irapuato, and in a later article 
I will have more to say about 
him and his "Simplex hive." 
Mr. Ijudloff might be called 
the pioneer of intense bee- 
keeping on the highlands of 
Mexico. His experiments at 
Mexico City were a failure. He 
organized a stock company 
with a capital of twelve or thir- 
teen thousand dollars, and put 
in a large apiary in the type of 
hive shown in Fig. 5. These 
hives were about nine feet long, 
and contained as many as sixty 
frames. It will be seen at a 
glance that the hive is very 
much on the order of the Hu- 
ber hive, shown on pages 248 
and 249 of A B C and X Y Z 
of Bee Culture. It seems to 
have been the idea of Mr. Lud- 
lofT that, the larger the colony 
got, the more frames he would 
give to it by simply shifting his 
division - boards, and that he 
would in this way do away with 
swarming entirely. No doubt 
this arrangement helped some- 
what to keep down the swarm- 
ing; but he still had swarms. 
The cover or case for the hives, 
which may be seen standing 
on its end in the picture, is a 
double-walled chalT-filled con- 
cern, and, no doubt, very warm; but as the 
walls both inside and out were nothing but 
cloth, the whole had to be covered with a 
shingle cover as shown in position on the 
unopened hives. 

After some five or six years of failure near 
the city, Ludloff & Co. moved their bees 




Fig. 2.— Chas. Piercy's Apiary, Mare Island, California, 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 




Ffg. 3.— Mr. Piercy's "armor" resists the onslaught ol even very cross bees. 

over the mountains to Cuerna ^"aca. The 
idea at that time was to build up colonies 
over there at just the right time, and to ship 
them over into the great valley at the city 
for the chayotillo flow — a venture which al- 
so proved to be impractical, and the com- 
pany fell through. This apiary is still at 
Cuerna Vaca, and will be mentioned more 
at length in my next article. 
^Nlesilla Park, New Mexico. 



BEE-KEEPING ON AN ISLAND NAVAL STA- 
TION, 



BY W. A. PRYAIi. 



At Mare Island, about a mile from South 
Vallejo, Solano Co., is located the Govern- 
ment Naval Station. An electrician at the 
navy yard, Mr. Chas. Piercy, has always 
been interested in bees, and about four years 
ago he began the nucleus of his present api- 
ary by securing a miserable poor colony over 
in Vallejo. I believe it soon died. His next 
prize came in the way of a swarm that flew 
across the channel from Vallejo and took 
up quarters in one of the naval buildings. 
From this capture the apiary grew until, at 
the time of my visit, last April, there were 
fourteen colonies. He finds ready sale for 
all his honey among the families of Island 
Station. It is well that he does, for I be- 
lieve it is a hard matter to get any thing off 
the island without unraveling a lot of red 
tape. 

Mr. Piercy is quite a mechanical genius. 
Having access to the mechanical shops of 
the Station he has built a gasoline-engine 
which he uses for power, and he makes his 
own hives, including the Hoffman frames. 
He also has a giant bee-smoker of his own 
construction, the metal parts of which are 
of galvanized sheetiiron, and, instead of us- 
ing sheepskin^for_the^bellows,.he uses some 



105 

kind of colored canvas 
obtained from the na- 
val stores. He had 
just finished a small 
reversible honey - ex- 
tractor, the gearing of 
which was made from 
a machinist's breast- 
drill that had been 
condemned in one of 
the workshops. The 
reel was of the stand- 
ard pattern obtained 
from some supply 
house. 

The bees on the is- 
land are extremely 
cross, but our friend 
has an armor or pro- 
tect ion of unusual 
form. This is shown 
in one of the engrav- 
ings. 

The best and most 
novel tool or imple- 
ment house I ever saw 
at a bee-yard was the one on this island, as 
shown in Fig. 3. It was a great safe-like 
box made water-tight, and provided with a 
hinged door. It had been discarded from 
some warship, and was lying on the dumps 
near by when it was appropriated for use 
in this apiary. This impels me to remark 
that the waste by the Naval Department 
is something terrific. To see what cost 
millions piled in the junk-heap is startling. 
Mr. Piercy is raising the ground about 
the apiary by hauling on various kinds of 
rubbish so as to bring the surface above tide 
level. He considers a government naval 
station an undesirable place for bees, espe- 
cially Mare Island, as he finds the forage 
scanty, and the wind and water bad factors 
to contend with. He hopes to retire some 
day to a ten-acre tract of land that he owns 
in the north, where he will be able to carry 
out more of his ideas of real living. 
Oakland, Cal. 




FlG. 4. — A tool-house made from an old sale-like 
box discarded at the Naval Station. 



106 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 





..'•^ 


'"■^# 




|x^H 




,*- ^^©^Jlll^ 


iflH 




. ^L^UH^^^^Bp- 


IMglH 






1^ 


f^^H 



thp: narrow-leaf Cottonwood of Colorado. 

This tree furnishes a large amount of propolis. 



THE NARROW-LEAF COTTONWOOD. 



The Source of Most of the Propolis the Bees 
Gather in the West. 



BY WESLEY FOSTER. 



One of the first things an Easterner no- 
tices in coming west is the different tree 
flora. Instead of the oak, the ash, hard 
maple, basswood, hickory, etc., he sees the 
broad-leaf cottonwood, the narrow-leaf Cot- 
tonwood, the willow, and the box elder 
along the watercourses of the plains, while 
in the mountains the aspen, spruce, and 
pine predominate. We who live in the val- 
leys and on the plains are not blessed with 
woods such as are known to one living in 
the East, but none the less we love the sight 
of the trees along the stream-beds and irri- 
gating-ditches. The changing colors of the 
narrow-leaf cottonwood are as beautiful as 
those of any tree I know of, and, though 
not so highly colored as the crimson blush 
of the oak, it is tenderer and more delicate 
in its shading. In fact, I think it is the most 
beautiful tree growing naturally along our 
streams. Its dull-gray lower trunk is slight- 
ly rough, but not as rough as the common 
cottonwood, and it grows smoother to- 
ward the top till a smooth silvery shade is 
reached half way between the silver-maple 
and the birch. The thin narrow leaves 
stand out against the sky as delicate as 



lacework, and the tree has an air of wild 
natural refinement about it. 

But, one can hardly find a bee-man who 
lives near where the narrow-leaf cottonwood 
thrives who does not regret the fact. The 
propolis is a bright reddish color, very 
sticicy, and oozes out on the buds of this 
tree in such large bulbs that it is an easy 
matter for the bees to collect large quanti- 
ties of it. The drawing shows the size of 
the bulbs of propolis, and I have seen a sin- 
gle bud that had propolis enough to make 
several good large bee-loads. 

The photograph shows a lane with three 
narrow-leaf cottonwood-trees at its side, 
with their paint-brush-like tops flashing 
forth the light of the evening sun from 
the yellowing foliage. The leaves fall 
from the lower branches first, which causes 
the tops of these trees to take on the paint- 
brush appearance. The bees continue to 
gather the propolis, however, long after the 
leaves have fallen; for our long beautiful 
fall of bright warm days often lasts till 
nearly Christmas. 

While we may regret the nuisance of the 
propolis we should not overlook the fact 
that this tree relieves the monotony that 
would make our farming sections of the 
plains well nigh unbearable. The narrow- 
leaf cottonwood lines our streams and ditch- 
es, and has often brought pleasure to those 
who watch the slow but steady advance of 
fall and winter by the changing colors and 
falling of the foliage. 

Boulder, Col. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



107 



EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. 



Conditions in Which Bees are Immune or Sus- 
ceptible. 

BY F. B. CAVANAGH. 



Continued from last ixnue, poae ',':>. 

The most important consideration in es- 
tablishing either immunity or a cure is the 
Italian bee, although in my limited experi- 
ence Cyprians, Carniolans, and Caucasians 
are all equally good resisters of the disease. 

The leather-colored Italians are not so good 
as the three-banded yellow Italians; and 
with me, as a rule, the darker the hybrid the 
poorer the resistance. Time and again have 
I seen black or dark hybrid bees filthy with 
disease, while right beside them were hives 
of Italians showing scarcely a bad cell. 

Young queens are also important in es- 
tablishing immunity, as they keep the hive 
in a strong and vigorous condition; and for 
some reason their brood will hatch healthy, 
when that from a poor or black queen would 




COTTONWOOD BUDS, SHOWING BULBS OF 
PKOPOLIS. 



be diseased. Hence curing black bees of 
European foul brood is as futile as mending 
a worn-out automobile tire, and the case is 
quite as liable to break out again. 

The time of the year and extent of the 
honey-flow are of great importance, and 
must have our utmost consideration when 
applying curative measures. In this local- 
ity the disease shows worst in May, the 
main breeding season in which bees are 
drawing heavily on their stores. At this, of 
all times, they are susceptible to the disease, 
and easily infected. 

This is the time also when the "self-cur- 
ed " colonies of the previous autumn will 
develop disease from the honey in the hives, 
if at all. Feeding in itself, at this period, 
will prevent much of the disease by supply- 
ing healthy food stores at a time when the 
colony is at the lowest ebb of vitality, and 
the time when the bees in the hive are most- 
ly old, and, consequently, are poor comb- 
cleaners. If we bridge over this critical part 
of the season by feeding, these colonies a 
few weeks later will have estab- 
lished a condition of immunity 
when the honey-flow is on and 
the hive is full of young bees. 

During this critical period is 
also the time to observe the su- 
perior condition of the Italian 
colonies whose young queens 
have supplied their hives with 
young bees by laying late in the 
previous autumn. 

Summing up, the ideal condi- 
tions for immunity are: 1. 
Strong hives with young Ital- 
ian bees and queens and a fair 
honey-flow, or feed given during 
the early breeding season. 
2. Conditions for infection — 
weak colonies, poor queens, or black stock, 
and a poor honey-flow, any of which condi- 
tions will aggravate the trouble. 

Bees can be kept in a strong resistant con- 
dition just as man's system can be kept in 
a vigorous condition, which will be resistant 
or immune to various diseases. That a vig- 
orous colony may be fed infected honey 
without contracting the disease, while a 
weak discouraged colony will develop the 
disease if even in the vicinity of diseased 
hives, and probably without having robbed 
or received any infected honey, is plainly 
due to the "condition of the colony" and 
the race of bees. This condition was char- 
acteristic of my first experience — the weak 
colonies being attacked by far the worst. 

CURES — WHY THEY SUCCEED AND WHY 
THEY SOMETIMES FAIL. 

A badly infected apiary of 25 hives which 
I inspected near Lowell two years ago con- 
tained nothing but black bees. There was 
no clover flow that year; and as the trouble 
had been there for some time previous, the 
colonies were so badly diseased that I con- 
demned the entire lot. The McEvoy treat- 
ment was administered simultaneously to all 
colonies, each one being shaken twice with 




108 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



an interval of four days between. The hives 
were then disinfected, all honey boiled, and 
the combs rendered away from the bees. Al- 
though these colonies were blacks, rotten 
with disease, many of them weak, and pro- 
vided with old queens, every colony was 
permanently cured as proven by inspection 
since that time, in spite of the fact that the 
work was done during a poor honey-fiow. 

During the same spring I moved fifty 
healthy colonies — the Berdine yard, in fact 
— within range of diseased bees which they 
robbed. Several of the colonies had been 
shaken, i)revious to development of any dis- 
ease, to prevent swarming. When, a little 
later, the disease did appear, lo and behold! 
these shaken swarms were the worst infect- 
ed of any in the yard. Wishing to make a 
clean sweep of the disease, I waited only un- 
til other colonies in the vicinity were treat- 
ed, and then began on the McEvoy treat- 
ment; however, 1 didn't disinfect the hives, 
as I thought it unnecessary since the disease 
had been so recently contracted. And after 
curing hundreds of cases I still believe that 
the disinfecting would have had little eflect 
in this case, for some of the colonies were 
shaken into new hives. In almost every 
case a return of the disease followed in a 
short time, leaving the shaken colony in 
worse condition than before, througli deple- 
tion of the brood. My readers will now re- 
member what I said awhile back about the 
bearing of the "condition of the honey- 
flow" and "resistant condition of the colo- 
ny " as to immunity, etc. I want to im- 
press the importance of this upon my read- 
ers, even if it is the last column of space I 
am ever permitted to use in Gleanings. 
For a surgeon to attempt an operation on a 
patient who has not vitality enough to with- 
stand the shock would be considered folly; 
yet the idea of shaking bees under these 
conditions is just as unreasonable. Listen: 
The honey-fiow was poor; the queens were, 
of course, poor, and the blackest bees in the 
worst diseased colonies. Had I requeened 
these weakened colonies at the time of shak- 
ing, I will wager that the result might have 
been entirely in my favor and in favor of 
the shaking method. Also had the honey- 
flow been good, which it was not, the results 
might liave been better. 

Well, it didn't take half an eye to see that 
I was making no headway by "shaking," 
so I began stacking the brood over other 
colonies, some of which were kept queen- 
less. I also stacked some separately, leav- 
ing only one frame of bees to a body and no 
queen. As to cures, I had various results; 
but one fact stood out clearly; viz., the side 
of the apiary where the diseased brood was 
piled was getting the best of the bargain all 
the way through. In the fall flow the stack- 
ed colonies made a lot of honey while some on 
the shaken side of the yard had to be unit- 
ed to be put in shape for winter, and many 
of them had to be put on combs of healthy 
stores after brood-rearing had ceased, hav- 
ing failed to get rid of the disease. 

The McEvoy treatment had been success- 



ful with the black bees at Lowell because 
we had killed or "chased to the woods " ev- 
ery disease germ in the hives, combs, and 
honey. I am satisfied that, without disin- 
fection of hives in this case, we should have 
had the disease back again in a short time. 
In the case of the Berdine apiary the disease 
was kept in the yard in those stacks, and I 
believe the germs were scattered through the 
air. My colonies treated a la McEvoy were 
in beautiful condition to be reinfected from 
this source; and right here is the weak point 
in the shaking treatment in large apiaries, 
viz., it puts the colony in a weaker and more 
susceptible condition to contract the disease 
than it was at first. My new swarms and 
the previously healthy shaken swarms were 
also in this susceptible condition as I have 
just related, the conditions differing only in 
that tlie treated colonies were the poorest to 
begin with in general vitality. 

With the advent of the fall flow, most of 
the colonies cleaned up all traces of the dis- 
ease, although the crayon-marks remained 
on each hive, showing their past condition 
and treatment. Now, had I succeeded in 
treating aZ^ infected colonies I might be tell- 
ing bee-keepers to-day of tlie "cure " I had 
discovered; but, alas! for lack of help I fail- 
ed to treat about fifty badly infected hives, 
expecting that they were requeened with 
the rest of the bees. Tlie disease disappear- 
ed during the fall flow, and the inspection 
of the following May revealed that out of 
fifty hives not treated all were healthy ex- 
cepting four, which showed the disease in 
very mild form. This yard had wintered 
perfectly, contained young Italian queens, 
and was left in the packing until settled 
warm weather. It also happened that a 
small bee-keeper located within about a 
mile of both this yard and the George yard 
had failed to clean up, and had a lot of rob- 
bing going on in some diseased hives. The 
strong immune bunch of fifty remained 
healthy, while in the George yard, which 
had wintered poorly, a dozen diseased colo- 
nies developed in the spring, and there were 
more throughout the season. Of course, I 
got rid of the diseased yard by buying it up 
a little later; but the circumstance served to 
impress the importance of keeping all colo- 
nies in an immune condition, and, inciden- 
tally, furnished material for testing more 
fully the cure I shall advocate a little later 
in this article. The Aylesworth yard of 
golden three-banders, Cyprians, Carniolans, 
and Caucasians, which wintered well and 
were fed frequently, has never showed a 
trace of the disease since. Now, if the above 
experience counts for any thing, does it not 
clearly prove that colonies kept in the pink 
of condition may be immune to the disease, 
while weak hives, with poor black queens, 
are easily infected? 

A DISCUSSION OF THE ALEXANDER AND 
MILLER TREATMENTS. 

Mr. Alexander reports a cure from uniting 
and building his colonies up strong, de- 
queening and decelling for 21 days, and 
then introducing a cell or virgin queen of 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



109 



Italian stock. From this and the results of 
similar treatments the following deductions 
may apply: 

That the logical cure of European foul 
brood is composed of two parts: The tem- 
porary and the perinanervt, the first con- 
sisting of the elimination of the diseased 
brood in the hive, and the second the es- 
tablishment of immunity in the colony. 
Alexander accomplished part one in an ef- 
fective way by employing a large queenless 
force of young bees to clean house. As his 
hives had some diseased sealed brood, he 
found it necessary to extend the queenless 
period to at least 24 days. Dr. Miller, not 
having to deal with much sealed diseased 
brood, found that, in his cases, a shorter 
period would suffice. Mr. Alexander, hav- 
ing rid the hives of the diseased matter, at 
the same time established the immunity of 
the hive by starting the colonies strong, 
with vigorous young Italian queens. Again, 
Alexander's location has a heavy fall flow 
which is bound to give a lot of young bees 
for winter and the following spring. His 
spring location is also admitted to be ex- 
ceptionally good, in addition to the fact 
that Mr. Alexander feeds syrup stimulative- 
ly. The success of the Alexander treatment 
in this case, as it must be in all others, was 
finally due to the thorough manner in which 
immunity was established, and also to fa- 
vorable conditions, natural or artificial. 

From what I have read of Dr. Miller's ex- 
perience I can not believe that he had much 
diseased honey to deal with after he had ac- 
complished "part one." The disease was 
of recent contraction to begin with, being, 
no doubt, treated the same season as discov- 
ered. The cure was effected during a dearth 
of honey when the only stores the bees had 
were the pure honey which they uncapped 
along the top-bars. Having then accom- 
plished "part one," the getting rid of the 
diseased brood, the rest of the cure should 
have been as easy for him as it proved to be 
with me. Both of us, and Alexander as 
well, had a fall flow of honey to put our bees 
in good shape for the following spring, so 
again we have peculiarly favorable condi- 
tions entering into the success of the treat- 
ment. 

During a fall flow of honey this disease 
will usually disappear of its own accord, in 
which case colonies may be put on an al- 
most equal footing with those treated on the 
Alexander plan by simply requeening early 
in the season with Italian stock. 

Why, then, has the Alexander plan failed 
in some cases? Because of one or two rea- 
sons: Either the man was not adapted to 
the cure or else the cure was not adapted to 
the locality. Some men are never thorough 
enough to accomplish real success in any 
thing, much less in the cure of such a con- 
tagious disease as European foul brood; and 
I suspect that this disease would be hard to 
cure by Alexander's method in a location 
which had no fall flow, by reason of the lack 
of late- reared young bees affecting the im- 
munity of the hive the following spring. It 



would be interesting, in fact, to hear from 
some one has tried these cures in a strictly 
clover location. 
Hebron, Ind. 

To be continued. 



BEE-KEEPING AS A HOBBY. 



The Bee Community. 
BY F. DUNDAS TODD. 

Chapter Three. 

After all, when bees are kept for pleasure 
the chief interest is not derived from the 
amount of honey one gets, though that is 
always welcome as well as profitable, but 
from studying the ways of the little insects 
themselves. There are many misconcep- 
tions existing among ordinary people as to 
bees and bee nature. For instance, when 
the writer is about to address a general audi- 
ence on the pleasure and profit of bee-keep- 
ing, almost invariably the chairman in his 
introductory remarks explains that he him- 
self would like first rate to work with a col- 
ony, but he rather dreads an intimate ac- 
quaintanceship with the business end of a 
bee. This little joke always gives a capital 
opening for the lecturer, who can at once 
start out by explaining that the stinging 
end of a bee is not the business end at all — 
in fact, only one of many thousands of them 
ever has call to use its weapon of defense. 
Very rarely is a honey-bee offensive. The 
business end of a bee is the head, for in it is 
found the wonderful tongue with which it 
gathers the nectar from the blossoms. Then 
careful experiments and observations al- 
most suggest it is something more than a 
creature of instinct; that, in fact, it can 
reason and act with judgment when face to 
face with new conditions. 

A SOCIETY or COMMUNISTS. 

But first let us look at a colony of bees in 
the mass. Inside the hive are many thou- 
sands of inhabitants, the number being esti- 
mated to reach as high as fifty to seventy 
thousand in the hey-day of summertime. 
These are startling fieures, and in the most 
natural way we are led to ask what is the 
nature of the bond of association that holds 
them together. Does a bee- hive house a 
herd, a flock, a pack, or a covey? Are the 
inhabitants merely units brought together 
in a more or less haphazard way like a 
flock? or is it a family, like a covey of 
pheasants? Not one of these terms fitly de- 
scribes the aggregation, for it differs from 
them all in one important respect; it owns 
property consisting of combs, honey, and 
pollen, and this puts it into the same class 
with ourselves. Human beings produce ar- 
ticles that are not at once consumed, and 
these must be preserved from the ravages of 
natural forces and enemies, hence arises the 
necessity for men to live together in society. 
Since bees, like men, produce food for fu- 
ture consumption — own property, in fact — 
they are banded together in a form of socie- 



110 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



ty. At the same time, it is a strictly fami- 
ly association like early forms of human so- 
ciety. 

We speak of human society as being or- 
ganized, hence there must be some definite 
principle dominating the grouping. Now, 
as a matter of fact the dominating idea is 
not always the same at all times and in all 
places; but we can group them into two 
broad classes — the communistic and the 
competitive. Modern civilization is com- 
petitive. It is a struggle for the possession 
of the property produced, in which the best 
man is supposed to be the winner. Ancient 
society was apparently communistic as it is 
to-day with the more backward races. In 
the communistic form of society each indi- 
vidual is supposed to produce according to 
ability and to receive according to need. 
The family is an example of the commu- 
nistic spirit in modern civilization, and is 
apparently a fragment of past conditions 
carried over into the new. 

Colony bees, therefore, are apparently in 
the first stage of social organization, hence 
they are communists. Many writers often 
loosely speak of them as socialists; but the 
term is incorrectly applied, for in this pro- 
posed form of society which many hope to 
see realized, while the means of production 
will be held in some form of common own- 
ership, each able-bodied individual will be 
rewarded according to his works, so it is not 
so charming an ideal as the communistic 
one. 

THE GROUPING IN A COMMUNISTIC SOCIETY. 

In a competitive form of society, classifi- 
cation is along industrial lines. Broadly 
speaking we have the owners and the work- 
ers, and the latter are grouped according to 
occupation, men and women mingling to- 
gether in the same calling. But in com- 
munistic society the grouping is according 
to sex. Man is the flesh-producer; woman 
provides the vegetables, and cooks the food. 
Man is the warrior, so woman does all the 
drudgery around the camp and on the 
march. Even in civilized communities we 
find isolated groups where the sex division 
of labor is still the custom, as among the 
fisher folk of Scotland and the peasantry of 
Europe. 

The line of separation in a bee-hive is 
strictly according to communistic rule — that 
is, the grouping is according to sex. The 
actual producers in the colony are females; 
the males are concerned only with the prop- 
agation of the species, and when their use- 
fulness in this respect is ended they are 
eliminated from the social organism. 

In a competitive form of society, as we all 
know, the struggle for possession of proper- 
ty is not a free-for-all fight, but must be ac- 
cording to certain man-made rules which 
are dignified by the title of laws. The more 
prolific the production, the more numerous 
the rules of limitation, until, in highly de- 
veloped countries, the laws cover the pages 
of thousands of tomes, all of which every- 
body is supposed to know excepting lawyers 
and judges in their official capacity. In 



communistic societies laws are few and far 
between, if they exist at all, and so we nat- 
urally find in a bee-hive that there is appar- 
ently no government of any kind, and that 
eacli member does the right thing at the 
right time without direction or correction. 
So far as we know there is no crime, im- 
morality, nor vice in a bee-hive. 

While the subject of hive organization is 
an extremely fascinating one, the writer 
feels he dares not do more than outline its 
broad principles; at the same time, he feels 
he has said enough to indicate the reason 
why the greatest intellects of the ages have 
been induced to spend years in studying 
the economy of bee society, and why or- 
dinary people get more deeply interested the 
more they knoA-. Only in recent years has 
it been realized chat human society develops 
according to laws, and efforts are now be- 
ing made to formulate them. 

We have learned this much, that any 
form of our social structure is but transient, 
for all the time man is modifying his sur- 
roundings — that is, his environment — then 
he must alter the social organism to suit the 
new conditions. To a student of sociology 
the present day is probably the most inter- 
esting period in human history. In mark- 
ed contrast the colony bee has seemingly at- 
tained already the end to which the human 
race is moving, that of stable equilibrium 
with the environment. This has been se- 
cured by almost perfect control of the 
means of reproducing the species, for only 
that number of young bees is brought into 
existence for which there is evidently a suf- 
ficient food supply. Both race murder and 
race suicide are long-established rules of 
practice in a bee-hive whenever inclement 
weather conditions necessitate their adop- 
tion. Last of all, the number of consumers 
who are not producers — that is, the drones 
— is kept ivithin safe limits, and even they 
are summarily disposed of when their exis- 
tence is no longer a necessity to the social 
welfare. 

Victoria, B. C. 



LIME IN A CELLAR WILL NOT DRY THE 
AIR. 



BY F. L. HUGGINS. 



Referring to the footnote to the "Straw," 
p. 4, Jan. 1, about slaking lime in a cellar, 
I will say that the chemistry is not quite 
sound. Lime is calcium oxide, CaO; and 
when exposed to the air it absorbs moisture, 
and the hydroxide, CaHjOj, is formed. In 
this reaction no oxygen is released (this in 
correction of W. H. Messinger, Review, 365). 

This hydroxide (slaked lime) has a feature 
that is exceptional in chemistry — it dissolves 
more easily in cold water than in hot. The 
solution, the ordinary lime-water of medi- 
cine, absorbs carbonic acid from the air, and 
a thin skin of carbonate of lime rapidly 
forms on the surface. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



111 



Thus it is the lime-water and not the slak- 
ed lime that absorbs carbonic acid. 

I can not see how slaking lime in a cellar 
would dry the air unless the cellar were air- 
tight. For the purpose of keeping articles 
free from moisture in closed vessels, calcium 
chloride (CaCl) is generally used, as it has 
a powerful affinity for water. 

NON-SWARMING BEES NOT WANTED. 

I am very much interested in the articles 
on non-swarming races of bees. While in- 
terested I am not at all in sympathy with 
the idea, and think it is time wasted. I be- 
lieve that, if a non-swarming bee (by that 
I mean one with no inclination to swarm) 
were produced, such a bee would be useless 
as a honey-gatherer. I believe the God- 
given instincts of swarming and storing 
honey are inseparably connected; and if one 
is broken up, the other will be destroyed. 

I do believe with all my heart that we 
should make every effort to prevent swarm- 
ing. The old English definition of "pre- 
vent" just expresses my idea — that is, we 
should anticipate swarming. If by shaken 
swarming or other methods we can make 
the bees believe they have swarmed, and 
thus satisfy their instinct, then we are as- 
sured of a big yield. 

Wilmington, N. C. 

[As Mr. Huggins is superintendent of a 
chemical works we are sure that he knows 
whereof he speaks, and we are glad to stand 
corrected. — Ed.] 



PRICES OF HONEY IN TEXAS. 



Louis Scholl's Figures Correct; Bulk Comb Hon- 
ey Becoming More Popular. 



BY M. B. PBUITT. 



I beg to differ with Mr. Sueltenfuss in a 
gentle sort of way anent the "real price of 
bulk comb honey in Southwest Texas," as 
stated on page 680, Nov. 1, 1910. Mr. Scholl 
was correct as to the prices he stated on page 
580, Sept. 15. We averaged 10 cts. for our 
bulk comb honey, and 8 for extracted; and 
most of the time we did better than that. 
We sold our white catclaw bulk comb hon- 
ey at 15 cts., and the extracted from the 
same source at 12. Then as the honey be- 
came darker we dropped to 12 cts. for the 
former, and to 10 for the latter. Perhaps 
Mr. Sueltenfuss' honey was not as good as 
ours, or his market in San Antonio not as 
"gay." Something is radically the matter 
down there, surely. 

Last season's crop of honey was. short, 
very short, on account of the long drouth, 
and the demand was and is far over and be- 
yond the supply. Not many bee-keepers, 
in this part of Texas, any way, will have 
much "extracted honey on hand " to keep 
until cool weather. 

The season of 1909, when the honey crop 
was better than last year, we Texans had 
all our honey sold by Nov- 1, and, if J mis- 



take not, we also had the crop of 1908 sold 
by Nov. 1 of that year; and the 1908 crop 
was a bounteous one. Then we averaged 
10 cts. for the bulk comb and 9 for the ex- 
tracted. The point is this: If the crop is 
bounteous, one can not obtain a high price; 
but if there is a shortage, high prices are ob- 
tainable as a consequence. 

Mr. Sueltenfuss remarks that the market 
for extracted honey is dull. Yes, and it will 
probably remain so — that's just one more 
proof that bulk comb honey is rapidly com- 
ing into its own — it is becoming more and 
more the standard style in demand. 

Eola, Tex. 



BEES TRANSFERRING LARVAE, 



An Apparently Clear Case in a New Zealand Api- 
ary. 



BY H. BARTDETT-MILIiER. 



It seems pretty well proven that bees will 
remove and even steal eggs upon occasion; 
and, although I have not noticed any refer- 
ence lo their transferring larvae, yet I have 
had two unmistakable instancesof their hav- 
ing done so in my own experience. During 
September, 1909, I tried raising queens very 
early in the season, in the Swarthmore 
swarm-boxes. I used combs of honey and 
pollen, making absolutely sure that they 
were destitute of eggs. The third comb, for 
the water, had not been inside of a hive for 
over six months. When I transferred larvae 
to the cell-cups all were rejected. I supposed 
the bees were sulking; but the next day, 
when another transferring was similarly 
treated, I returned the bees in the evening 
to their hive, and then found three cells 
started about the center of the comb that 
contained the water — that is, the one which 
had not been in a hive for six months. 
There were no empty cells in either of the 
other combs except at the corners. There 
can be no possibility of mistake in this case, 
for, even allowing that there might have 
been larvae in the honey and pollen combs, 
it remains true, nevertheless, that the bees 
removed such larvae to cells on this comb 
that had been out of use for six months. 

The second case occurred during the same 
month, 1910, and the combs used for honey 
and pollen were old ones, saved from the 
previous autumn crop, that were sealed over 
solid, the empty comb used for water, in 
this second case, having been out of use all 
the winter before. The swarm-box was one 
of my own manufacture, and was of the 
conventional pattern, except that the wire 
cloth on the bottom covered a space of only 
8 inches by the width of the box, the rest of 
the material being wood. I had fed this 
colony regularly for two weeks previous, 
and when grafting I put larvae in only 11 
out of 32 cell- cups. To my disappointment, 
not one was accepted, although the cover 
of the box had warm woolen cloths piled on 
it, about 6 inches deep, and tied around the 



112 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



sides at least 6 inches dow n below the cov- 
er. A second grafting the next morning 
being similarly removed, I dumped the 
bees, that evening, before their hive, dis- 
gusted with attempting Alexander's in- 
structions for raising early queens. Imagine 
my surprise, then, at finding 11 nice queen- 
cells started on the lower edge of that old 
dry comb close to the wire-cloth-covered 
opening — exactly the number of larvae that 
I had transferred at the first grafting. All 
these were too well advanced to include any 
of the second grafting of that same morning. 

Now, I wonder if the bees moved those 
larvae for the purpose of giving them fresh- 
er air. It certainly loots like it, for the top 
and sides covering the other boxes must 
have excluded any chance ventilation from 
cracks; anyway, the bees moved them. 

Kihikihi, Waikato, N. Z. 



daj s once they have been interfered with. I 
shall have to Italianize the whole lot this 
summer. 
Broussard, La. 



BEE-KEEPING IN THE SUGAR-CANE RE- 
GIONS OF LOUISIANA, 



BY ARTHUE DROSSAERTS. 



I have been an amateur bee-keeper for 
three years here in Southwest Lruisiana. 
South Louisiana, with its mild winters and 
wooded hills, and abundance of white clo- 
ver, should be a paradise for the bee-keeper. 
Yet we have many drawbacks. First, the 
white-clover season (end of February, 
March, April, and beginning of May) is 
generally a season of drouth, dust, and 
daily high winds. Second, in the summer 
months we used to rely upon the cotton 
flowers; but the boll-weeivl has played hav- 
oc with the cotton, and a cotton-field is get- 
ting to be rarer and rarer. Third, I am liv- 
ing in a sugar-cane county, with intense 
cultivation. Nothing is finer than our su- 
gar-cane fields; but the miles and miles of 
waving and gracious foliage mean absolute- 
ly nothing to the foraging bees. 

My best hive gave me three supers of fine 
white honey; but I must say that most 
probably a professional would go me a few 
supers better. I am satisfied with one or 
two supers per hive. 

Fourth, in summer (June and July) we 
have showers daily, almost incessantly, and 
you know what this means to the bee. 

I have a friend here who has gone into 
the bee business for dollars and cents. He 
has home-made hives (far from up to date) . 
He goes around selling chunks of honey, 
and he does very well. But this sugar-cane 
country will never be a real honey-eating 
country. The fine cane syrup, home-made, 
is a real rival of honey. 

I am not in the bee business at all for 
profit — only for pleasure; and I give away 
or consume at home whatever the bees pro- 
duce. By the way, our Louisiana hybrids 
are about the meanest fellows one wishes to 
meet. Nothing can subdue them. Smoke 
seems to have no effect on them, and no one 
can venture safely around the stand for two 



THE CLIMATE OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 
UNITED STATES COMPARED, 



BY FREDERICK MARTIN. 



Under the above heading in the January 
number of Gleanings Mr. D, M. MacDon- 
ald would lead Americans to infer that the 
British method of wintering is superior to 
the American. The superstructure of his 
argument may be right enough, but it ap- 
pears to me to be built upon a false founda- 
tion; and before any one on this side the 
Atlantic tries to put the plan into practice 
he should think out the case clearly, and be 
careful of any kind of jump at favorable 
conclusions. 

Mr. M. says, "But from several interest- 
ing causes which I need not dwell upon, we 
really differ little in climatic conditions 
from you." This is the foundation of the 
case as applied to America, and this state- 
ment, as far as it affects wintering of bees, 
is seriously in error. Mr. M. writes from 
Banff, and, taking it as a cold sample of 
the British climate, it is well to note that 
even there the winter is nothing like as se- 
vere as the winter at, say, Philadelphia, and 
is simply nowhere compared with winter in 
the Middle West. To attempt a British 
wintering plan under these conditions is a 
very risky venture indeed. 

In Britain, and everywhere from London 
northward, the climate is pretty much the 
same — zero temperatures are unknown. If 
the thermometer gets down to 8 or 12 F. the 
whole country looks blue; whole columns in 
the newspapers are filled with stories of the 
"very severe weather," and people feel 
worse than they do over here when the mer- 
cury drops to five or ten below zero. The 
grass is green all winter in some places. 
Cabbage remains in the gardens all winter; 
turnips flourish in the fields, and sheep re- 
main outside feeding on them. Borecole or 
kale (a plant not half enough known in 
America) is really at its best after standing 
outside all winter. Even broccoli, a kind 
of cauliflower, will grow outside all winter. 
Contrast all this with the winters of the 
eastern part of the United States, and it 
must be manifest that a system which will 
winter bees in Britain might, and likely 
would be, ruinous, when applied to bees in 
America. 

I do not write to discourage attempts at 
testing Mr. MacDonald'splan; but that jilan 
must not be followed on the assumption 
that "Britain really differs little in climatic 
conditions from America." The difference 
may not look great in a list of mean tem- 
peratures; but it is generally enough to re- 
quire different management. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



113 



Heads of Grain 

from Different Fields 



Difficulties in Manipulating Chaff Hives Having 
Tight Bottoms. 

We use the Hilton chafi hive. It winters the bees 
well outside, and keeps them warm in spring, and 
it is just right during the hottest weather. But the 
trouble is, I am a beginner; and in studying up the 
different methods I find that a different make of 
hive is generally described, which makes the meth- 
ods in question impossible with this hive. 

A weak colony is recommended to be set over a 
strong one. We can't do so with this hive, and the 
.Alexander feeder seems to be popular for feeding 
daily in the spring; but our hive, having a closed 
bottom, is not adapted for this work. 

Muskegon, Mich. H. A. Portek. 

[Chaff hives have a great many adyantages over 
single-walled hives, especially in localities where 
bees winter in them on summer stands so admira- 
bly; but, of course, the tight-bottom-board feature 
prevents such hives from being used as convien- 
lently as singie-walled hives having loose bottoms. 
For this reason the new loose-bottomed chaff hive 
was brought out, so that methods of management 
for single-walled hives would apply equally well to 
the double-walled style. 

However, even with your hives that have tight 
bottoms, you can very often find a way out of the 
difficulty. For Instance, in order to follow the Al- 
exander plan for building up weak colonies you 
might have a few single-walled bodies on hand in 
which you could temporarily transfer the combs 
and bees for setting over a strong colony. In many 
other ways a few single-walled bodies are very 
handy in an apiary where tight-bottom chaff hives 
are used. 

01 course the Alexander feeders can not well be 
used on your hives; but the Doolittie division- 
board feeder could be used without any trouble. — 
Ed.] 

Drawing Stale Air Out of a Cellar Instead of 
Blowing Fresh Air In. 

Will you allow me to suggest that, next spring, 
when the bees get uneasy in the cellar, instead of 
pointing the fan into the cellar and so trying to 
blow fresh air into a compartment full of air, you 
point it the other way, and so suck the stale air out 
— no fear of any less air being in the cellar. By the 
first way there is more stirring up of stale air than 
any thing else. By the latter, all air that is shifted 
is replaced by fresh. This can be modified, and 
made more effective by having a horizontal parti- 
tion in opening, or an opening near the floor and 
one near the ceiling, aad putting the fan at either 
top or bottom opening (but always pointing out) 
according to whether the lower (cold) or higher 
(warm) air is to be expelled. Without any further 
explanation I think you will see the point clearly. 
Pure air in the cellar is of more consequence than 
the state of the thermometer. 

My next venture with bees will be in the northern 
part of this State, and I will take any old cellar and 
keep the bees quiet by pure air — raise and even low- 
er the temperature by this principle of forcing air 
out of the cellar, using a stove outside for the mo- 
tive power. 1 think 1 have said enough to make 
myself understood by you. To go into the matter 
fully would make the letter too long. 

W. H. Messenger. 

Port Richmond, New York, Dec. 9. 



Moving Bees in Cold Weather. 

While I have been a bee-keeper many years I 
have had no practical experience in moving bees, 
and should like to have you give me what informa- 
tion you can in regard to the following: I wish to 
move about 15 colonies of bees a distance of about 
25 miles by wagon or sleigh. I should very much 
like to do this before warm weather; in fact, it is al- 
most a necessity, owing to peculiar circumstances. 
Can you suggest any way in which this could be 
safely done without. danger of breaking down the 



combs and ruining the colonies? These bees are in 
ten-frame Langstroth hives. A. J. W. 

[When cold weather is on, it is desirable to move 
bees as quickly and with as little jar as possible. 
On a bad rough road, unless the hives are well 
cushioned on straw in the wagon or sled, there is 
danger of breaking out some of the combs during 
the hauling. We would, therefore, select a time 
when the temperature is not too low. and yet when 
it is cold enough so that the roads will hold up. If 
the bees can be moved on a sled, and the sleighing 
is good, you would have very little difficulty. We 
would advise you even then to put a quantity of 
straw in the bottom of the sled-box and the hives 
on top. Take the bees out of the cellar; load them 
quickly, and drive as fast as the roads will permit 
to destination, and then unload. 

Of course, the usual precaution of fastening the 
frames, if they are not self-spacing, should be ob- 
served. 

Even should the weather be severely cold. If the 
bees are moved quickly, and the roads are good, 
there will be no danger of breaking down the 
combs. So far as the bees are concerned, they can 
stand any degree of low temperature for the short 
time they are out; indeed, we doubt very much 
whether it would do them any harm if they were 
left out several days, even in single-walled hives; 
but they should not be moved then, as the combs 
would be sure to break down. — Ed.] 



Why Are the Bees Dying Off So? 

Last January I bought two strong colonies of 
Italian bees. When winter approached I made a 
packing-case and put them in it, made so that there 
is five or six inches of dry leaves around the hive. 
I also made a porchlike projection which I have 
had partly covered, so that the cold wind could not 
strike the entrance. The entrances were contract- 
ed down to 1 X 1 H. For two or three weeks, or since 
genuine cold weather set in, I have noticed that the 
bees want to crawl down on the bottom-board and 
out on the porch I made. I have swept away two 
handfuls of dead bees every week: and if they are 
going to die at this rate I shall not have any by 
next spring. Do you think the ventilation is poor, 
or is it too warm in the hive? or what may the 
trouble when the bees can't be stirred in the mid- 
dle of the winter? Can bees be fed in winter if they 
need feed? 

Attica, Ind., Jan. 16. Andrew Berghirst. 

[From the general description given, we take it 
that you have not provided for sufficient ventila- 
tion. The entrance should not be less than 1x2 
inches at least. We usually prefer to have a slot 
about J'8 X 8 inches. We can not uaderstand why 
your bees are coming out so, even with the en- 
trance that you have provided, unless it is that the 
food is bad or the portico is so constructed that the 
bees are confused on returning, lie outside, and 
die. We would suggest, for the present, enlarging 
the entrance to see if that helps It any. You will 
always find, however, that there will be some dead 
bees in front of an entrance of a normal outdoor 
colony, and there will be quite a quantity of them 
lying In front when It warms up after a cold spell. 
You can feed hard candy in winter; but don't give 
syrup. — Ed.] 



Wages of Apiarists. 

I should be glad If you would give me some idea 
as to the wages paid to experienced bee-keepers, 
such as myself, in the United States. I have been 
in the bee business at Berlin and Brussels for three 
years in connection with a 400-colony bee-yard, and 
have had personal oversight of 200 colonies. I am 
also experienced in bottling honey and packing lor 
shipment, as we ship two carloads each year, all 
over the West. 

Stratford, Ont., Jan. 9. C. A. Jones. 

[The wages of bee-keepers varies very materially. 
Every thing depends upon the man, the length of 
his experience, as well as his general all-around 
ability. The very highest-grade man, one who is 
capable of going ahead or taking charge of a series 
of yards, may bring as high as three or four dollars 
a day; but as a general thing a helper does not get 
much over S2.00 on a basis of ten hours. One who 
is familiar with bottling honey and selling the 
same, would, of course, bring a higher price than 
one who knows only the art of producing it. — Ed.] 



114 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



Rearing a Queen above an Excluder with which to 
Supersede Old Queens. 

Do you think it advisable to requeen by rearing a 
queen above the excluder, and then allowing her 
to go below into the brood-nest? Which of the two 
queens would survive? I see some writers say both 
would live in the same brood-nest. 

New Castle, Col., Jan. 2. S. R. Stewart. 

[Under some conditions it is possible to requeen 
above queen-excluding zinc, in the manner you in- 
dicate; but as a general thing you will find it much 
more practicable to rear the queens in separate nu- 
clei, remove the old queen, and introduce the new 
one. The difliculty with the plan of rearing queens 
above the excluder is that there is almost sure to 
be a battle royal between the old queen and the 
younger one. While the latter will be the probable 
victor, she might be the one to be destroyed. Whtn 
queens grapple in a mortal combat, there is some 
element of chance. The one that gets the best 
hold, or, to use the parlance of the day, 'the drop 
on the other fellow," is the one that is the winner. 
Or. to put it another way, the queen that gets the 
best grab, so that she can deliver her sting, will be 
the victor whether she be the older or the younger. 
In a battle between a virgin queen and a queen in 
the height of her egg-laying, the odds will be, as a 
rule, in favor of the former.] 



Mclntyre's Hive-weighing Device, 

Mr. Mclntye has sent me a drawing of a weigh- 
ing-device as shown below. He says it weighs but 
5 lbs., and that with it he can weigh 100 colonies in 
less than an hour. It certainly looks good, and 
those who practice weighing their hives each fall 
might well investigate its merits. 



sometimes go t a-o miles, and even three when the 
nectar-yielding blossoms are distributed evenly 
over the distance, they will rarely go over an ob- 
struction 1000 feet feet high, and a mile or a mile 
and a half beyond. 

Some plants yield nectar only rarely when condi- 
tions are just right. It is hardly probable that 
your bees were gathering honey-dew from the hlo.s- 
soms. Real honey-dew. when present, is found all 
over every thing. If the bees were working on the 
blossoms and not on the leaves, you may rest as- 
sured they were after nectar rather than honey- 
dew.— Ed,] 



A Colony Wintered in a Warm Room with an 
Entrance out of Doors Gave Fine Kesulls. 

Mr. Root:— I note what you say on the subject of 
indoor wintering of bees, page 764, Dec. 1. My expe- 
rience does not agree with yours. My best test was 
made in the winter of 1907. On July 25, 1907, I took 
a colony of medium-strength Italian bees, divided 
them five frames each, giving each division a young 
Italian queen. I put one colony in the house in a 
small room off the main part of the house, the other 
one in the back lot. Beginning July 25 I led each 
of them 54 pint of syrup each evening for ten days. 
They both built up. filling each ten-frame hive well 
with bees and plenty of stores for winter. The one 
in the lot 1 packed in a chaflF'case in November. 

The colony in the house had an entrance 2x5'8, al- 
ways open. The main part of the house kept from 
55 to 70 degrees: but the room where the bees were 
was about lu degrees cooler. They did not consume 
an extra amount or food, as you report, as I took 
from them in March two full frames of honey, sub- 
stituting frames with full sheets of foundation in- 
stead, and took the same amount from the colony 




M'INTYRB'S HIVE-Wf;iGHIN(; DEVICE. 



The directions for use are, briefly, as follows: 
Take it on one hand as you would a fire-shovel, and 
slip it under the hive. Press down on the han- 
dle until the hive is raised clear from the hive- 
stand, and it will give the correci weight. 

Mt. Joy. Ontario, Can. J. L. Byer. 



Will Bees Cross a Mountain in Search of Honey? 

Will some one inform me whether bees will cross 
a mountain varying in height from 500 to 1000 feet. 
and a mile to a mile and a half in width, in search 
of honey-yielding blossoms? I live in a hollow at 
the foot of a mountain of this description, the two 
points extending about a mile toward the west, and 
being about a mile apart. My bees can fly west- 
ward as far as they please, without crossing a 
mountain, but are fenced in by mountains on the 
north, east, and south. 

HONEY FROM DOGWOOD-BLOSSOMS. 

In the spring of 1901 I noticed bees working on 
dogwood-blossoms on a tree in my front yard. They 
worked there several days. I had never seen bees 
work on these blossoms before, neither have I no- 
ticed them since. I thought perhaps there was 
honey-dew on the blossoms. 

Iluntsville, Ala., .Ian. 6. H. M. Webster. 

fit is our opinion that bees would not cross the 
mountain, especially if it were a mile or a mile and 
a half across it. If you desire to get the benefit of 
any flora on the other side you had better move a 
part of the bees over. As a general thing, bees will 
not fly over a mile and a half. While they will 



outdoors, also giving frames with foundation in 
stead. 

In April the house colony seemed to have double 
the number of bees, and the results during the sea- 
son were fully double those of one out of doors, ow- 
ing, I am persuaded, to their strength early in the 
season. The house colony produced 222 sections of 
fine honey, and I took from them seven nuclei that 
built up all right for winter. 

One thing I observed closely, and made careful 
noie of. The house bees never took a flight on any 
day nor earlier in the day than the outdoor bees; 
and on one occasion the latter came out an hour 
earlier in the day. t^om my experience I believe 
it profitable to put bees in a room or house kept 
from 50 to 60 degrees, with the entrance open to out- 
door air. 

Urbana, O. O. J. JONES. 

Two Bad Cases of Laying Workers. 

The past season, for the first tii e in my fifteen 
years of bee-keeping I had two pronounced cases of 
laying workers. Colony No. 22, at the beginning of 
the honey-flow, had no less than 47 capped queen- 
cells. Of course, I expected that a swarm would be 
cast; but on examining the combs a few days later 
I found all the cells destroyed and a fine young 
queen present. I supposed then that every thing 
was all right: but on making another examination 
a week later I found the young queen was gone, so 
I introduced another one, in a mailing-cage, in the 
regular way. At first she was accepted; but a few 
days later the bees again got rid of her. I had no 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



115 



more queens or cells, so I sent for a queen, and by 
the time she arrived the ten-frame hive was full of 
eggs, there being from two to six in every cell. I 
did not know what to do; but on following closely 
the directions in the A B C and X Y Z of Bee Culture, 
I was soon rid of those laying workers. The new 
queen was then accepted all right, and began lay- 
ing in a few days. 

Colony No. 21 had a fine year-old queen. One day 
while examining the combs 1 found the brood- 
chamber full of eggs from laying workers, and even 
in thi-ee combs in the supers there were anywhere 
from two to six eggs scattered all over. This colony 
was given the same treatment, and a laying (jueen 
introduced. 

M'hen distributing the brood-combs of bees all 
around the apiary, as directed in the above-men- 
tioned book, it is well to smoke the bees on the 
combs thorovighly, so that there will be little fight- 
ing and but few bees lost. 

What puzzled me was to learn what became of the 
queen in colony No. 21. The first queen that I men- 
tioned might have been lost while out on her mat- 
ing-ttight; but I am at a loss to understand the loss 
of the other one, as there were no signs of any kind 
that the bees were preparing to swarm or supersede 
their queen. Some may say that laying workers 
are the result of carelessness on the part of the bee- 
keeper. I can not agree with this, for all of my col- 
onies are examined at least every two weeks. 
Hereafter I shall never leave a colony without a 
queen more than one week without either givlrg it 
brood with which the bees can start queen-cells or 
by providing a laying queen. 

La Crescent, Minn. G. H. Barbisch. 

[The queen of No. 21 possibly died a natural 
death. If the virgin that followed her was lost in 
mating, laying workers would naturally develop. — 
ED.] 

Normal Loss of Bees from Fourteen Colonies in a 

Cellar; How to Know when Bees are 

Wintering Well. 

Is one quart of bees per month too much winter 
loss for 14 colonies? When I swept up the dead 
bees and threw them loosely into a quart measui-e 
they just about filled it from Nov. 25 to Dec. 1. 1 
suppose I shall not lose as many bees per month 
during the remainder of the winter. Is this cor- 
rect? My cellar is dry, and the temperature stays 
between 40 and 43 degrees. During theflrst warm 
weather it does not go higher than 45 degrees. 

RETURNING SWARMS TO THE HIV£S THEY CAME 
FROM. 

Last year I put two or three swarms back in the 
hives they came from, first placing an Alley trap in 
front of the entrance and shaking the swarms 
down on the alighting-board. The bees went back 
In. although I kept the (jueen and drones outside. 
Afterward the whole colony seemed to sulk, and, 
all together, the plan did not seem very satisfacto- 
ry. 

New Bethlehem, Pa, J. M. Walker. 

[The winter losses resulting from bees flying out 
of the hives and dying on the cellar bottom will be 
comparatively light during the fore part of the 
winter, and very much heavier toward spring. In 
estimating the amount that might be considered a 
normal loss of bees per month we must take Into 
consideration the time in the winter. One quart of 
dead bees during December, from only 14 colonies, 
we should say would be rather large. During the 
first month, and the one following, the loss from so 
few colonies, we should estimate, ought not to ex- 
ceed one pint per month; but we would not consid- 
er it bad wintering by any means if the loss were a 
quart for each of the two first months, and possibly 
twice as much for the next three months. Much 
will depend on the strength of ths colonies. If the 
hives are full of bees, every comb covered, we 
should naturally expect a much larger mortality 
than in a case where the colonies were light. It is 
Impossible to make any absolute estimate of the 
normal loss per colony dviring winter, either for 
Indoor or outdoor wintering. If, when one goes 
into the cellar, he finds every thing apparently 
quiet, no roaring of any kind, and the air reason- 
ably sweet, he may conclude the bees are doing 
well — yes. they are wintering perfectly. On the 
contrary, if the air smells of dysentery, and the 
bees are making considerable noise, and buzzing 
down on the cellar floor every few seconds he may 



conclude his bees are not wintering well. Indeed, 
he may expect a heavy loss before spring. 

It never pays to put swarms back into the same 
brood-nest from which they issue. When swarms 
are hived back on the same stand, the old brood- 
nest must be removed and an empty hive contain- 
ing empty combs or frames of foundation should 
be put In its stead. The supers, if any. that were 
on top of the old hive should now be placed on the 
empty hive now on the old stand. 

Yes, sir, "e; swarms will sulk almost every time if 
you hive them back in their old quarters. You 
must make a radical change in the brood-nest be- 
fore they will stay contented and go to work. — Ed.] 



Borrowing Bees ; Plurality of Queens in a Hive is 
Not Practicable; Queen-cell Protectors. 

In "Alexander's Writings,'" p, 75, is mentioned, 
in connection with queen-rearing, the borrowing of 
bees from several strong colonies for one day. How 
is this done, the bees used, then returned? 

Pages 80—82 speak of a plurality of queens in one 
hive : and it has been mentioned in Gleanings 
that Mr. Alexander's son had a method of intro- 
ducing several queens, but I have been unable to 
find it. 

In introducing unprotected queen-cells to nuclei, 
made by taking two couples or three frames of 
bees from a queenless colony, are the cells likely to 
be safer by confining the bees for a day or so? 

Auckland, N. Z., Nov. 14. S. C. Rhodes. 

[Mr. Alexander meant, by " borrowing bees," 
taking from any colony, preferably one that is 
queenless, anywhere from a pint to a quart of bees. 
These bees can then be returned providing they 
are not used with any other bees. 

We would not advise you to try the scheme of 
more than one queen to a hive. While, apparent- 
ly, it worked for Alexander, the great mass of our 
readers have since declared that it was a failure 
with them. The method of introducing by Frank 
Alexander was subsequently described in Glean- 
ings, Sept. 1, 1907, page 1136. 

We usually advise putting queen-cells in queen- 
cell protectors. While cells can be given, a good 
many times, without danger of their being destroy- 
ed, it is usually safer to use the protectors.— Ed.] 



Frames Smaller than the Langstroth; Profits from 
Bees 

A bee-keeper told me that a frame 13^ in. long 
and 9 wide, inside measurement, would be about 
right for this northern climate, and even better 
than the Langstroth frame. His reason was that 
bees have more brood than they can cover in L. 
frames, and when cold weather comes the brood 
gets chilled and dies. What is your opinion? 

Is it wise for a beginner to try stimulative feed- 
ing? If so. how much should he feed? 

^yhat is the advantage of a loose bottom-board? 

Should 100 colonies in a good bee country produce 
SlOOO in honey and wax ? or what is the average the 
practical bee-keeper might expect? 

Maeton, Ont., Jan. 6. N. Allingham. 

[A great many different sizes of frames have been 
tried, but the majority of bee-keepers have decided 
that the Langstroth dimensions can not be im- 
proved. The fact that hives containing frames of 
Langstroth dimensions are standard is also a big 
point in their favor: for when bees are sold on odd- 
sized combs the selling price is always lower. 

In our opinion a smaller frame would not prevent 
brood from chilling in the manner suggested, for 
the amount of brood depends on the queen and on 
the bees, and a smaller brood-nest is apt to result in 
a smaller cluster. 

Stimulative feeding in the spring is considered by 
most bee-keepers a questionable practice, it being 
much better to provide a little more than enough 
stores in the fall to carry the colony over until the 
honey-flow begins in the spring or early summer. 

With loose bottom-boards the brood-chamber can 
be manipulated a little more easily than when the 
bottoms are fast. There are several changes that 
are often desirable, and that can be easily made 
with loose bottoms. However, the best plan of all 
is to use crate staples on the sides, fastening the 
body to the bottom, so that, when occasion de- 
mands, the two can be separated very easily. 

One thousand dollars from one hundred colonies 
in a season is a much larger return thnn the 



116 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



average successful bee-keeper will make, five dol- 
lars per colony being a high average as the seasons 
run. Of course, ten dollars" worth of honey could 
be easily produced per colony in a good season, so 
that for gross receipts one thousand dollars per one 
hundred colonies in a good season would be consid- 
ered as doing remarkably well.— Ed.] 



Dysentery in the Cellar ; What to Do. 

I put my bees In the cellar the day before Thanks- 
giving. They had a good fly that day, and went in 
dry and nice. I have a very large cellar. Most of 
my bees (116 colonies) are on a 16-inch stand, single 
tier. They have been very quiet ever since. Ihe 
mercury started in at 45, and is now down to 42, and 
no light whatever comes into the cellar. It has no 
windows nor vegetables in it. But the cellar seems 
to be on the damp order. The dead bees on the 
ground are covered with white mold. Some are 
moldy about the hive-entrance: some hives have 
water running out of their entrances (% inch by the 
width of the hives). Last year was almost a no- 
honey year here, but we had lots of honey-dew. I 
expected to put my bees out for a cleansing flight 
at the first opportunity, after being in one month; 
but there has not been a day when they could fly 
since putting them in. Some of my bees are spot- 
ting the hives badly now. Will it do to set them 
out with snow on the ground? How high must the 
mercury be? How about the wind? 

Cedar Falls, la., .Ian. 19. E. E. Rich. 

[You do not say any thing about what means of 
ventilation you have. If any. While the tempera- 
ture (42 to 45) Is good so far as it goes, if there is a 
lack of ventilation, or no means of it, by which the 
bees can get fresh air, you will discover uneasiness 
— especially so if your bees had been gathering 
honey-dew during the past summer. The proba- 
bilities are that the real exciting cause of the dys- 
entery is bad food. This, coupled with lack of ven- 
tilation, may cause heavy losses among some of 
your colonies before spring. If the temperature 
should warm up to 50° or higher, outdoors, and the 
sun should shine, we would advise taking the bees 
that are affected with dysentery out for a flight, 
then putting them back in again as soon as they 
have gone Into the hive at night. The objection to 
giving the bees a flight, if there should be any 
snow on the ground. Is that large numbers of them 
would get chilled, lodge on the snow, and never get 
back. If, however, the snow should melt off with- 
in a few hours we would leave the hives out; and if 
there should be a warm atmosphere the next day 
those bees that were chilled and on the ground 
might warm up, take wing, and return to the hives 
— that Is, providing they had not been chilled to 
death the day before. Bees will stand a gradually 
falling temperature, but not a sudden change. 

In regard to the ventilation, if you have made no 
special provision ■we would advise opening the 
cellar-door occasionally nights, and closing toward 
morning. It may be necessary at such times to 
put artificial heat in the cellar to keep the temper- 
ature from dropping too low. Put in a small drum 
stove and connect it with the chimney-flue. Do 
not put in a kerosene-lamp nor any thing that con- 
sumes the oxygen in the room, as this will only ag- 
gravate the condition. The drum stove will help 
to dry out the cellar. 

Taking it all in all, a warm day and a flight for 
the bees is the only thing that will give relief to 
those affected with dysentery, and this may be 
only temporary. The honey-dew in the combs 
should have been extracted, and the bees should 
have been fed sugar syrup before they were put 
into the cellar. 

We do not think the moisture that you report 
would do any harm, other conditions being right. 
The moldy dead bees on the cellar bottom do not 
necessarily indicate any thing serious. — Ed.] 



Another Switch Bottom-board Similar to That 
Devised by J. E. Hand. 

By late numbers I see that Mr. J. E. Hand has de- 
vised a double bottom-board. I have almost the 
same thing except that mine is a hive-stand as well 
as a bottom-board, and the construction is some- 
what different, although the lever arrangement for 
switching the bees back and forth Is almost exactly 
the same. Mr. Hand is ahead of me. however, in 
getting his outfit into practical use. I had ray plan 



perfected in 1909, but sold out and went to another 
county, and consequently did not get one of these 
outfits of mine ready to test last season. As soon 
as I could, however, I made one according to the 
rough sketch that I am furnishing. I also have a 
feeder In combination with my bottom-board, so 
arranged as to be filled from the outside. 

I conceived my first idea from the Scholl plan of 
working two hives, and I got up the switching de- 
vice to make the manipulation more convenient. 

Madison, Kan. J. H. Henderson. 

[The sketch that Mr. Henderson furnished shows 
a very striking similarity to the Hand switch bot- 
tom-board. All this only goes to show that two dif- 
ferent parties may work out almost exactly the 
same thing at the same time. — Ed.] 



Granulated Sugar Tainted with Kerosene ; would 
it be Safe to Feed Bees? 

I am able to purchase a quantity of granulated 
sugar of the railroad company for a mere song. 
This sugar is tainted with kerosene, but is not bad, 
although one can detect the coal-oil odor on it. 
Would it be safe to feed it to my bees, or would 
there be danger of killing the brood and tainting 
the hives? Could I spread It out thin and allow the 
oil to evaporate? or would making a syrup of It 
and boiling it thoroughly dissipate the oil and 
make it a safe feed? 

Nevada, O., Jan. 25. F. J. Armstrong. 

[We see no reason why you could not use this su- 
gar. The slight taint of kerosene certainly would 
not hurt it in the least, although the odor of it 
might be a liltle offensive to the bees. If they take 
the syrup you may rest assured it would do them 
no harm. However, we would advise you to se- 
cure a small qviantity of it, melt it up, and feed it 
to the bees. In order to do this, bring the bees In- 
side of a warm building, then place a feeder of the 
syrup on top of the hive. If they take It down 
readily we do not think you will need to have any 
fear of its injurious effect upon the bees. — Ed.] 



That Odor from the Hives. 

Some years ago, while living in the South, our ear- 
ly honey crop was a failure and we had to feed the 
bees. In the fall we had a splendid crop of honey 
from goldenrod and aster: and during the flow the 
odor from the hives was rank. A young bee-keep- 
er came three miles to .see me, and w-as greatly 
worried, as he thought he had foul brood. He had 
examined the bees, but could not find any indica- 
tions (beyond the odor) as per instructions in bee- 
books, etc. I suggested going to see my bees: and 
when we were a few feet from the hives he ex- 
claimed excitedly, "You have got it too." Howev- 
er, I showed him that the odor was from goldenrod 
and asters by taking a handful of the blossoms of 
the latter and rubbing them In my hand and let- 
ting him smell the crushed flowers. 

He thought the honey would not be fit to use: but 
I told him to leave it on the hive as long as possible 
or till the approach of cold weather, and it would 
be good. And it was. 

Elwood, Ind. D. Neilson. 



Conditions when a Virgin will Supersede an Old 
Queen. 

In reading Doollttle's book on queen-rearing I 
note that, when a young queen is raised in the up- 
per story, if by any chance she gets in the lower 
story she always kills the old queen. Now, what I 
want to ask is this: Why couldn't I requeen by put- 
ting a cell In a nursery cage right in the hive where 
the old queen is. and on her (the new queen's) 
hatching would she not supersede the old queen? 
and would not this be the easiest way to requeen? 

Sabetha, Kan. Frank Hill. 

[There Is a possibility that you might be able to 
requeen by the plan described, but we would not 
advise it. The probabilities are that the old queen 
would kill the young virgin while she was soft and 
weak, just as she emerged from the cell. If the vir- 
gin could be protected until she were three or four 
days old she would be more than a match lor the 
old queen. As a general thing we advise bee-keep- 
ers to take the matter Into their own hands, re- 
move the old queen, and then give a cell or a day- 
old virgin to the colony. — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



117 



Our Homes 

By A. I. Root 



Put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem. . . . 
Loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive 
daughter of Zion. ... Ye have sold yourselves for 
naught.— Isaiah 22 : 1, 2,!3. 

When we arrived here about the first of 
November I noticed, almost the first thing, 
that our Bougainvillea was almost defoli- 
ated by tlie sort of measuring worm I have 
before mentioned. Instead of being a 
"thing of beauty" it was just almost an 
unsightly weed. We first tried hand-pick- 
ing; but as the worms have tlie queer fash- 
ion of mimicking lifeless twigs it was al- 
most impossible to detect them; and, al- 
though 1 killed dozens of them every day, 
we didn't seem to get ahead of them at all. 
Somebody suggested Paris green; but it 
proved of little or no avail; but another 
friend told me arsenate of lead would stick 
to the leaves, and must prove death to any 
leaf-eating insect. You may remember I 
spoke of tliis insecticide in connection with 
the flea beetle on my wonderberry-plants. 
I didn't try it, because our Medina drug- 
gists couldn't sell less than a can of it, it 
being a sort of paste. Now, although much 
has been said about the extortion of Florida 
merchants, especially to new comers from 
the North, I found here no trouble in get- 
ting a dime's worth for my experiment. 

As I was somewhat vexed with the con- 
trary worms (that refused to die) I took my 
spray-pump and gave all three of my vines 
a pretty severe spraying. Well, it fixed the 
worms, sure, and came pretty near fixing 
the plants also. They presented a sorry ap- 
pearance, sure, until about the first of the 
new year; and to-day, Jan. 25, when I went 
out and stood by the front door the words of 
the first sentence of my text "sort of " bub- 
bled up almost involuntarily. The plant 
had so far recovered from its fiery ordeal of 
worms and poison that it was indeed once 
more "putting on its beautiful garments." 
Why, I would almost take a trip to Florida 
to see this beautiful plant in full bloom, 
right out in the open air, in all its bewitch- 
ing beauty, if for nothing else. It is a rank 
hardy grower; and the new foliage, when it 
first comes out, makes it a handsome plant, 
even before the gorgeous bloom covers and 
encircles it. 

Last evening, before retiring, I spent some 
time reading from the dailies about the re- 
cent revelations in regard to buying and 
selling votes away off in beloved Ohio, the 
land of my birth. The saddest part of it 
was to read that not only men who stood 
high in office, and in the estimation of peo- 
ple generally, but even ministers of the gos- 
pel, veritable leaders in " the paths of right- 
eousness," had confessed themselves guilty 
of this terrible offense against not only ^rood 
government but all government. As I 



looked again at the Bougainvillea I breathed 
an inward prayer that out of it all, and 
through it all, Zion might "awake" and 
once more "put on her beautiful garments " 
of honesty, truth, temperance, and virtue. 
For years past the Anti-saloon League has 
been perplexed and mortified to find that 
the men who professed to be all that is noble 
and good, should, in some unaccountable 
way, at just the last moment, be found over 
in the hands of the enemy of all that is 
good and pure and true. We guessed where 
the trouble was, but there seemed no way 
of getting hold of evidence. May the Lord 
be praised that our prayers for years past 
are being answered. We have at least one 
fearless and righteous judge who "dares to 
be a Daniel," and who keeps right on en- 
forcing the law, even though anonymous 
letters have been received threatenmg his 
life, if he dues not "let up " in his crusade 
to punish the wicked. May God be praised, 
also, for the number who have come for- 
ward in a manly and honest way and "own- 
ed up" and "taken their medicine" with- 
out making any wry faces. Truly, there is 
a prospect of a wliolesale throwing-off of the 
old-time "filthy rags," and donning the 
"beautiful garments" of the new Jerusa- 
lem. Is it not indeed really true that we 
are "shaking ourselves from the dust "and 
"loosing ourselves from the bands" that 
have been about "the necks "of at least 
some of us? 

The principal excuse I have heard for this 
kind of work is that everybody else was do- 
ing it. These two ministers who confessed 
probably received such a small salary they 
just had to do as their people did, to live. 
It seems to me a little funny that a vote- 
selling church should be able to pay a min- 
ister at all. Very likely it was the women 
of the congregation who paid the salary. 
And, by the way, if I have got it right, 
there was one township (or precinct) where 
every single voter was disfranchised for five 
years; the W. C. T. U. women sent in a plea 
to permit tliem, under the circumstances, 
to do the voting. May God hasten the day 
wlien good women shall do at least some of 
the voting. 

And now for the concluding words of our 
text: " Ye have sold yourselves for naught." 
In speaking of Senators Lorimer and Holt- 
slaw, on p. 600, Sept. 15, last year, I quoted, 
"A reputation was swept away that the 
man had toiled 40 years to build up, all for 
the sake of 4700 dollars (dirty dollars) that 
the man did not need." Well, just as I 
write, an effort is being made to let the man 
go without punishment, although he him- 
self confessed to the crime. The affair of 
Senator Lorimer has also been submitted to 
a committee, and this committee (?) has 
"whitewashed'' it over and reported no 
cause for action. " It won't do," so some of 
our big men say, to punish crime and en- 
force the laws when the ofTender stands 
"away up" in the social scale; but, may 
the Lord be praised, the people, the good 
honest men of our land, are making such a 



lis 



OLEANlNGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



protest it looks very much just now as if 
the "whitewash" were not going to stick. 

Suppose when my beautiful plant was ap- 
parently ruined by worms and poison I had 
whitewashed the leaves and tried to paint 
some more flowers on it; would anybody 
have admired it? Would I have been 
moved to say, "Put on thy beautiful gar- 
ments, O Jerusalem?" Suppose a man, a 
candidate for office, whose past record is too 
black and filthy to be spoken of in print, 
should, with the money he has gotten (prob- 
ably by robbing our nation) — suppose such 
a one as he should, with this money, get 
whitewashed (white garments are, as a rule, 
an emblem of purity, you know)* would 
any one be fooled by his "beautiful (out- 
side) garments'"? Yes, bad men can re- 
pent, and I do believe Holtslaw honestly re- 
pented when he confessed, and expected to 
pay the full penalty of his crime; but his 
friends would not let him do so. "The 
blood of Christ" does "cleanse from all 
sin;" and after this "cleansing" the veri- 
est sinner may don the "beautiful gar- 
ments" of righteousness, and stand un- 
blushingly "with the white-robed throng." 

If the people of Ohio (or any other Slate) 
who have sold their votes feel conscience- 
stricken and seem inclined to confess, by 
all means let them do so, and give them ev- 
ery possible encouragement to pay the full 
penalty of the law that they may once more 
"put on the beautiful garments " of right- 
eousness that justly belong to every law- 
abiding man, and then shall come that 
grand millennium when "God's kingdom" 
shall come, and his "will be done on earth 
as it is in heaven." 



THE SEARS AITOMOBILE UP TO JAN. 20, ETC. 

A few days ago 1 ran my machine up to 
one of our three repair shops, where several 
high-prioed machines were standing about 
waiting for three busy men to get time to 
look after the troubles, when the owner of 
one of these fine cars called out: 



*The Cleveland Plain Dealer has for several days 
past mentioned that the "searchlight" was just 
now being turned on Danville, 111., in regard to the 
matter of illegal voting. Here is a clipping from 
the daily of Jan. 24. Note that part of it referring 
to the celebrated Speaker's "raiment:" 

The little Illinois city that lias attained fame ag the home 
of the great American tzar now niakts its bid for a notorieiy 
that will turpass the ill fame of our own Adams Co. Unlets 
the power of the federal machine is great enough to intim- 
date judge, pro"ecutor. and grand jury it is evident that the 
disclosures In Vermillion Co. will be far more intere-tlng than 
the stories that have been eomlDg out of West Union. 

To begin with, Vermillion V,o. is a famous place. It is Ihe 
place where resides Joseph 6. Cannon, the tyrant who has so 
lonir dominated the American government. In the second 
place, it Is a populous and prosperous community. Adams 
Co. has never been tie home of a great man, has no citits nor 
Important village, and bases its claim to celebrity solel) on 
the possession of the "' serpent mound "— constructed by the 
mound-builders before the vote traflic had become pre^alent. 

Adams Co. may live in memory as the pioneer; but its show 
of wickedness will doubtless soon le outclassed. 

If Mr. Cannon escapes from the mire with raiment com- 
pletely clean, many observers will be greatly surprised. This 
aspect of the aU'alr is, after all. the most interesiing. If cor- 
ruption has been as nearly universal as is indicated bv the 
Initial developments, it seems impossible that " Uncle Joe" 
could have be-n repeatedly elected to congress without hav- 
ing voluntarily or unwillingly benefited by the accepted prac- 
tice. The disclosures may prove to be one more push down- 
ward for the falling dictator. 



"Why, hello, Mr. Root! I thought your 
machine never needed to come to the repair- 
shop; what is the trouble now? " 

"There isn't any trouble with my ma- 
chine, and never has been any trouble with 
it." 

"Well, why do you come here, if there is 
no trouble ? ' ' 

"I came to see if I could not sell these 
fellows ray old machine. I have no use for 
two. ' ' 

When I told Mrs. Root about it she ex- 
pressed a fear that I had given our new ma- 
chine almost too good a write-up, and asked 
if I really ought not to mention the various 
things Wesley and I had done to keep it in 
such good trim; and I am, therefore, going 
to tell you about one thing we did that I 
think may be helpful to many of you. 

The regular price of our car, $475, did not 
include a speedometer, so I had one added 
at an expense of $15.00; but after we had 
used it a while I found it was not working. 
Investigation showed the little wheel was 
not in touch with the gears on the front 
drivewheel. Well, although I could not 
make out how this got out of mesh, I loosed 
the bolts and set it up once more in place; but 
it was soon olT again as before, and a more 
careful scrutiny revealed that the whole front 
wheel was sliding off from the steel skein 
that rests on the roller bearings. This steel 
skein was probably forced into the hub of 
the wooden wheel by powerful pressure; but, 
notwithstanding, it had been gradually 
working ofif. I might have taken it to a 
carriage-shop; but the wheels all ran so 
beautifully nice and true I feared to have 
the average repair man touch them. See 
the letter on page 56, Jan. 15. This is what 
I did. I took the wheel off; and, after care- 
fully wiping off every bit of grease and oil, 
I placed a common coal-oil lamp so as to 
have the chimney just under the hole 
through the wheel when it was supported 
horizontally. In about an hour the whole 
center of the wheel was hot enough to make 
the wooden hub smoke a little, and hot 
enough to melt some roll brimstone held 
against this same steel skein. While doing 
this we turned the wheel over and let the 
flame of the lamp come under the wheel 
from the opposite side. In this way we 
"coaxed" the melted brimstone down be- 
tween the wood and the steel, and thorough- 
ly saturated the hot wood with the sulphur. 
Perhaps you are not all aware that brim- 
stone, like water, has the queer property of 
getting larger when it changes from a liquid 
to a solid; and it also has the property of 
sticking with wonderful tenacity to wood, 
metals, or any thing else when both the ar- 
ticle and the brimstone are sufficiently hot. 
Now, some of you may say (as Mrs. Root 
did), " How do I know this wheel will not 
still work off again in time, in the same old 
way?" 

Listen: When I first got my first Oldsmo- 
bile, seven years ago, one of the drivewheels 
got loose in the hub in much the same man- 
ner; and before we discovered the mischief 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



119 



the skein had turned clear around in the 
wooden hub and cut it out badly. I took it 
to several shops, but they all said it was 
past fixing. 1 wrote the Olds people and 
they were fair enough to agree to furnish a 
new wheel in case I was unable to make it 
hold in any way. Well, some of our good 
mechanics rather laughed at me when I 
told them I was going to fix it with "brim- 
stone." We heated a big bar of iron up to 
white heat and held it inside the wooden 
hub until the grease was all burned ofif and 
the bruised and battered wood almost burn- 
ed to charcoal; then Me wedged the skein in 
its proper place so the wheel ran true, as it 
did before the damage; poured in our brim- 
stone w^hen all was quite hot, and that wheel 
has done wonderful service for five or six 
years, running many thousand miles, and 
is as solid and strong to-day as it was when 
I "toggled it up with brimstone " nearly 
half a dozen years ago. 

I have taken all this space to describe the 
process, because you can repair many things 
about the house and farm in this same way. 
If you have trouble with tools, knives, etc., 
coming loose in the handles, brimstone ap- 
plied as I have directed will do the business. 
It is ever so much better than rivets or 
wedges, for there is no "wiggle" to a brim- 
stone joint. If you wish to fasten metal 
posts into stone, brimstone is the thing. 

It occurs to me in closing, that perhaps a 
little more hrimstone injected into law en- 
forcement, in some parts of Ohio, might 
bring about some important reforms, and 
help them to "hold fast" a little better in 
the years to come. 

Just one thing more: On page 55 for Jan. 
15 I mentioned getting the engine started 
by dropping a little gasoline in one of the 
cylinders, but was afterward advised by the 
makers that such a plan burned out the lu- 
bricating oil, and was not to be recommend- 
ed. The directions (with the car) mention 
a "priming- wire," and I found a wire that 
I supposed was for this "priming," but aft- 
erward discovered the priming-wire was 
omitted when the machine was sent off. 
After I supplied the missing wire the en- 
gine started, even on a cold morning, with- 
out any trouble whatever. 



SUNDAY PAPERS, E. G. LEWIS, ETC. 

Mr. A. I. Root.— As a reader of Our Homes I make 
bold to write you. I find many helpful things in 
your sermons: but I am just wondering why you 
do not give a sermon on the " funny sheets " of our 
Sunday and daily papers as to their ruinous effects 
upon the children of our land. I am astonished 
when I see people of apparent refinement reading 
those "sheets," and deliberately teaching children 
to do so. I am a teacher, and probably able to 
judge more of the evil than most people: but I cer- 
tainly feel something should be done to make such 
unpopular. 

I have been much interested In what you have 
had to say about K, G. Lewis and his " League." I 
am a member, " full paid," of the I^eague. and alto- 
gether have forwarded him about seventy dollars. 

But I have just been wondering what my duty 
might be. To tell the truth, I have lost faith. 
But I, too, feel that the good that has come to me 



indirectly from my connection with this aflair Is 
far more than fifty-two dollars' worth. Indirectly 
I have been able to earn nearly ?1500, which I could 
not have done had I not been a League member. 
The incentive caraethrough the League. 

1 am taking the "dress-making course," and I 
find it all they claim for it. I can follow it minute- 
ly, and am learning to sew. There are several oth- 
er courses I should like to take. But the question 
with me is, Should I, feeling as I do regarding Mr. 
Lewis, goon? I have paid for them. lam satis- 
fied with treatment i-eceived, and have been bene- 
fited thus far. Now, what do you think one should 
do, you who are experienced in the world's ways, 
and a good judge of right and wrong? 

It was the educational feature of the League that 
led me to enter it. I never expected to get rich, 
nor even to get all that was promised. 

I enjoy reading your experiences with poultry. I 
am also interested in that. 

With best wishes for you and Mrs. Root, and 
trusting you may reach your one hundred years, I 
am Me.s. Jessie Baird. 

Elm Grove, W. Va., Oct. 21. 



My good friend, I have been pained for 
years whenever I have picked up or exam- 
ined one of the average Sunday daily news- 
papers. I wonder, as you say, why parents 
can be willing to submit such papers to 
their younger children, who are just looking 
about and grasping every thing that comes 
along, especially the sensational things. I 
have wondered how good careful parents 
should want their children to look at even 
the pictures — that is, the greater part of 
them. One would naturally suppose that 
the Sunday paper would be at least as truth- 
ful and as dignified as the average daily. 
But I have several times commented on the 
fact that the very worst and most mischie- 
vous things somehow seem to find a place 
in the Sunday daily. During the St. Louis 
exposition a daily came out giving an ac- 
count, with pictures, of the different flying- 
machines competing for prizes. The state- 
ment was given with date, residences of the 
inventors, etc., in sijch a way that I was 
myself completely fooled. I submitted it 
to 'the Wright brothers, and they at once in- 
formed me that no such machines were on 
exhibition at St. Louis, and never existed 
at all except in the imagination of the re- 
porter who was paid for "telling lies," and 
perhaps paid extra for doing it on Sunday. 
If parents would refuse to let these papers 
come into their homes the publishers would 
probably drop them on account of a lack of 
patronage. 

I am very glad to get so good a report con- 
cerning the Lewis Woman's League; but I 
am glad, also, that you have refrained from 
making a further investment. 



SABBATH DESECRATION: A KIND WORD FROM THOS 
WM. COWAN. 

Please let Mr. A. I. Root know how much I appre- 
ciate the article on page 703 of Glfanings, and am 
so pleased that he makes such a firm stand against 
the Sabbath desecration that is getting to be so 
common. We have also remarked the number of 
accidents that have taken place on a Sunday: but 
the people do not see the hand on the v\-all, and it 
will require an earlhquake to rouse them. 

Thos. Wm. Cowan. 

Upcott House, Taunton, Eng. 



120 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Feb. 15 



Temperance 



THE TEMPERANCE ATTITUDE OF GLEAN- 
INGS. 

Wliile kind letters for the Home papers, 
especially the temperance articles, are mat- 
ters of daily occurrence — in fact, we often 
get several of such in one day — once in a 
great while we meet a bee-keeper who is 
not in sympathy with temperance nor with 
the temperance wave. I think it must be 
almost if not quite a year since we have had 
a letter like the one from the good brother 
who sends the following: 

I just have received Geeanings for Oct. 1, and I 
have reai your article on page 637, and have seen 
that you are a strong prohibition man. That is 
enough for me, and therefore send me your paper 
no longer — not at all, not even a sample in future, 
for I read no prohibition paper. I never any more 
will see a number of your paper. Keep your prohibi- 
tion paper for yourself. My subscription is just out 
Oct. 1. I will be a free man, not bound by prohibi- 
tion. Do you understand that? Respectfully, 

Altus, Ark., Oct. 6. Joseph Glanzmann. 

My good brother, while I believe in and 
teach State-wide prohibition, I do not at 
present belong to the Prohibition party. As 
I understand it, the spirit of our great re- 
public is to let the majority rule. If the 
majority in any community want saloons, 
I suppose they can have them or should 
have them, as things are at present; and if 
the majority prefer to have no saloons in 
their midst or in their county, surely they 
should be permitted to vote them out, and 
in a like manner if the people of a whole 
State should decide that they M'ant no liq- 
uors nor liquor-traffic in that State, surely 
the people should have the privilege of de- 
barring them. I know that you people often 
urge that it is unfair to make a large city 
dry when the people of that city or county 
by a majority decide to have it dry. Now, 
this question is too large for the pages of 
Gleanings. I will only suggest, however, 
that where a county has to bear the expense 
of the asylums and infirmaries that are 
mainly peopled because of intemperance, 
that county or State should certainly have 
the privilege of overruling any county-seat 
or great city. Please consider that the liq- 
uor-trade is not an industry that builds up 
any community. Am I not right? May 
God help you, dear brother, to look at this 
whole matter squarely and fairly and with- 
out prejudice. 



ANTS, AND HOW TO GET RID OF THEM, ETC. 

In my hand is Bulletin No. 207, from 
Berkeley, Cal., on the control of the Argen- 
tine ant. This ant has proved to be so de- 
structive in some parts of California that it 
has decreased the valye of residence proper- 
ty from 10 to 25 per cent. In California 
there are about 40 separate colonies, from 
one acre to nearly 2000 in extent. These 
ants have already proven to be exreedingly 
troublesome to bee-keepers; and this bulle- 
tin says the directions for their extermina- 



tion will apply to all other varieties as well 
as to this Argentine pest. We copy from 
the bulletin as follows: 

WATER BARRIERS — CRESOL. 

Perhaps the best-known method of barring ants 
out is the water barrier, such as is secured by setting 
the table legs in cups of water. This is effective 
against most ants; but the Argentine ant has no 
difficulty in crossing water. Oil they can not pass, 
but it is objectionable. We have found that the 
addition of a very small amount of cresol, just 
enough to make the water milky, renders water ef- 
fective. The odor of cresol disappears in a day or 
two, and the water will continue effective indefi- 
nitely. The cresol has germicidal qualities that pre- 
vent the water from becoming foul. Indeed, the 
cresol water makes possible the development of a 
system of ant-prooflng that is thoroughly practical 
and efficient. 

DESTRUCTION OF NESTS WITH CARBON BISULPHIDE. 

In the above description we have referred to the 
use of carbon bisulphide for the destruction of nests 
of ants. In all the species where there are large 
nests with a single oj^ening this is by far the most 
satisfactory treatment. The plan is simply to pour 
down a few ounces of carbon bisulphide, either in 
the natural openings or in holes made by thrusting 
in a crowbar and covering every thing with earth. 
The gas formed by the evaporation of the carbon bi- 
sulphide effectually destroys both young and old. 
This method can be applied to any species where 
the nest can be discovered: but in the case of the 
Argentine species it becomes the least valuable of 
any method, since the nests are usually scattered 
almost everywhere over the whole surface of the 
ground; and the treatment, to be effective, would 
have to include the entire ground space for acres 
about the house one intends to protect. 

ARSENICAL POISONING. 

We obtained by far the best results by the use of 
a very weak solution cf arsenic and syrup. Most of 
the commercial ant poisons commonly known as 
ant jjastes consist of arsenic and syrup, but are made 
very strong in arsenic. This kills the foraging ants 
almost immediately. We found b5' reducing the ar- 
senic to between one-fourth and one-eighth of one 
per cent they would take large quantities of the ma- 
terial to their nests and feed it to the young, and the 
whole nest would be killed by a slow poisoning. 

The most convenient way of exposing the poison 
to the ants is to use a large jar with a perforated 
cover, and within it place a sponge saturated with 
the ansenic solution. The ants will enter through 
the perforations in the cover, fill themselves with 
the arsenic solution, and carry it to their nests. 
The sponge will hold enough poison to re(iuire two 
or three weeks to empty it, and before that time 
the ants will almost entirely disappear. 

The number of jars to use will depend upon the 
abundance of ants. In the worst cases half a dozen 
jars will serve for an ordinary private house and 
lot; and if the ants are not very bad one jar may be 
enough. In such cases it is well to place it in the 
pantry or kitchen. 

The same remedy can be used for all the native 
species of ants, and will be more effective against 
them. 

• 

There is one species of ant that is exceed- 
ingly troublesome on the island of Osprey, 
Florida. The only remedy we found was to 
keep chickens enough to keep them down. 
Unless the chickens are permitted to be con- 
stantly around the hives, these ants will 
sometimes destroy strong colonies, and they 
do it almost in a night. 

In regard to its attacks on bees we extract 
the following: 

Its insidious attacks upon bee-hives has, at least 
in one instance, put an amateur bee-keeper out of 
business, and in two cases that have come to our 
attention have become an equal menace in aviaries 
by the attacks upon the nestlings; and, indeed, there 
is considerable evidence that they will have an ap- 
preciable effect upon native wild birds in the same 
way. 



Published by Tlie A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

H H ROOT, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. ROOT, Editor Home Department J. T. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the PostofiBce. Medina, Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



MARCH 1, 1911 



NO. 5 



Editorial 



E. R. ROOT IN FLORIDA. 

By the time this issue reaches our sub- 
scribers E. R. Root will be in Florida with 
headquarters at Bradentown, where he has 
temporarily removed his editorial sanctum. 
He proposes to make a number of side trips 
from Bradentown to a number of points in 
Florida, equipped with notebook and cam- 
era. Mr. Root will return to Medina about 
the middle of March. 



SPRAYING FRUIT-TREES WHILE IN BLOOM. 

The article by C. E. Layman, in this 
issue, page 139, is true, every word of it. 
Lay this journal aside; mark the article, 
and hand it to your neighbor fruit-grower 
who sprays at the wrong time, or who im- 
agines that your bees are damaging his 
fruit. If you haven't any such neighbors, 
cut it out and paste it in your scrap-book. 
You may need it some time in the future. 



answering questions. 
We are always glad to clear up any diffi- 
culties that may exist in the minds of our 
readers, especially the beginners, who can 
not help being somewhat bewildered when 
reading the multitude of different plans for 
preventing this, that, and the other; but of 
late, in quite a number of instances, we 
have been unable to give satisfactory answers 
for the reason that the questions were word- 
ed in such a way that we could not possibly 
tell what plan or method the beginner had 
in mind. If the page and number of Glean- 
ings are given in which the plan appeared, 
or the name of the book, or other bee-jour- 
nal, as the case may be, there need be no 
misunderstanding. 

THE SIMMINS METHOD OF SHIFTING FLY- 
ING BEES. 

Attention is drawn to the article on 
page 132 of this issue by Samuel Simmins, 
showing the method that he used as early 
as 1893 for shifting the flying bees from 
one hive to another to prevent swarming. 
While the basic principle of this is the 
same as that used by J. E. Hand, there is a 
difTerence in the manner of carrying it out. 
In the J. E. Hand arrangement the bees go 
to precisely the same entrance after the 
shift that they did before. In the Simmins 



hive they go to another entrance, but so 
near the first one that they may almost be 
considered the same. Both claim for their 
adaptation of principle the control of 
swarms and the continuous production of 
comb honey. 

We have examined the references given 
by Mr. Simmins, and find that all his 
claims as to his early use of the idea are 
sustained. We hope some of our readers 
will be in a position to test these two plans 
and report. 

ANOTHER COMB-HONBY CANARD FROM AN 
UNEXPECTED SOURCE. 

When we attended the Indiana State 
Bee-keepers' convention on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary we paid our respects to the comb-hon- 
ey canard because we knew that one or two 
reporters were present, and we desired an 
opportunity to impress on them the fact 
that comb honey is not manufactured, nev- 
er was, and that there was a reward of 
$10,000 to prove the existence of such an 
article as manufactured comb honey on the 
market that would deceive an ordinary con- 
sumer. Two of the Indianapolis papers 
quoted us very accurately — the Indianapolis 
Star and the Indianapolis News; but the 
Indianapolis San of Feb. 4 put it out in this 
fashion: 

A talk by B. R. Root, editor and lecturer, held the 
attention of the Association. IMr. Root encouraged 
the growing of alfalfa, but condemned the manu- 
facture of honey. He said he believed most of ihe 
coml) honey is manufactured and not produced by 
the bee. 

Of course, we are writing a protest, and 
we respectfully urge the Indiana bee-keep- 
ers, at least, to follow it up. It is bad 
enough to have an ordinary item in a paper 
telling about manufactured comb honey; 
but it is infinitely worse when one of the ed- 
itors of one of the leading bee journals is 
quoted as implying that comb honey is 
manufactured, and that he condemns the 
practice, etc. 

the swelling and shrinkage op 

BOARDS. 

We have been making some experiments 
in testing the " come and go " of boards, es- 
pecially those composing the covers and 
bottom-boards when placed under different 
conditions. For example, both of these ar- 
ticles, after being made up and put in hot 
water, are kept there for 24 hours. They 
are then put on top of a radiator for the ex- 
press purpose of determining the amount of 
shrinkage that will take place as well as the 
checking and warping. While this is a 



122 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



very severe and hard test, going rapidly 
from one extreme to the other, it gives us 
an opportunity to get results in a very short 
time. 

Well, we observe that ordinary good dry 
lumber, eight inches wide, will come and go 
from one extreme to the other from X to >^ 
of an inch. For example, if a hive-cover 
that is just right in Florida during the rainy 
season were suddenly transferred to Colora- 
do, under the dry hot sun, we might observe 
that amount of come and go. 

The lesson of all this is the great impor- 
tance of having our covers and bottoms so 
constructed that the individual sections or 
parts of them may shrink or swell without 
tearing the combination apart. 



SHIPPING- CASES WITH CROSS - PARTITIONS 

OF CORRTJGATKD PAPER; A TIME 

TO WAKE UP. 

At both the Indianapolis and the Cincin- 
nati conventions we emphasized the impor- 
tance of larger and stronger comb-honey 
shipping-cases — larger, to accommodate the 
cross-partitions forming compartments for 
each individual section; and stronger, to 
stand the rough usage that shipments of 
comb honey very often receive. It would 
make an increased cost of, possibly, four or 
five cents per case; but what is four or five 
cents as compared with the contents, that 
are worth anywhere from $3.00 to $5.00 per 
case? Why should bee-keepers continue 
the old policy of shipping fragile combs on 
no-drip cleats in cases that are admittedly 
too weak to stand the kind of treatment 
that freight-handlers are now giving them? 
Put the question squarely up to any bee- 
keeper, and ask him whether he would not 
be willing to insure the safe arrival of his 
comb honey by the payment of 5 cts. per 
case, and he will tell you every time that, if 
he can get these cases, he would much ratli- 
er prefer to pay the insurance rather than 
to sustain a loss of, jwssibly, fifty times as 
much, as a result of broken-down comb hon- 
ey shipped in the regulation way. 

But the question maybe asked, "Why 
do not the supply-dealer and manufacturer 
ofTer these cases to the public?" Simply 
because both the bee-keeper and the dealer 
have been too slow to see the importance of 
better cases for shipping honey. Now they 
are beginning to wake up, and it is high 
time too. 

At the Cincinnati convention we asked 
Mr. Weber what had been his experience in 
shipments of comb honey in the corrugated 
paper cases with cross-partitions. "Very 
satisfactory." Then what objection was 
there to these paper cases? "Nothing," 
saidihe, "except that they do not stand 
rain or wet." He explained that it was al- 
most impossible to keep shipments of comb 
honey out of the rain en route from the 
warehouse to the cars and from the cars to 
warehouse again. Every now and then a 
shipment of honey will get wet. If the 
cases are made of wood, no great damage 



will be sustained; but if made of paper they 
are liable to go to pieces. 

It was pointed out at both conventions 
that a paper case would stand the punching 
of a sharp instrument or of a sharp corner 
better than a wooden case. The paper will 
dent in, rather than cause a jar to the whole 
case of sections. In this one respect the 
corrugated-paper cases have the advantage 
over the wooden ones that are not so yield- 
ing. The paper cases have another advan- 
tage in that the flaps bow outward, making 
a sort of cushion or spring, and this further 
protects the honey against jars or rough 
handling. 

The supply-dealer and manufacturer will 
be only too glad to furnish better and strong- 
er cases when their customers ask for them. 
It is passing strange that we have been con- 
tent for years to ship our honey in these 
frail cases, and have been pocketing our 
losses year in and year out when we could 
just as well have saved them. 

There, now, Mr. Beekeeper, if you want 
better shipping-cases, and are willing to 
pay more for them, go after your dealer. 
He is bound to supply you what you want. 
Comb honey is more easily broken and 
spoiled than most articles in the fragile list; 
and yet, in spite of its value, instead of be- 
ing carefully packed, it is too often sent in 
a plain solid box without being cushioned 
in any way. 

"SWEETENING RAILROAD MEN;" A GOOD 
SUGGESTION. 

A FEW days ago one of our old subscribers, 
Mr. M. D. .Johnson, of Websier, la., gave 
us a call. During the course of our conver- 
sation regarding better methods of shipping 
comb honey he remarked that he found it 
paid, and paid well, to sweeten the railroad 
men all along the line over which his comb 
honey is shipped. For instance, occasion- 
ally when the express train comes in he will 
take over some nice samples of new comb 
and extracted honey, and hand them out to 
the expressmen with his compliments. He 
does the same thing with the freight crew 
when the freight-trams come in. " It takes 
but very little honey," said he, "to sweeten 
up many miles of road, and the effect is 
magical. Why, I never have any break- 
ages of comb honey, either by express or 
freight, because I have a good stand-in with 
the railroad men, and who, because they 
like me, take particular pains with my hon- 
ey." This is not a bribe, but it is a very 
good way to get in close touch with men 
who hold a considerable part of your prop- 
erty in trust; and "instead of being offi- 
cious, or too busy to see to anybody, they 
always have a glad smile," said our sub- 
scriber, and say, " What can 1 do for you?" 

This is a good tip to pass along to our 
readers. It is worth trying. If it is good 
policy to "sweeten" neighbor women on 
wash days in the spring, why should it not 
be equally so, if not more, to sweeten the 
men who sometimes hold in their posses- 
sion anywhere from a hundred to a thou- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



12S 



sand dollars' worth of our property. A 
broken shipment is more often due to pure 
carelessness or cussed ness on the part of rail- 
road employees than to any thing else. 
Here is the remedy — "take a stitch in 
time." 

THE OHIO STATE BEE-KEEPEKS' CONVEN- 
TION AT CINCINNATI. 

The Ohio State Bee-keepers' Association 
met in convention at the Grand Hotel, Cin- 
cinnati, Feb. 16 and 17. The attendance 
was not quite as large as at some meet- 
ings, but it was made up of enthusiastic 
bee-keepers who listened to a number of 
talks and papers. 

There is hardly space for us to give even a 
digest of the proceedings. Chas. H. Weber 
read a paper entitled "Shipping Comb 
Honey." In this he put special emphasis 
on the importance of careful and honest 
grading; cautioned against shipping by ex- 
press, and advised shipping by freight in 
carriers. 

Mr. Chalon Fowls presented a paper show- 
ing why bee-keepers should seek to develop 
their own home markets; showed how one 
could develop a trade in honey butter, which 
he would put up in glass. 

Prof. N. E. Shaw, State Entomologist, 
and also State Inspector, read a paper en- 
titled "The Foul-brood Situation in Ohio." 
He exhibited a map that he had prepared, 
showing how American foul brood had been 
found by his inspectors in a large number 
of counties, and he v/as fearful that the oth- 
er counties that had not yet been visited 
also contained considerable disease. He 
and his inspectors were able to cover only a 
limited portion of the State, owing to the 
limited appropriation at their command, 
for the Ohio brood bill had been enacted 
into law ajter the Legislature had made its 
general appropriation for the Department of 
Agriculture; but the Department had made 
arrangements by which his nursery inspec- 
tors could devote a little of their time to the 
inspection of bee diseases; but he hoped 
that, with the larger appropriation, with a 
specific sum for bee-inspection work, which 
he would get from the Legislature at this 
coming session, he would be able to cover a 
a larger field. 

Cincinnati, outside of New York and Chi- 
cago, probably has the largest market for 
honey of any city in the United States; and 
Mr. Muth questioned whether it would not 
outstrip Chicago. It is the center of a line 
of railroads, and on the Ohio River. For 
that reason it has cheap transportation 
from the South. Since the days of Chas. F. 
Muth, of many years ago, honey has been 
streaming into Cincinnati and going out. 
Cincinnati is also a large center of baking 
interests, and therefore consumes no small 
share of the extracted honey received at that 
market not suitable for table use. 

Some discussion was aroused whether 
there was any such thing as a red-clover 
queen and red-clover bees that would actu- 
ally work on common red clover. While we 



stated that we had at one time strains that 
would work on the plant it was easy to see 
that there was a big question-mark in the 
minds of some. The report given on page 
149 of this issue, by .1. F. Brady, is a sample 
of many others we have received, and ought 
to go far to set at rest any question on this 
point. 

We met a number of bee-keepers from 
Kentucky, and received the gratifying as- 
surance that the Kentucky bee-keepers are 
happy over their new foul-brood law and the 
good work that is being done in eradicating 
disease. 

IS IT POSSIBLE TO SHUT BEES IN THE 

HIVES DURING THE SPRAYING OP 

FRUIT-TREES? TAKING A 

STITCH IN TIME. 

Every spring we get numerous inquiries 
as to whether bees can be shut in their hives 
during the time that ignorant fruit-growers 
are spraying their trees while in bloom. 
We regret to say that this is not practical; 
that is to say, it would not be possible to 
shut bees in the hives by nailing wire cloth 
over the entrance. This might be done, 
however: Nail wite cloth over the enttance, 
and then place a screen top over the whole 
top of the hive, and over this again the reg- 
ular hive-cover raised up about an inch, so 
as to let in the air, and yet shut out the di- 
rect rays of the sun and storm. 

But the spraying in bloom may last three 
or four weeks, because different trees come 
into blossom at different times. The only 
thing that the bee-keeper can do is to hand 
out to such ignorant or willful offenders 
some of our little pamphlets entitled "The 
Bee-keeper and the Fruit-grower," and 
ask them to read the statements of experi- 
ment stations, showing that it is bad policy 
for the fruit-grower as well Tas for the bee- 
keeper to spray trees while in bloom. See 
the article by C. E. Layman, on page 139 
of this issue. The best authorities on ap- 
ple-growing and fruit-growing are on record 
to that effect. See what Albert A. Waugh, 
one of the leading authorities in the United 
States, has to say in his book entitled "The 
American Apple Orchard," published by 
the Orange Judd Co., New York. 

In many cases our friends by iising tact, 
and the pamphlets referred to, have induc- 
ed the fruit growers to let up on their spray- 
ing, and, instead, to spray before and after 
the trees are in flower. 

Say ! it wouldn't be a bad policy to sweet- 
en some of these people with a few nice 
samples of comb and extracted honey some 
two or three months before, the spraying 
season comes on. It doesn't cost much to 
get on the good side of ihem if you begin 
early. This literature ought to be handed 
out to them after they have been sweetened 
up, and when they are in a good humor 
toward you, rather than after they get start- 
ed to spraying at the wrong time, and when 
they would be inclin. d to resent your polite 
protest that they are destroying your proj)- 
erty. See ? 



124 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mae. 1 



Stray Straws 

By Dr. C. C. Miller, Marengo, 111. 



D. A. Jones was the man from whom I 
got the T super, the best section-super I ever 
knew. I never learned where he got it. 
[Does any one know who invented the T 
super? — Ed.] 

E. S. Miles, have you not been told tha,t 
a non-swarming bee can never be? In the 
face of that, don't you think it is imperti- 
nence on your part to come so near it as you 
do on p. 68? Now you quit that. 

Beer-drinking in Germany is on the 
decline, strange as it may seem. In 1909 
the per capita consumption was 29.37 gal- 
lons, as against 31.22 in 1908, and 33.02 in 
1900. The emperor himself is laboring ear- 
nestly against the use of beer, especially in 
the army and navy. — Chicago Eecord-Her- 
ald. 

S. D. House, p. 85, advises 2-in. glass in 
shipping-cases. Why? Just once I used 
2-in. glass, and it doesn't show the honey 
so well. After shipping thousands of cases 
with 3-in. glass, I know of no objection ex- 
cept cost. [The wide glass makes the wood- 
en strips, top and bottom, narrower. The 
narrower these strips the less power they 
have for holding the case from racking dur- 
ing shipment. If it were not for the glass 
front in cases they would be much stronger. 
—Ed.] 

Canadian duty on honey from the Unit- 
ed States is 3 cents a pound. The duty the 
other way is 20 cents a gallon, or l-i cents a 
pound. If Taft has his way, honey will 
pass free of duty both ways. That would 
be more neighborly. [INIr. Taft is doing 
good work. Reciprocity is both neighborly 
and Christianlike. It looks now as if the 
President would have to use his "big stick " 
on the reactionary Senators. We do not, 
care, just so we have suitable trade relations 
with Canada. — Ed.] 

J. Maksay asks if I endorse that view on 
page 80, that swarm prevention is "a thing 
that exists only in the minds of brainless 
philosophers." I hardly think friend Hand 
meant exactly that, but, rather, that he 
uses the word "prevention " with some un- 
usual meaning; for I do not believe he would 
be so unkind as to declare without brains 
the thousands of us who believe in swarm 
prevention. However we may differ as to 
the most profitable way we are agreed -that 
it is not at all impossible to prevent swarm- 
ing, using the word with the dictionary 
meaning, "to stop or hinder from happening 
by means of previous measures." 

R. GoBLDi puts pasteboard under bottom- 
bars in winter; and every 20 or 30 days, with 
differently colored pencils, makes a maik 
about the droppings and then cleans them 
off. He finds the winter-seat may be in the 



middle, at either side, or at either end. 
Some colonies remain in the same seat all 
winter, upon each warm spell bringing hon- 
ey from surrounding combs. Some "wan- 
der," moving bodily from time to time to 
where they find a fresh lot of honey. — 
Schweiz. Bztg., 26. [A good scheme, this! 
An examination of the brood-nest during 
the winter will also show how the bees of a 
colony will "wander " — how they will squat 
here and then there, according to conditions. 
—Ed.] 

Ever hear the story of Doolittle and the 
peanuts? It was in his young days, when 
railroad cars in that region were made by 
Eaton, Gilbert tS: Co. He was on a train, 
and, with some other young fellows, was 
having a good time eating peanuts. The 
conductor, coming along and seeing the 
muss they were making on the floor, said, 
"Eating peanuts on this train is not allow- 
ed." "Oh! but there is an exception made 
in my case," replied Doolittle. " Don't you 
see that it says on the door, 'Eaton, Gil- 
bert and company ' ? My name is Gilbert, 
Gilbert Doolittle, and these fellows are my 
company." The conductor, nonplussed at 
the new way of reading "Eaton, Gilbert & 
Co.," left them in peace to continue their 
banquet. But, mind you, I don't vouch for 
the truth of the story. It may be a slander 
on our dignified friend. 

J. Herter had a thermometer in a brood- 
nest. Jan. 17 it stood at 34°F. He struck 
a few heavy blows on the hive, and in 20 
minutes the mercury rose to 80°! That 46° 
rise in 20 minutes shows what bees can do 
in getting up heat. [The same principle 
of disturbance operates to heat up bees when 
they are being moved either by train or 
wagon. They seem to require ten times 
the amount of ventilation at such time as 
they do when quietly at home. Some years 
ago, when snow was on the ground and the 
temperature was about 10 above zero, after 
we had been out hunting we came to one 
of our outyards. One of the parties, for ex- 
periment, having a small rifle, was asked to 
send a bullet through a hive containing a 
strong colony. He did so; and within a few 
seconds, comparatively, we opened up the 
brood-nest and found the bees were scatter- 
ed all over, and a hot wave of air came up 
from the cluster as we raised the quilt. The 
bees were very much alive, and seemed to 
be far from a condition of hibernation at 
that particular moment. The bullet had 
gone clear through the center of the brood- 
nest, and evidently had struck a part of the 
ball of bees. They were no longer in a com- 
pact mass, but spread all over the hive in 
almost no time. It would appear that the 
sudden shock aroused their anger. Evi- 
dently the psychic influence on the bees is 
the same as that of human beings. When 
one answers back "hotly" it simply means 
that his pulse is high — that the blood 
courses through the veins at a rapid rate. 
Perhaps some anatomist can throw some 
light on this subject. — Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



125 



Notes from Canada 

By J. L. Byer, Mt. Joy, Ont. 



My curiosity is aroused in regard to that 
advertisement in November Gleanings, 
asking for dead drones and queens. Wiiat 
can they be wanted for, any way? Last 
spring, between fruit bloom and clover, I 
was in some yards where dead drones could 
have been gathered by the gallon. If there 
had been a market for them then, what a 
bonanza it would have been for the owners! 



Regarding the advice given by J. S. Pat- 
ton, p. 767, Dec. 1, as to having hogs in the 
apiary to keep down the grass, I would say 
to any one thinking of trying the plan, " go 
slow." At one of our yards the owner of 
the farm allowed some hogs among the 
bees, thinking they would do no harm; but 
the second day they were in the yard they 
got to lubbing against the hi\es, and upset 
a good colony, entirely ruining it for the 
season. 



Editor Hutchinson says in the Review 
that dummies or division-boards are all 
right in hives with self-spacing frames, but 
that theyhaxe no use in a hive that has 
frames of the loose hanging variety. \\ hy 
not, 1 wondt-r? While dummies are not 
necessarily conservers of heat, yet thty olt- 
en come handy for many purjioses such as 
forming nuclei, etc. Then if one is con- 
tractirig for wintering, they are necessary 
to crowd the bees up; for, although a comb 
will, in a sense, act as a divission-board, yet 
bees will cluster on the outsirleof the comb, 
while the board would keep them in. Per- 
sonally we like a dummy in every hive, and 
we find the habit growing on us, as a few 
years ago we had no partiality on the ques- 
tion. 



Friend Holtermann's method of carrying 
hives into the cellar is all right if the combs 
are of the self-spacing kind and the hives 
are full of frames. But lest some novice 
should try to carry a hive like that when 
the frames are of the loose hanging variety, 
a word of warning is necessary, as in a case 
of that kind something would be doing, 
surely My hives have loose frames, and I 
believe I can carry them with as little strain 
to the body, and with as little jarring of the 
hives, as though the frames were fast. But 
I want cleats on the ends of the hives; in 
fact, I want them there for handling the 
hives at any time when it is necessary. 
For carrying in the cellar, the left arm is 
passed over the top of the hive, with the 
right hand at the bottom, the rear end of 
the hive, as it were, resting on the side and 
left hip. In that position I can carry any 
number of hives with little fatigue and 
practically no disturbance to the bees. 



In the death of D. A. Jones, Nov. 20, 
Canada loses one of the pioneers of bee- 
keeping. While Mr. Jones was not engaged 
in bee-keeping during the latter years of his 
life, no doubt many of the older readers will 
remember him as being very prominent in 
the business some years ago. He was the 
founder oi the Canadian Bee Journal, and 
was one of the first to import queens from 
Italy to this country. He traveled exten- 
sively, and in one of his trips he visited 
Cyprus and Palestine to investigate the 
bees of that country. While I never had 
the privilege of meeting Mr. Jones, yet my 
father and grandfather were well acquaint- 
ed with him, as he was born within a few 
miles of our home. Mr. Jones was 75 years 
old, and for over 40 years he had been post- 
master in the town of Beeton. This name, 
by the way, was given because of the indus- 
try established by him at that place so long 
ago. 



The recent tariff arrangements between 
the L^nited States and Canada came as a big 
surp ise to the bee-keepers of this country 
in so far hs the tariff on honey is concerned. 
Judging from the many letters received, 
the majority of bee-keepers on this side of 
the line feel that they have be- n handed a 
"lemon." Personally, the writer inclines 
toward free traWe in all commolities; but it 
does Neem unfair that, while many of our 
products are put on the free list, the most 
of the manufa turers are still protected 
heavily. For instance, take the biscuit 
industry. While the most of the raw ma- 
terials, including honey, used in the manu- 
fa"ture of these articles, are placed on the 
free list, yet the finished product is protect- 
ed by duties ranging from 25 to 32>^ per 
rent. One of the hardest knocks to the 
Canadian producer will be the free admis- 
sion of honey from the British West India 
Islands; for, with the cheap labor in these 
countries, such hone\ will be hard to com- 
pete with. Many Ontario producers feel 
that the markets they have been building 
up for years will now, by reason of geograph- 
ical conditions, be snatched away from 
them. Whether it will work out as bad as 
it looks is a matter for the future to decide; 
but I believe I am safe in saying that nine- 
tenths of the bee-keepers of Canada would 
prefer to have matters left as they were be- 
fore the recent changes were suggested. 
We have mentioned West India honey as a 
competitor with our own product; and I 
might explain that, while it will never sup- 
plant our honey for table use, yet the bet- 
ter grades of it may be used for manufactur- 
ing; and some bottlers have been mixing it 
with our best clover honey and palming it 
off as pure Ontario honey. With the duty 
removed, the temptation will be much 
stronger to get this honey; and, all things 
considered, it does not look any too bright 
for the marketing of our product under the 
new regulations. 



126 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mak. 1 



Bee-keeping Among The 
Rockies 

Py Wesley Foster, Boulder, Colo. 



AXFAIiFA FOB STOCK, INSTEAD OF HAY. 

The protection and care man gives to his 
plants and flowers cause them to lose some 
of their native resistant qualities. And so 
we find the apple-trees in our orchards much 
more subject to injury from pests and dis- 
ease than their prototype the crab. The 
same thing is true of alfalfa. I suppose the 
original stock from which the alfalfa sprang, 
as we now know it, was not subject to in- 
jury from disease and pests. Any plant 
seems to have only about so much energy; 
and when, through the care given by man, 
it becomes unnecessary to resist unfavora- 
ble conditions, the plant then has this un- 
used vitality to put into greater growth in 
plant and more succulence. This gain in 
succulence makes the alfalfa more appetiz- 
ing to the grasshoppers, and the lowered re- 
sisting power gives the alfalfa rust a chance. 
Now comes the alfalfa-leaf weevil in Utah, 
and it is doing much damage in the dis- 
tricts where alfalfa most abounds; and the 
damage is greatest in the old fields where it 
has been grown for years. This is another 
fact to substantiate the belief that alfalfa is 
dimished in vitality by frequent cutting, 
and, further, that it does not build up the 
soil in any thing but nitrogen. If one cuts 
his alfalfa, and continues to haul the hay 
off and sell it, he will, in a few years, have 
a very much impoverished farm. Keep 
stock on the farm, and sell your hay in the 
form of beef or mutton. 

There is no doubt that some of the older 
farms in the West need lime where alfalfa 
has been raised continually on one piece of 
ground. 

Bees were bringing in pollen on "ground- 
hog's day;" maples were in bloom; the bees 
were about the willows, and I was told that 
a few dandelions were out. My ! what a win- 
ter season! The bees were getting pollen on 
the 19th of December; then early in Janu- 
ary it was 18° below zero, and the bees were 
unable to get to their stores two inches 
inches away, and a good many colonies per- 
ished. Then they were again gathering 
pollen, and perhaps a little nectar, around 
the first of February, with snow flying, and 
a regular blizzard on the range but twenty 
miles to the west. We certainly have cli- 
mate in all her moods out this way. It's 
not strange the queens don't know when to 
start laying. 

BEET SUGAR AGAIN. 

On page 33, Jan. 15, I am taken to task 
as to the accuracy of my statement in re- 
gard to cane and beet sugar. Here we have 
two kinds of sugar — one the beet sugar 
made in the numerous factories in North- 
ern Colorado, owned by The Great Western 
Sugar Co. This sugar is demonstrated at 



pure-food shows as beet sugar, and it is fair 
to assume that the thousands of sacks piled 
up in the storage-rooms of the factory, and 
the thousands of tons of beets being ground 
up every day, is evidence that this sugar 
comes from the beet. Then we have a 
sugar here with the marking of The Amer- 
ican Sugar Refining Co., San Francisco, 
and called cane sugar. The latter is two to 
three times as fine as our local beet sugar, 
and tastes sweeter — that is, the taste comes 
sooner when placed in the mouth, caused 
by the granules melting more readily. The 
difference is noticeable when mixing bee- 
feed. The cane or finer sugar dissolves 
more readily, and there is less liability of 
undissolved granules being found in the 
bottom. My mother tells me beet sugar is 
better for cake frosting than cane because 
it makes better frosting, and is made quick- 
er. I should think this would prove that 
the beet sugar goes back to crystals sooner 
than the finer cane sugar. 

Then from a mere theoretical standpoint 
would not a coarse-grained sugar return to 
granules sooner than a finer grain? This 
is certainly true of honey. A bee-keeper 
who fed a hundred sacks of sugar the past 
fall said his observation had been that cane 
sugar could be mixed with water cold with- 
out its granulating in the cells, while beet 
sugar, to get the same results, had to be 
mixed with hot water. He bought cane 
sugar, although it cost him 20 cents a hun- 
dred more than the local beet sugar. This 
I know, that the housewives here in Colo- 
rado declare that the local beet sugar is not 
so good for fruit or cakes, except frosting or 
other use, as the finer-grained sugar called 
"cane" which- is shipped here from San 
Francisco. The bee-keepers are influenced 
by their wuves; and when they are told that 
the cane sugar is the best, that is the kind 
they are going to buy for their bees; for the 
best sugar has been proven to give the best 
results in feeding. The cane sugar on the 
market here tastes sweeter, looks nicer, and 
is finer-grained than our local beet product. 
The sugar company is making a great effort 
to popularize the beet sugar with the house- 
wives; they are continually conducting cook- 
ing and demonstration classes in fruit-can- 
ning with beet sugar. 

COLORADO BEE CONVENTION. 

In spite of the failure of the honey crop 
throughout Northern Colorado a good num- 
ber of bee-keepers from this part of the State 
were at the convention. The southern part 
of the State was represented by several bee- 
men, and also several came from the western 
slope. The meeting was a success in every 
way; and the work outlined, if carried out, 
will certainly aid the bee industry of Col- 
orado very materially. 

There are two lines of discussion that 
come up at every convention. They are: 
" How to get a better price for the product, 
or a larger share of the consumer's do'liir." 
and "The methods of handling bees to get 
a larger return from each hive in honey." 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



127 



How to get more for the product was the 
first thing that came up in the question- 
box, and the subject elicited lively discus- 
sion. The facts brought out were that the 
producer was getting about 35 cents of the 
consumer's dollar in extracted honey, and 
forty to fifty cents in comb honey. The 
railroads come in for an undue amount for 
freight, and the cost of bee-supplies keeps 
steadily advancing, so that the profits are 
not what they should be. The freight rate 
on honey by the carload is about four times 
what it is on potatoes a like distance. The 
association has outlined work for the com- 
ing year that will, if carried though, bring 
about a more equitable rate on honey ship- 
ments. The fault lies quite largely with the 
bee-keepers themselves in not calling these 
unfair rates to the attention of the rail- 
roads. 

Mr. Hermann Rauchfuss gave a valuable 
talk on good queens and proper hive man- 
ipulations. He advocated wintering bees in 
two-story hives, even if doubling up the col- 
onies had to be done. In this way old 
queens could be gotten rid of, and the 
strength of each hive would be svich that it 
could well withstand the severe conditions 
of winter. Mr. Rauchfuss made a strong 
point in recommending that bee-ketpers 
raise their own queens in their own yards, 
and keep each queen among the bees where 
she was raised. The introducing of queens 
into strange hives is the cause of many a 
fine queen soon deteriorating. While the 
bees do not kill her, they see that in some 
way she is not at home, and keep fussing 
and pulling away at her until many of them 
become devoid of hair. A queen that is be- 
ing continually worried will never do much 
good work. When each bee-keeper raises 
his own queens it is easy to keep each queen 
among her own "home folks," and under 
these conditions she is contented and does 
her best work. 

For a long time the Western bee keepers 
have been 'put out" by the dozens of dif- 
ferent sizes of shipping-cases for comb hon- 
ey that have been sold. The trouble does 
not become apparent until half a dozen or 
so of bee-keepers go to load a car of honey. 
The cases simply will not load compactly at 
all. Some are a quarter of an inch wider 
than others; some are longer, and no two 
are the same depth, although they may all 
be double tier and hold 24 sections. We are 
now going to have a uniform case if the ef- 
forts of Mr. Frank Rauchfuss, manager of 
the Colorado Honey Producers' Association, 
materialize. The uniform size of cases, as 
suggested by Mr. Rauchfuss, was unani- 
mously endorsed by the State Association. 
Mr. Rauchfuss also gave some pointed re- 
marks on local shipments of comb honey. 
Every shipment of it going locally should 
be crated in carrier crates holding four or 
eight cases, and packed with straw. It will 
not be long until comb honey so crated will 
take a lower rate, and then no intelligent 
bee-keeper will fail to crate his honey prop- 
erly for shipping. Mr. Rauchfuss said that 



he had not received a shipment of uncrated 
comb honey that came through safely. 

The most entertaining feature of the con- 
vention was the evening of reminiscence in 
bee culture, led by Mr. A. F. Foster and 
others of the gray-whiskered veterans who 
had had fifty years and more of bee-keeping 
to their credit. They told of the old-fash- 
ioned ways of bee-keeping, and how good 
the honey tasted in those days; how they 
robbed the hives, and jilugged them to see 
if they were ripe, as we do now with water- 
melons. 

Pres. Collins and Prof. Gillette each ex- 
hibited stereopticon views of the bee's anat- 
omy, work, and methods, and made us 
much better acquainted with the way they 
are built and the ready-made tools they are 
born with. 

The Association is making an effort to get 
a more effective foul-brood law, and also to 
have a division of bee investigation estab- 
lished at the Agricultural College. This 
subject was thoroughly gone over, and the 
legislative committee has a bill introduced 
in the legislature to establish a division of 
bee inspection and investigation under the 
State Entomologist. This will centralize 
the work of inspection under a very com- 
petent man, and every one is urged to write 
his senator and representative to support 
the "Bee-keepers' Bill." 

The State Entomologist will hire depu- 
ties to carry on the work of inspection and 
investigation, and the work will be prose- 
cuted with vigor. The work that will be 
carried on in bringing in new and better 
honey-plants and better bees, and the inves- 
tigation of methods for the advancement 
of the industry, will be invaluable to the 
State. 

Prof. Cockerell, of the University of Col- 
orado, gave a delightful talk on "The Evo- 
lution of the Bee," and brought out the re- 
lationship of all insect life and the influence 
of bees on flowers and vegetation. The bee 
is geologically older than man, and reaches 
up into the almost perfect development of 
the honey-bee in only about a dozen species, 
while the cruder and more primitive wild 
bee is found in thousands of species. The 
honey-bee is the last word in all bee-life, 
and has become so firmly established in its 
position that little change has taken place 
in its characteristics in many ages. 

The work of the State Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation for the coming year will be largely 
to secure the reduction of freight rates on 
bees and honey, and the securing of a new 
foul-brood law. Right now is the time for 
every bee-keeper in the State to join, so 
that the dollar from each member will be 
available for immediate work. If we secure 
but a part of the results we are going after, 
it will be worth many times one dollar to 
every bee-keeper in the State; so send your 
dollar for membership to the Secretary, 
Wesley C. Foster, Boulder, Colo., at once, 
and urge all your fellow bee-keepers to do 
the same. We are making the fight for you, 
and we can not do it without some help. 



128 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodiao 



EABLY OR LATE SETTING OUT — WHICH? 

" I wish to talk with you about taking 
colonies from the cellar. Shall I set them 
out early or late?" 

"There is no set time as to when bees 
should be taken out, for years vary so 
that in some seasons the middle of March 
is fully as early as the middle of April in 
others. Our best apiarists are more often 
governed by the forwardness of vegetation 
than by any thing else. By very many the 
right time used to be considered when the 
elms and soft maples were in bloom. Oth- 
ers left a few colonies on the suromer stands 
during the winter; and when such colonies 
commenced to find pollen from natural 
sources, those wintered in the cellar were 
brought out. Some years ago I set a part 
of my bees out quite early in March when 
there were two or three warm days so they 
could fly nicely. As the weather turned cold 
again, and continued unfavorable for the 
flight of bees, all were left in the cellar till 
about April 1, when about half of them were 
set out. As the good weather did not con- 
tinue, the others were left in the cellar till 
nearly the first of May. As the seastm ad- 
vanced it became evident that those set out 
on April 1 were much the better off, as they 
had brood in all stages w hen the later ones 
had eggs only. As this brood came to ma- 
turity thtse first colonies built up rapidly so 
as to have the maximum number of bees 
just in time for the white-clover harvest, 
while those set out later did not come up to 
the required standard till about ten days la- 
ter, so that the result in comb honey was 
not nearly equal to that of those having a 
full force at the beginning of the flow. 

"On another occasion 1 set a part of the 
bees out quite early, and then followed ten 
days of snow and cold weather so that the 
rest were not gotten out till three weeks 
later. In this ins'ance the last out did 
much the best, owing to many bees in the 
first lot dying during the cold and snowy 
time. It kept warm right along after the 
last were set out; and as they had lost none 
of their old bees they went to breeding with 
a vim, so that very many of the colonies 
had their hi\es practically full of brood 
three weeks later, while those set out first 
did not have bees enough to cover more 
than two-thirds as much. 

"It is hard to tell just when to set bees 
out, as you will see by the results of these 
two instances I have given you. However, 
as a rule you will not go far wrong to set 
them out with the appearance of the first 
pollen-producing flowers. I used to advo- 
cate waiting till the elm and soft maple were 
in bloom, as I spoke of at the beginning; 
but from many years of experience my bees 
which were set out when pollen from skunk 



cabbage first appeared have averaged better 
than those set out later. Where bees winter 
well in the cellar, there will be little brood 
in any hives when set out; and the earlier 
setting-out starts brood-rearing sooner than 
with the later. I know that it used to be 
argued that where bees were set out early it 
took two old bees to perfect one young one; 
while if set out when the weather had be- 
come fairly settled and warm, one old bee 
would perfect two young bees; therefore it 
was iBuch to our advantage to wait till the 
elm and soft maple bloomed, as in the 
blooming of these trees nature told us that 
settled warm weather had appeared." 

"But you mentioned settin , the bees out 
early, thereby giving them a flight and then 
returning them to the cellar and allowing 
them to stay till the elms and soft maples 
bloom. This would give the bees a chance 
to unload, thus putting them in a healthy 
condition, while it would start brood-rear- 
ing as well, would it not? " 

"That depends very much on other 
things. If there were only one or two days 
in March or the first of April for a flight, as 
is almost always the case in this locality, so 
that the bees would have to be returned to 
the cellar the next day, no more brood would 
result than if the bees were left in, and all 
the work required for this carrying out and 
in would be thrown away. If in a locality 
where a week or more of warm weather is 
likely to occur in early March, so that the 
brood started has progressed bejond the egg 
state, all that in the larval or sealed form 
would likely be perfected into het s after re- 
turning to the cellar. But where colonies 
are out only long enough for a few eggs to 
be 'aid, this brood idea would cut no figure." 

"But giving the bees a chance to unload 
would be beneficial, would it not? As I un- 
derstand the matter, when in a normal 
start of health, bees are compelled to void 
their excreta at certain regular intervals. I 
know that they do retain them during the 
winter; and I am told that, just as soon as 
set out, the fiist thing they do is to spot 
every thing in the neighborhood." 

"If the bees are wintering so poorly that 
the fronts of the hives are spotted to running 
down with excreta, it doubtless would be 
humane to set them out for a flight during 
the last of February or in March, should a 
day occur in which they could fly; but un- 
der these conditions there will be litile dif- 
ference in the end any way, for such colo- 
nies will be of little value, if any at all, when 
the white clover arrives, no matter how 
many times they were set out and in. 
Where bees are wintering well, your talk 
about bees spotting every thing in the neigh- 
borhood upon being set from the cellar is 
quite unreasonable, for such is not a fact, 
as very many colonies consume so little 
when in winter quarters that they void lit- 
tle more in setting them out than do those 
during the summer after being shut in dur- 
ing a three-days' storm. My advice is, not 
to set the bees out till the time for leaving 
them out for good has come." 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



129 



General Correspondence 



BEE-KEEPING IN FLORIDA, 



Introduction. 



BY E. G. BALDWIN. 



[With the following article we begin the publica- 
tion of a most interesting series of articles entitled 
"Bee-keeping in Florida." Mr. Baldwin is well 
qualified to speak of the industry in his State, for 
he has traveled extensively and is well. acquainted 
with the conditions, as will be shown by later arti- 
cles, of which there are thirteen. We may say that 
we have never before seen so complete and interest- 
ing a discussion on beekeeping in any one State. 
We are sorry that we can not give our readers the 
opportunity to read the whole series at once, for it 
reads like a book, and one who starts it can hardly 
stop until he finishes. Most of the articles are il- 
lustrated, and some of the pictures are exception- 
ally fine. 

Mr. Baldwin, after discussing the honey-plants, 
takes up the difflculties actually encountered, and 
also has a good deal to say in regard to migratory 
bee-keeping. Finally he gives a brief history of 
some of the larger bee-keepers in the State, telling 
how they succeed, describing their methods, etc. 
We were surprised to find that there are so many 
bee-keepers in Florida who number their colonies 
by the hundred and even by the thousand. We are 
sure that all of our readers, even tho.se here in the 
North, will find these articles of great interest. — 

ED.] 

Florida is very much in the lime-light 
just at present. Never before has interest 
in all that concerns her seemed so wide- 
spread. But, a "little knowledge is a dan- 
gerous thing;" for where we cease to knoiv, 
curiosity and imagination begin. Many 
promotors and land-sharks, taking advan- 
tage of the fact, are reaping a golden har- 
vest selling Florida real estate to people who 
know nothing about the State, but who 
imagine a good deal. 

And Floridaispreeminently the land that 
appeals to the imagination. Geologically, 
the youngest of the United States; topo- 
graphically, the most unique; and, geograph- 
ically, the only peninsular State in the 
Union, it is at the same time one of the 
largest and the least known of them all. It 
is in view of the two. facts above outlined, a 
general ignorance of our State and a grow- 
ing interest in it, that the following articles 
have been prepared. Their purpose is achiev- 
ed if they shall give to those really interest- 
ed a safer knowledge by which to guide 
them, and if they shall also, perhaps, keep 
" fools '' from " rushing in where angels fear 
to tread." 

A mere look at a map will only hint at 
the size of Florida without really conveying 
a correct idea of it. If some giant surveyor 
were to place one point of his comjiass at 
Fernaudina, in the northeast, and then 
swing 250|miles westward with the other 
point, he could barely reach the Alabama 
line on the west. But to encompass the large 
Keys that nestle all along the southern 
coast, from Tampa to Miami, on the lower 
fringe of coast-line, kissed for ever by the 
great Gulf Stream, he would have to widen 



his arc by 180 miles— a total span of 400 miles 
in length. While only a narrow portion of 
the State, a part called West Florida, has 
so great a width, still there is a total latitude 
and longitude of 250 by 400 miles. A wide 
geographical extent runningnorth and south 
generally means a wide diversity in the 
plant or tree life. Of no other State is this 
diversity of flora more ajiparent than 
here. Such wide range of flora must inevi- 
tably have a great influence on the question 
of the nectar-producing sources of the State. 
But before passing to a consideration of the 
honey-sources, let me correct a few misap- 
prehensions about the place. 

In the first place, Florida is not a land of 
scorching heat. The maximum tempera- 
ture in summer is seldom higher than 94°; 
the minimum in winter seldom falls lower 
than 30°; 60° is the average temperature in 
the winter season; 82° the average summer 
temperature, while the average temi^erature, 
the year round, is only 71°; and, lying as 
the State does, slightly to the east of the 
path of the trade winds, the resulting daily 
breezes make sultry days extremely uncom- 
mon. Sun-stroke is absolutely unknown 
here. 

Secondly, Florida is not a land of poison- 
ous things that creep and crawl. There are 
deadly snakes, or poisonous snakes, at least, 
in some portions, of course; but these areas 
are rather limited in extent, and not in the 
usual places of access. In ten years the 
writer has not seen a live rattler here, though 
he has hunted game over many miles of 
swamp, hummock, and high pine land. 

An angry bee, with weapon hot. 
That soaked him in a tender spot, 

has been the most venomous thing he has 
encountered here. 

Thirdly, it is not a "land of flowers." Of 
course, "Florida" means "flowery, "as any 
Latin grammar or lexicon will tell; but, un- 
fortunately for the poetry of the name, the 
adjective comes from " Pascua Florida," the 
Spanish for "Easter Sunday," on which 
day Ponce de Leon discovered the land. 
The language of the real-estate men is vast- 
ly more flowery than the land they sell, in 
most cases. Roses can be grown, to be sure, 
in all the months of the year; but it requires 
much more care and pains to grow them at 
all here than in the North. There are many 
wild flowers through the woods and on the 
open tracts, but they are usually dull of hue 
and insignificent in size. Nor are many of 
them honey -producing; practically none 
give any considerable surplus honey. The 
prettiest blossoms are, almost without ex- 
ception, found on trees or vines. 

Not only in terms of botany is Florida a 
land of trees, but apiculturally, as well, it is 
the land of tree-honey. That does not mean 
bee-tree honey, either. To be sure, there 
are bee-trees galore in the State, and easy to 
locate, as a rule. One man on the south- 
west coast told the writer he had 40 bee- trees 
located, and another has 30 on his "waiting 
list" right no-w. Live oaks, pines, and cy- 
presses are rich producers of honey — but 



130 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



only from the inside! When we say Flori- 
da is the land of tree honey we mean it; it 
is literally true. Four-fifths of all the sur- 
plus honey produced in the State comes 
from the blossoms of nectar-producing trees 
or shrubs, not flowering plants. 
De Land, Fla. 

To be continued. 



EUROPEAN FOUL BROOD. 



Curative Measures; How to Proceed in a Lar^e 
Apiary Run for Extracted Honey. 



BY F. B. CAVANAGH. 



Continued from last issue, page 109. 

Having observed the importance of Part 
1, or ridding the hive of diseased material, 
and Part 2, establishing immunity in all 
colonies in the apiary, let us now consider 
how we can accomplish these ends effectu- 
ally with the least financial loss and incon- 
venience. Assuming that you are a wide- 
awake bee-keeper, which means that you 
have discovered the disease within a few 
weeks of its development, it is improbable 
that more than one-third to one-half of the 
colonies in the yard are affected. Such be- 
ing the case, the following I believe to be the 
most economical and safest treatment. 

Inspect the entire yard at the first sign of 
the honey-flow, being careful, of course, not 
to excite robbing, and mark all the hives 
with indelible crayon, indicating the mild 
cases by one cross, the bad cases by two, 
and the healthy colonies, O. K. Double or 
treble up all badly diseased or weak hives 
at the time of inspection, as we want them 
strong to begin with, so that they can spare 
their brood without bad effects. Also remove 
these queens as soon* as possible, for they 
are worthless and a detriment to the clean- 
ing-up process. 

As soon as the honey-flow is sufficiently 
good, start enough queen-cells from the best 
yellow three-banded stock that you can get, 
to requeen the entire yard. When the cells 
are ready to introduce, make up enough 
strong nuclei to supply the healthy colonies 
with queens, and isolate them from the rest 
of the apiary (for they are more easily in- 
fected than strong colonies) , or mate your 
queens in the full colonies if you prefer. 

The honey-flow now being in full blast, 
the once "bad cases " very strong, and hav- 
ing been queenless at least nine days, brush 
each of these colonies on to full sheets of 
foundation and one comb containing some 
healthy unsealed brood and honey, and a 
protected queen-cell. The full sheets pre- 
vent drone comb, and there is no danger 
now of developing any disease in the single 
comb left, every available cell of which will 
be filled with honey or polished up for the 
new queen. 

Place the brood-nests over strong healthy 
colonies having their queen confined below. 
It matters not how many partly filled su- 
1 ers of honey we have^between the regular 



brood-nest and the annexed brood-nest, 
which now becomes an extracting-super. 

The brood-nests which become extracting- 
supers should never be extracted until all 
brood is hatched and the cells filled with 
honey. The pollen will be used up by this 
time in most cases, and the combs, when 
dry, will be perfectly safe to use under any 
circumstances. You will understand that 
we have nothing in particular to fear from 
infected honey at this season, when immu- 
nity is established by the heavy honey-flow; 
hence the uselessness of twice shaking. Our 
aim is, in removing the honey, to fortify 
against reinfection from this source when 
the season arrives for susceptibility. 

Next requeen the slightly infected cases 
in which the disease has probably by this 
time disappeared by giving protected cells 
in place of the queens. At the next extract- 
ing, when it is time for the young queens to 
be laying, put the extracting-supers below 
the brood-nest, throwing plenty of grass on 
the entrance to prevent robbing until the 
bees discover the new order of things. A 
day or two later, brush these colonies down, 
placing an excluder to confine the queen in 
the lower story. If the colonies are strong 
and the honey-flow good, the bees will be 
crowded below with the young queen, which 
will gladly accept the situation. Use the 
exchanged brood-nest as the future extract- 
ing-super, which will soon be filled with 
honey. 

The healthy colonies will now have to be 
requeened; and, disagreeable as I know it to 
be, it is necessary to lift off those three or 
four supers and hunt up the old queen. 
The nuclei containing young laying queens 
may be united with the healthy colonies 
after two days' queenlessness by placing the 
combs, with bees thereon, in the full hive. 

You have, no doubt, been wondering why 
I advocate brushing instead of shaking. 
Well, for one thing it is less cruel. The 
treatment, given as it is, early in the hon- 
ey-flow, when the nectar is thin and easily 
shaken out, fills the breathing orifices of 
the bees, no doubt causing them useless 
suffering if no other bad effects. 

Brush the bees down out of the supers or 
bodies, as described in the Bee-keepers^ He- 
view in 1909. Placing the brood-nest to be 
cleared of bees above the prepared empty 
hive, remove a comb from the side nearest 
you; brush the bees in front of the alighting- 
board, and cover the comb securely. With 
a Coggshall bee-brush in the right hand, 
and the smoker held suspended between 
your body and the hive, the left hand, is 
now free to space the combs toward the op- 
erator. First, smoke the bees down while 
breaking the frames loose; next, pocket the 
hive- tool and in turn brush the inside of the 
hive nearest you, and each alternate space 
between combs, twisting the brush enough 
to reach both sides of the combs adjacent at 
once. In our apiaries we work rapidly, us- 
ing a series of gentle vibrations of the brush, 
which fans and distributes the small amount 
of smoke used just where we want it, instant 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



131 



with dislodging and frightening the bees 
down. There is no time for them to crawl 
back to the cleaned surface of the comb be- 
fore it is slipped over, always toward us, and 
the other side brushed. At the last comb 
the brushing will include the furthest side 
of the hive with the outside of the last comb, 
when the body or super must be quickly re- 
moved. For two years both my assistants 
and I have used this system entirely when 
extracting or clearing brood-nests. It is 
quick and positive in results, a complete 
' ' Waterloo ' ' to robbers, easy on the operator, 
arouses practically no cross bees, and loses 
fewer queens, we find, than shaking. Like 
other systems, little acquired knacks soon 
become fixed habits. The operator learns 
to puff the smoke behind the end-bars pret- 
ty well at the beginning of the operation, 
which gets the bees well toward the center 
of the combs and in reach of the brush. 
Also the smoker bellows, while suspended 
against the hive, is worked by pressure of 
the body, which exercise we believe to be 
healthful, as we always have large appetites 
when extracting honey. 

The system of treatment for European 
foul brood outlined embodies features which 
I feel confident will appeal particularly to 
the specialist in extracted honey, as it is 
safe, and economical of labor and material. 
The combs are saved, the infected honey ef- 
fectually removed, and permanent immu- 
nity established. I do not know absolutely 
what the results would be in a location hav- 
ing no fall flow, although I see no reason 
why they should not be equally favorable; 
at any rate, I should be very glad to hear 
from those who try the system under such 
conditions later. The treatment was evolv- 
ed from a series of experiments made while 
studying the suggestions of authorities who 
know a great deal more about folil brood 
than I pretend to know. I may also say 
that I have not had long enough experience 
to know whether it will always work or not, 
as I have used it only a part of two years, 
and used other treatments in the majority 
of cases; however, the principles appear 
sound from our present limited knowledge 
of the disease, and I believe it is worthy of 
continued and more extensive trial. 

Remember above all to be thorough in 
every thing that is done; for, while black 
brood is easily cured at certain seasons of 
the year, if neglected it will at other times 
spread like wildfire from one colony to an- 
other. Thoroughness, vigilance, and dili- 
gence mean a healthy apiary the follow- 
ing spring. 

ADVICE TO AMATEUR AND SIDE-ISSUE BEE- 
KEEPERS. 

There are methods of cure, some involv- 
ing the use of the bee-escape, others various 
manipulations which the expert could use 
to advantage in a small comb-honey yard, 
but which are hazardous in the hands of the 
inexperienced. I have seen so many costly 
messes which beginners have blundered in- 
to in attempted treatments, some of which 
were the cause of reinfecting entire yards 



anew, that it seems unwise lo advise any 
other treatment than the McEvoy, and 
which should not be given until the colo- 
nies are made strong by uniting. Hives 
should invariably be disinfected to make it 
a success, and the work all done at once, so 
as to remove contagion from the newly 
shaken colonies which are most easily rein- 
fected. Make arrangements to requeen with 
young yellow Italians as soon as possible 
after treating, for immunity must be estab- 
lished for future protection. 

At first sight the above may sound enig- 
matical — to be condemning one treatment 
for large apiaries and advocating it for small 
ones; but this is the very point which I wish 
to impress, viz., that the treatment must 
vary to meet the .requirements of different 
conditions. I believe it wise in all cases to 
get rid of the honey in the hive which may 
be diseased. This may be accomplished 
safely with the extractor by the specialist; 
but in the case of amateurs it can not be ac- 
complished other than by shaking, for there 
is usually no extractor and no equipment 
of combs. It is always best for a beginner 
to get an experienced bee-keeper to help do 
the work properly, and for bee-keepers to 
work together cleaning up one apiary after 
another in rapid succession, remembering 
that you are never rid of the disease until 
your neighbors are rid of it. 

A FEW CI.OSING HINTS. 

Avoid robbing, especially in a diseased 
apiary, by placing removed supers on an 
escape-board or inverted cover instead of 
standing them on end with both surfaces 
exposed. Have a good robber cloth, and 
use it. Place heavy supers on the wheel- 
barrow if the height is more convenient. 
Use queen-excluders in producing extracted 
honey. First choice, the wood wire; second 
choice, wood-bound. Only by their use can 
we determine with certainty the location of 
the brood-nest, which is essential in treating 
a brood disease. 

Extracting-combs may be set out for bees 
to clean up after all brood has hatched in 
the fall, without fear of contagion from 
black brood. We often pile the supers zig- 
zag in the honey-house and open the door, 
leaving the bees lo do the rest. Neither do 
we space the combs as formerly, as the wax 
from gnawed combs is saved on the floor. 

European foul brood is a peculiar disease 
to deal with, and a dangerous one to trifle 
with. Easy to exterminate during a honey- 
flow, it spreads like wildfire during a dearth 
in the breeding season. Let no man boast 
of a cure, therefore, until the following 
breeding season confirms his hopes. Be 
faithful to the marks on the hive; requeen 
and rehoney the hive, even if the disease 
does disap2)ear entirely during the honey- 
flow. There would be less talk of " the un- 
certainty of cure "and "danger of return- 
ing" if bee-keepers themselves would get 
down to business and quit playing hide and 
seek with the disease. Neither should we 
lose sight of the fact that, by getting our 
colonies in excellent condition, and with 



132 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar, 1 



choice stock, we shall reap big returns the 
ensuing seasons. 
Hebron, Ind. 



SIMMINS' METHOD OF SHIFTING THE FLY- 
ING BEES. 



The "Turn-over" Method, and Double Hanging- 
chamber Hive. 



BY SAMUEL SIMMINS. 



In my 1893 edition (p. 242) of "A Modern 
Bee-farm" I offered my readers a novel 
plan of working two colonies (or even one 
colony when strong early, and divided into 
two). The new plan was that of causing 
the second hive to supply the supered lot 
with a constant addition of fresh bees by 
moving the former to the back, and ulti- 
mately to the opposite side from that where 
it started, so the bulk of the working bees 
was always in the supered hive. 

The rear lot is never clogged with honey, 
and, as a consequence, is crowded with brood 
and young bees. Of course this is during 



DOUBLE HIVE WITH FOUR ENTRANCES. 

These troubles were overcome by using a 
double hive first made in 1894 on my hang- 
ing-chamber principle; and this was ar- 
ranged with four entrances — two to each 
stock — one back and front.* 

Henceforward if I wanted to unite, it was 
only a question of closing one of the two en- 
trances facing the same way, when, without 
knowing the difference, all the flying bees 
would join the other lot with the wide-open 
entrance. Although at first the bees fly to 
the site of their own entrance, they simply 
draw along to the open side, passing behind 
the central division of the porch. 

ALL MATURE WORKERS JOIN THE SU- 
PERED LOT. 

The back entrance of the closed lot is 
opened after the turn-over, but at first only 
half an inch or so; but while the remaining 
adult bees find their way out from there 
they all return to their old entrance site, 
and, of course, join the strong supered lot — 
never, on any occasion, troubling to find 
their old stock by the new back way. With 
entrances at each end I should not feel so 
safe on that point. 





SIMMrNS' DOUBLE HtVE FOR SHEPTINa THE FLYING BEES FROM ONE ENTRANCE TO 

ANOTHER. 



the active season, and the process of mov- 
ing the breeding stock is that of passing it 
back and forth as its maturing bees are ap- 
propriated. 

The plan was a great aid to the prevention 
of swarming; but it was not until 1908 that 
the idea seemed to catch on in America, 
and reference to Gleanings and other jour- 
nals of about the year 1905 will show that 
various bee-keepers put forth a similar idea. 

But there are several objections to using 
separate hives. There is the lifting and 
changing; but also at times the bees have a 
habit of persistently finding their own en- 
trance and mother queen, do what one will. 
I have known bees in hot weather to find 
their old hive entrance twenty yards away 
from its original site, on the other side of a 
large shed. 



Thus the stock doing all the storing is of 
unusual strength, while the colony in the 
other side produces an unusual supply of 
young bees. In some cases, following su- 
pers are presently placed on this all-brood 
lot and the bees "turned back," when the 
supers on the former doubled lot are ready 
for removal, and then such completed combs 
or supers may be removed already denuded 
of bees. 

The " turn-over " is made about 10 to 11 
A.M. on a warm day while the bees are gath- 
ering freely. Both lots are first smoked in the 
usual way when no fighting occurs and the 
queen is not disturbed by the new comers. 



*The "turn-over " method as applied to this dou- 
ble hive is given on page 216, 1904 edition " Modern 
Bee-farm." 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



133 



MUTUAX, ODOR. 

The middle or partition wall of the outer 
protecting case has two ■/sX4 slits opposite 
and between the two stock- chambers, and 
this maintains sufficient communication so 
that the same odor pervades both stocks — 
seeing that the chambers do not touch each 
other or the floor. These slits are arranged 
so they are never stopped by the bees, which 
has always been done where the Wells per- 
forated dividing-board has been used be- 
tween two stocks. I do not say it is imper- 
ative that the same odor should permeate 
both stocks at the busy season, but it is cer- 
tainly a correct feature in connection with 
this turn-over plan of uniting. 

ALTERNATIVE PLAN — ONLY USUAL EN- 
TRANCE NEEDED. 

Another important item with my turn- 
over method is that it can also be carried 
out with only the one entrance to each 
stock; and after the entrance of one stock is 
closed the latter may be made to supply 
automatically and continuously the already 
doubled working force with maiure workers 
without further attention beyond allowing 
the bees communication through excluder 
zinc set in the dividing or partition wall. 

The closed-in lot, having no direct open- 
ing for exit or admission except through the 
supered lot with its wide-open entrance, will 
never have its combs clogged with stores; 
and with a prolific queen during the warm 
season it will produce a mass of brood and 
young bees such as few bee-keepers may 
realize. 

VARIATIONS IN UNITING OR DIVIDING; YOU 
MOVE ONLY AN ENTRANCE-SLIDE. 

My double hanging-chamber hive, all 
within a sheltering or protective case, pro- 
vides for many variations in uniting or di- 
viding, simply by the action of pushing 
along one or the other of the usual entrance- 
slides. 

ADVANTAGES. 

1. With the hanging chambers the brood- 
nest is always under control, as the stock- 
chamber can be withdrawn any time the su- 
pers are on, and the latter are not moved. 

2. The turn-over, or immediate uniting of 
the working force of two stocks into one, 
enables one to take advantage of an early 
honey-flow. 

3. The denuded lot produces more bees 
because the stock combs can not be crowd- 
ed with stores, and especially not with an 
excess of pollen. 

4. For late autumn flow the plan is par- 
ticularly valuable, as one of the two stocks, 
having no direct entrance, is always drain- 
ing into the supered lot. 

5. In tropical climates where bees can not 
or will not breed during the best honey-flow 
because the stock combs are immediately 
clogged with stores, the closed in side will 
continue breeding all the time. 

6. The union is carried out with no shift- 
ing of hives, and no special floor. You just 
move a slide. 



7. In like manner you can turn back the 
bulk of the workers from the finished su- 
pers, in the morning, and, later in the day, 
the combs are almost clear of bees. 

8. No worry about the bees flying to the 
wrong spot or settling around on other 
hives. 

9. No shaking bees from combs. 

10. No need for bee-escapes. 

11. No time wasted in clearing supers. 

1*2. By this method of clearing supers no 
pin holes are made by the bees in the beau- 
tiful cappings. 
Heathfield, Eng., Nov. 23. 



EXTRACTING DURING THE HONEY-FLOW. 



Exchanging Combs as Fast as they are Capped 

with Empty Ones; does Honey Improve 

with Age? 



BY G. C. GREINER. 



On p. 375, .June 15, 1910, Mr. Southworth 
makes light of my way of extracting honey, 
and calls it" dabbling in it at intervals." I 
am no hand to enjoy long controversies. 
After I have had my "say " I am generally 
satisfied; but to bring out a few more facts 
which Mr. S. overlooks, and explain to oth- 
ers why his article is misleading in a num- 
ber of points, I will make a short reply to 
his article above mentioned. 

In the first place, Mr. Southworth does 
not take into consideration that we all must 
work in our own harness. Each one's en- 
vironments are so different from every other 
one's that uniform rules can not be adhered 
to. What is practicable and advisable for 
one may not be so for the other. For in- 
stance, I run my home apiary and have no 
outyards. All my time is spent with or 
near my bees. If I am not actually engaged 
with them I am busy in my kitchen garden, 
which joins my bee-yard, or I may be doing 
some work in my woodshop, which also 
joins my bee-yard at one end. In this way 
I am at all times within sight and hearing 
of my bees. If I had to manage a number 
of outyards it is very likely that I would 
have to adopt different plans. 

Then Mr. Southworth overlooks the fact 
that my management produces more and 
better honey, with less work, than he can 
get by his tiering-up plan. I admit that a lit- 
tle time may be gained by tiering up at the 
time when bees need more room for storage; 
but it isn't nearly as much as Mr. S. imag- 
ines. During the course of years that I 
have practiced extracting before the end of 
the season, I have learned to take the ad- 
vantage of every motion I make; and I be- 
lieve I can make the exchange of four combs 
nearly as quickly as Mr. S. can place an 
empty super under a full one. If it should 
take a little longer, the advantages gained 
by exchanging would fully overbalance the 
Utile time lost. At first sight it may seem 
like a small matter to exchange four combs. 
It would be if I used the small half-story 



134 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



frame. But I use the Jumbo frame, and 
the four supply as much storage, and, when 
full, contain as much honey, as Mr. S.'s 
half-stories which I imagine he uses. 

Next, Mr. Southworth must "bear in mind 
that, when I make the exchange, I perform 
two operations in one. 1 take honey from 
the hive and supply storage at the same 
time, while Mr. 8. does only the one, leav- 
ing the taking of honey until some future 
time; and when that future time comes, he 
has to gather up his two, three, or more su- 
pers, as the case may be, take them to his 
extracting-room, and stand at the extractor, 
where he has to do at least twice the crank- 
ing I do, and then not get his combs as 
clean as I do mine earlier in the season. 
And all this time, while Mr. S. is doing this 
work, I have nothing to do but to take my 
honey to market and take advantage of the 
early sales. 

The advantages gained by using one su- 
per and the exchange of combs are briefly 
these: Every comb goes direct from the hive 
to the extractor. It is then in the very best 
condition to extract the honey cleaner with 
less turning than would be needed any time 
thereafter. In the same way the empty 
combs go direct from the extractor into the 
supers. Tiiey are then also in the most 
tempting condition for the bees to accept, 
and, being placed exactly where the full 
ones were taken from, business goes on 
without the least interruption. But how is 
it when Mr. S. places an empty super under 
the full one? The whole inside of the hive 
is disarranged; his bees have to hunt up 
new fields of operation, get acquainted with 
the new order of things, prepare his stale 
combs for the reception of honey, etc., and, 
befoie his bees are ready to begin storing, 
my exchanged combs are nearly or quite 
full of honey again. This is the reason why 
my management gives me more honey. 

The question of quality, which the head- 
ing of this article suggests, is of the greatest 
importance to our pursuit. It is the all-ab- 
soibing center of attraction from which all 
arguments of the different advocates radi- 
ate. The claim that honey must remain 
on the hives all summer to ripen perfectly 
is governed entirely by season and locality. 
I do not think that honey (at least my hon- 
ey) can possibly improve with old age as do 
certain kinds of cheese. When honey is 
capped, whether it be comb or extracted, 
it is ready for the table; and the sooner it is 
taken from the hive the better. Why is it 
that some of my neighbors and customers 
call for my first-extracted honey? They 
say, "It has that delicious flavor of new- 
ness which it loses when extracted later in 
the season." As long as my honey comes 
up to and even overruns the 12-lbs.-to-the- 
gallon test, it would be unpardonable short- 
sightedness to let it deteriorate by leaving 
it on the hives any longer. By doing so it 
may improve a little in body, but lose in 
flavor. Jn all my extracting operations I 
never had honey ferment or sour. The cir- 
cle of my customers has grown larger from 



year to year; and the fact that I can not 
produce nearly enough to supply the de- 
mand is suflicient to prove that my product 
is up to the standard mark of desirability. 

When I made the misleading remark, that 
I began extracting when my combs were 
capped "three-quarters or over" I should 
have given a little exj^lanation, which I 
omitted at that time for brevity's sake. 
The facts are, when I have a sufficient num- 
ber of combs of that description to pay for 
starting the extractor, many more combs 
scattered through the hives are then all 
capped. The progress in my supers, when 
the white-clover flow is well under way, is 
so rapid that combs three-quarters capped 
to-day are all capped inside of 24 hours, so 
that, by the time I get to them, practically 
all honey that goes into the extractor is 
capped. 

La Salle, N. Y. 



THE WINTER NEST VS. SOLID COMBS OF 
HONEY. 



The Solution of the Problem Depends upon the 

Locality and on the Time when the Bees 

go into Winter Quarters. 



BY C. P. DADANT. 



Seeing my name mentioned in a discus- 
sion on "winter neat better than solid 
combs of honey," pages 65, 66, 67, of Glean- 
ings for February 1, 1 wish to state that, in 
1905 and '6, a discussion upon this subject 
took place between Dr. Miller and myself 
on one side and J. L, Byer on the other, in 
the American Bee Journal. Both the doc- 
tor and myself advised room and dry comb 
for the bees to cluster upon below the hon- 
ey, on the center frames. Mr. Byer averred 
that he wintered bees successfully "on solid 
sealed combs" {Am.er%Gan Bee Journal, 
Feb. 1, 1906, page 99) . He referred to Wm. 
McEvoy as authority for the same thing. 
Being well acquainted with Mr. McEvoy, 
having full confldence in his statements, 
and knowing him to be an experienced bee- 
keeper, I had the curiosity of writing to 
him to ascertain what his experience was. 
He replied along the line mentioned by Mr. 
Byer, that, since the year 1876, he had been 
in the habit of crowding his bees "on five, 
six, and seven combs of all-capped stores." 
Mr. Byer in his articles had demanded that 
we make a trial of all capped combs filled 
from top to bottom, as he used them, before 
condemning his method. I had never had 
more than one colony with all capped combs 
without room to breed, to my knowledge, 
and it had died, leaving the combs practi- 
cally all full, so I did not feel like renewing 
the experiment; but in view of the positive 
assertions of both of these men, who are cer- 
tainly bee-keepers of experience, I have con- 
cluded that it is possible to winter bees suc- 
cessfully on full sealed combs. Perhaps 
friend McEvoy will pardon me for sending 
you his letter to me, dated February 6, 1906. 
I believe it is worth publishing. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



135 



Friend Dadant: — I read all the articles that you. 
Dr. Miller, and J. L. Byer wrote. In the fall of 1875, 
with division-boards I crowded half the colonies in 
my apiary on five all-capped combs, so as to shut 
off brood-rearing till near spring. 

The colonies in the other half of the apiary were 
left with the full sets of combs, and all these had 
empty space in the center, and plenty of honey to 
winter on. The winter of 1876 was one of the warm- 
est we ever had; and during that fine weather the 
queens filled the empty space with eggs and then 
started far too much brood for the time of the year, 
and used up more stores than I expected. All these 
colonies that bred so in winter dwindled down very 
low in spring, and some of them got robbed out; 
and those that came into June were not strong 
enough to gather a fair crop from clover. The oth- 
er half, that had been crowded on five all-capped 
combs, wintered finely, and came into spring very 
strong; and many of these swarmed the last of ISIay, 
and gave me large yields of clover in that honey 
season. Of course, that mild winter caused the bees 
to breed more, break cluster, and wear themselves 
out caring for so much brood in what should have 
been their season of rest. I made up my mind nev- 
er aeain to let bees have space going into winter 
which would get larger as the honey was used out 
of the combs. I have, ever since 1876, with division- 
boards, crowded my bees on five, six, and seven 
combs of all-capped stores. When I have not cap- 
ped combs enough in the supers to fit up all, I put 
six of the most capped in the brood-chambsr. and 
then fill out the rest of the brood-chamber with dl- 
vision-board.s. I then put on a Miller feeder and 
take the middle off so as to let the bees rush up by 
wholesale into syrup that is covered with straw. I 
give the bees all they crowd into the six combs and 
cap. When the bees can not put any more in these 
combs they start building comb up in the feeder. I 
then put a Porter bee-escape under the feeder: and 
when they are down (aplace they soon leave) I move 
the feeder to another hive. 

I pack with four inches of maple leaves on the 
sides. I pull the cloth forward so as to leave one 
inch wide of the queen-excluder uncovered so as to 
let the .steam up ofT the bees. I put four inches of 
leaves on the top so as not to let too much heat up 
through the part of the queen-excluder that the 
cloth does not cover. I then place the hive-cover 
on top of the leaves and over all I put the cover of 
the winter case. The entrance of my hive is >8 by 
3 inches, and I keep the snow away from it all win- 
ter. In the winter of 1904 all the bees in the Province 
of Ontario that were wintered on the summer stands 
had a hard time of it, and many lost all. Many 
came a longdistance to see my apiary in the spring, 
and were surprised to see my colonies in grand con- 
dition after such a winter. 

Crowding the bees on all-capped stores and let- 
ting the steam up off the bees and keeping the snow 
away from the entrance at all times saved every 
one of my stocks in the hardest winter ever known 
on bees. 

Woodburn, Ont., Feb. 6, 1906. Wm. McEvoy. 

Now do not let your readers infer that I 
believe it is necessary for us to follow the 
same method in our latitude. I still advise 
what we recommend in "The Hive and 
Honey-bee," that the combs be "at least 
half full of honey." 

I believe that latitude, length of winter, 
etc., have a great deal to do with success 
under different kinds of managements. 
The Canadians place their bees in winter 
quarters earlier than we do; they need more 
feed for the same length of time, and their 
bees begin to eat off the stores in the center 
earlier than ours, for they have fewer warm 
days in the late fall. I believe if conditions 
of the cluster were compared abotit the first 
of January they would be found in much 
the same condition as ours, with a certain 
amount of dry combs on which to cluster at 
the bottom of the center frames. In other 
particulars McEvoy 's method is exactly ac- 
cording to my views, narrowing the colony 



to the most compact space and allowing the 
moisture to escape in a porous ceiling with- 
out deperdition of heat. 

This discussion shows once more that we 
must not condemn others who find them- 
selves in different conditions and come to 
different conclusions. The first human be- 
ings who said that not only the sun and the 
moon but all the stars had been made for 
our own special benefit, did not know that 
there are "other worlds than ours," and 
that other beings may also imagine that 
our earth exists only for their own special 
benefit. 

Hamilton, 111. 



THE WINTER NEST VS. SOLID COMBS OF 
HONEY. 



A Cold Climate makes Necessary a Large Amount 
of Honey Above the Cluster. 



BY J. B. HAND. 



I note by the Feb. Ist number of Glean- 
ings that the subject of the desirability of a 
winter nest is again open for discussion: 
therefore, with your permission, I will en- 
deavor to present my views concerning this 
mooted question with the hope of arriving 
at something approaching a definite solu- 
tion of this important branch of the winter- 
ing problem. After giving the subject due 
consideration I am persuaded that, if the 
discussion with reference to the merits and 
demerits of a winter nest were conducted 
along purely isothermal lines, the difference 
of opinion would not be sufficient to awaken 
any thing approaching a lively discussion. 

An experience covering a period of twenty 
years in outdoor wintering of bees in the 
latitude of Northern Ohio has led me to 
conclude that a winter nest, if not too large, 
is a comparatively safe proposition where 
the colony is well protected. On the other 
hand, an experience of thirteen years in out- 
door wintering in North-Central Iowa, 
where the theremometer frequently regis- 
ters as low as 20°, and often remains below 
zero for days at a time, has taught me the 
wisdom of having an abundance of sealed 
stores above the winter cluster; in such a 
location the condition of the comb shown 
in the illustration on page 19 might mean 
that there was only about two inches of 
honey between the colony and starvation; 
for, just so surely as the bees consume that 
two inches of honey, and arrive at the top- 
bar of the frames during a spell of zero 
weather, just so surely is that colony doom- 
ed. At ieast, this has been my dearly 
bought experience. 

No amount of argument could convince 
one who has lost scores of colonies from star- 
vation in the midst of plenty, under condi- 
tions as above described, that a liberal-sized 
winter nest is a desirable proposition in a 
cold climate. The fact that bees will usual- 
ly winter well in a mild climate liUe Central 
Ohio, in spite of the presence of empty 



136 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



combs for a winter nest, should not be re- 
garded as evidence that a winter nest is 
necessary or even desirable. 

An important point that has been entire- 
ly overlooked in this discussion is that, if 
room is provided for the bees to cluster un- 
der the combs, they will invariably cluster 
there at the beginning of winter, irrespec- 
tive of whether or not they have an empty 
brood-nest above — proving quite conclusive- 
ly that they choose such a condition in pref- 
erence to empty combs in a winter nest. 

Our feeder consists of a pan eight inches 
wide by the inside length of the hive, and 
two inches deep — said pan occupying a cen- 
tral position from front to back inside of a 
rim three inches deep, and affords protec- 
tion against chilling blasts from the hive- 
entrance. We have found that, whenever a 
feeder is left under a hive until the approach 
of winter, the bees will invariably be found 
snugly clustered down below the combs and 
into the feeder pan; and frequently, when 
tipping a hive up and glancing underneath, 
we have caught a glimpse of the queen. 
This set us to thinking as well as to experi- 
menting, with the result that we now con- 
sider that, for wintering outdoors in a cold 
climate like that of Iowa, Minnesota, or 
Canada, solid combs of sealed stores early in 
the season, with a clustering-space under 
the combs, protected as above described, is 
a safe proposition. For this reason our feed- 
ers are left under hives that are wintered 
outdoors. 

Birmingham, O., Feb. 4. 

[In all the discussion that has followed in 
these columns, and in the American Bee 
Journal also, we have seen nothing thus 
far that does not argue in favor of one solid 
ball of bees not broken up by combs of seal- 
ed stores. We care not where the cluster- 
ing-space may be, whether it be in empty 
cells below sealed honey, or whether it be 
below the brood-frames in the space between 
the bottom-bars and the bottom-board, for 
the bees seem to show a desire to get togeth- 
er where they can make up a cluster as near 
a solid mass as possible. 

On the other hand, we are quite prepared 
to admit that, in a very cold climate, or a 
climate subject to severe prolonged cold, 
empty space or empty cells, occupying as 
much as the lower half or lower third of the 
central combs may be a positive detriment 
rather than an advantage. The reason for 
this is very clearly pointed out by Mr. 
McEvoy in his letter to Mr. Dadant; but 
apparently Mr. McEvoy and all the others 
who argue for solid combs give solid combs 
of stores early in the fall. By the time real 
cold midwinter comes on, those bees will 
have empty cells in which they may cluster 
below the honey. 

Again, it may be an advantage to have a 
larger clustering-space under the brood- 
frames than has ordinarily been allowed for 
outdoor-wintered colonies. Mr. Hand makes 
quite a good point in favor of his underhive 
feeders; but this all argues for a clustering- 



space not broken up by solid combs. That 
is what we have contended for, first, last, 
and all the time. We naturally would 
think, then, that our Canadian friends, 
with their longer and colder climate, would 
need more space under the frames than is 
usually provided by an ordinary bottom- 
board. 

As Mr. Dadant points out, this is some- 
what a question of locality. In Canada and 
these other colder climates, less of a cluster- 
ing-space than we have shown in Glean- 
ings would be desirable. The milder the 
climate, the larger this clustering-space may 
be without detriment. 

Now, then, if there is a single one of our 
friends who believes that it is an ideal con- 
dition to have a cluster of bees broken up 
by solid combs of honey above bottom-bars, 
and away from the bottom-board, we wish 
he would show his hand. This general dis- 
cussion shows that, so far from disagreeing, 
we are really in accord when we properly 
understand each other and our localities. — 
Ed.] 



HOW I SELL MY HONEY AT A GOOD PRICE. 



BY J. A. M'GOWAN. 



First, I have all sections nice and clean, 
and I take care that they weigh from 13 to 
14 ounces. That means a plain section 
must be full on both sides. 

Second, I make it a rule to advertise my 
honey by giving away two sections to any 
one who I think might become a buyer. 
To illustrate, a friend of mine from Pitts- 
burgh was out attending a reunion of his 
family in our town, and I told him to stop 
and see me as he went by, as I had a pres- 
ent for him. I gave him two sections of 
buckwheat honey, and in less than ten 
days I had an order from him for all my 
honey at 20 cts. a section. This was one 
year ago. This Sfall he v.^ote me again, 
wanting all I had at the same price. 

Third, I make sure that the cappings look 
white; and in order to have it that way 
I remove all sections as fast as capped over, 
and replace with new ones containing foun- 
dation. By doing this I need only two su- 
pers at the very most, and the bees are nev- 
er scattered through from three to six su- 
pers. Unfinished sections are also largely 
prevented. 

Fourth, as soon as I have honey complet- 
ed I hunt for a buyer, as it never looks bet- 
ter than theday it is taken from the super, 
and looks go a great way in disposing of a 
crop. And I am careful to have my honey 
just what I say it is. 

Fifth, in order to have the very best-look- 
ing honey and the best tasting as well, I 
have colonies so strong that, when the flow 
comes (and it always does) I am prepared 
to get my share of it. One or two days' neg- 
lect of little details may lose a season's 
crop. 

Prospect, Pa. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



137 




E. D. TOWNSENDS PORTABLE EX 1 KACTING-HOUSES AND PINE LAKE OUTYABD. 



BEE-KEEPING FOR BEGINNERS, ILLUS- 
TRATED, 



Portable Extracting-houses; How Made and Used. 



BY E. D. TOWNSEND. 



Our extracting-houses for outyards are 
built in sections. The floor (12 X 16 ft.) is 
in two parts; the sides and ends and each 
side of the roof are separate. Built in this 
way a team can draw the whole building at 
one load on a flat rack. 

The material that we use, for the most 
part, is hemlock, although some of our 
houses are built of white pine. We decid- 
edly prefer the latter, as it works nice and 
is very light. A material both durable and 
light should be selected for this purpose 
when possible. 

The foundation is built of 2 X 6's placed 
16 inches from center to center, the planed 
and matched bee-tight floor being laid on 
them. The frame of the foundation is of 
the same material, and is spiked to the ends 



of the 2x6 in, joists. When setting up the 
foundation, solid underpinnings are used, 
three at each side, one in the middle at both 
ends, and one in the center of the floor. We 
build each section of this foundation about 
8 X 12 ft, and run the sleepers the short way. 
Properly underpinned, the floor thus built 
is very solid, and free from jar. 

The foundation, when in jolace, is one inch 
smaller each way than the building. This 
allows for some "play "in squaring up the 
structure, but is of value more particularly 
to allow the siding to extend down below 
the floor an inch or so to keep the water 
from running in. 

The sides are 6 X 16 ft., and the 6-ft. posts 
of the sides and ends of the building are so 
placed that the two 2 X 4's used for posts at 
each corner (one 2X4 being a part of the 
side and the other of the end) come flat sides 
together, and are securely bolted, as shown in 
Fig. 2. The framework above the founda- 
tion is of 2 X 4's, planed down rather thin 
for convenience in moving. The siding is 
put on up and down, and may be matched 



138 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar, 1 




ORCHARD AND APIARY OF C. B. LAYMAN, TROUTVILLE, VA. 

Mr. Layman figures that his bees pay him as well in the extra amount of fruit that they enable him to 
get as they do in honey. 



or not. When the planing is done under 
our instructions the siding and roof boards 
are ^ inch thick. 

Fig. 1 shows the sUding shop-window, 
which needs but little explanation. Be- 
tween the plate at the top of the side section 
and the girt running parallel to it, about 26 
inches below, the opening for the window is 
left. This is covered with wire cloth on the 
outside, and just a plain board sliding win- 
dow is used inside, no glass being needed. 
We keep making these windows larger and 
larger, our last one being between 5 and 6 
feet long. They are located a little in front 
of the center of the building, as this is 
where most of the work is done. 

We have used both shingles and felt for 
the roof. The latter material is lighter and 
more easily moved, and in most cases pref- 
erable, though it may be more expensive 
in the end. Each side of the roof, as men- 
tioned before, is separate, and is about 8X17 
ft. in size. The two parts of the roof are the 
heaviest pieces to handle, and we are think- 
ing of having the roof of our next building 
in four pieces for convenience. 

All of our extracting-houses are bee-tight, 
made so by the use of tar paper put on with 
lath in such good shape that not a bee can 



get in. It is difficult to get a carpenter 
who will do this work and be particular 
enough to crowd every lath snugly into the 
corners so bees can neither get in nor out. 
The siding between the frames, and the roof 
boards between the rafters, are all papered; 
and the floor, being planed and matched, 
renders the whole building tight. We have 
one of these portable houses at each of our 
yards, and consider them indispensable. 

Figs. 3 and 4 in the engraving show our 
Pine Lake yard, located three-fourths of a 
mile south of Remus, and we call this our 
home yard, as it is the nearest. It is locat- 
ed in a "nick" of the woods open to the 
south, and is fairly well protected from pre- 
vailing winds. Before the fire of 1908, which 
burned much of the timber near this yard, 
it was an ideally protected location. If the 
reader will turn to Fig. 3 he will see a tree 
leaning slightly toward the bee-yard. This 
stands close to a low swampy piece of ground, 
affording water to the bees during April 
and May, so that at times they do not have 
to go more than three rods for water in a 
protected place where they can carry water 
for breeding on days when it would be sui- 
cidal for them to venture out in the wind. 

Only half the advantages of outside pro- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



139 



tection of bees during the months of April 
and May have been told. It makes very 
nearly the whole difference between failure 
and success in the surplus crop of honey. 
Remus, Mich. 



BEES ESSENTIAL IN AN ORCHARD. 



Blossom-spraying Bad Policy, even from a Fruit- 
grower's Standpoint. 

BY C. E. LAYMAN. 



As I have read a great deal in Glean- 
ings for and against bees with fruit-grow- 
ing, I decided to send a photo of my apiary, 
located on one side of my orchard.' I have 
been raising bees and fruit together for 
twenty years, and have never had any 
bad results from the bees bothering around 
the fruit except after a rain, which bursts 
open the ripe grapes so the bees can get at 
them. I have noticed frequently that, 
while others in this section were having no 
fruit (or very rough if any at all) , I would 
have a fairly good crop of nice smooth fruit, 
and I am, therefore, of the opinion that the 
bees do a great deal more good in the way 
of fertilizing and making perfect fruit than 
they do harm to the fruit that has already 
been spoiled by rains or some insect punc- 
turing it. 

I have also had a great deal of experience 
in the spraying of fruit, and have watched 
some of my neighbors frequently who per- 
sisted in spraying while the trees were in 
bloom, and in nearly every instance their 



fruit was damaged more or less, while my 
trees, which had not been sprayed until 
after the bloom dropped, were full of per- 
fect fruit. There can not be any doubt 
about this point in my mind, as it has been 
so thoroughly demonstrated in this section. 

I note much complaint has been made 
by some fruit-growers claiming that the 
bees bothered them a great deal in the 
picking of fruit. I am sure that the bees 
get more blame than they are entitled to 
along this line, as in all of my experience I 
have never had any trouble worth men- 
tioning. Some, if they find a bee or two 
on fruit, would be afraid to go near the 
tree. What is necessary for a fruit-grower 
is to keep his fruit picked as it ripens, and 
keep the fruit that is beginning to decay off 
the trees, and there will be no trouble with 
bees. I figure that my bees pay me as well 
in the good they do me in my orchard as 
they do in honey and increase secured from 
them. 

Troutville, Va. 



BEAUTIFYING THE APIARY. 



BY W. A. PRYAL. 



Too often our apiaries are any thing but 
objects of beauty; but we should strive to 
make the home apiary, at least, one of the 
most attractive spots on the premises. I re- 
member seeing an apiary on a hillside in 
one of the counties of California that, though 
certainly not in apple-pie order, yet had a 
most picturesque appearance. 




FIG. 1.— HILLSIDE APIARY IN CALIFORNIA, 



140 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mak. 1 



In Fig. 1 I 
present a view 
of this apiary. 
It is not neces- 
sary to point 
out its ill-kept 
appearance; 
still I doubt if 
a more artistic- 
looking apiary 
was ever figur- 
ed in Glean- 
ings. Most of 
the hives are 
home-made, of 
rough Califor- 
nia redwood, 
and innocent of 
paint or other 
ornamentation. 

While vines 
are splendid for 
adding orna- 
ment to an api- 
ary, there are 
times when 
vines, shrub- 
bery, and build- 
ings will be im- 
proved from a 
landscape view- 
point by the ad- 
dition of a cou- 
ple of hives, as 
in Fig. 2. The 
hives shown are 

not the usual store or ready-made ones, but 
home-made, and were built for an apiary 
run for extracted honey. 

The next three half-tones show the gradu- 
al adornment of the buildings in the back- 




FIG. 2. 



FJQ. 3, — IMPROVING THE APPEARANCE 



-BEE-HIVES NEVER DETRACT FROM THE APPEARANCE OF 
SURROUNDING PREMISES. 



ground of a certain apiary I am acquainted 
with. For many years a rather make-shift 
extracting "room" was used by the owner 
of this bee-yard. It was not one of those 
large apiaries as we are wont to find them 
in many parts of Cal- 
ifornia, especially in the 
southern portion of the 
State, but was or is what 
might be called a farm- 
apiary, as the place 
where these bees are 
kept is farm, garden, or- 
chard, and apiary in 
one. The construction 
of this honey-extracting 
room was very simple. 
It was about 10X8 feet, 
and seven or eight feet 
high. Two uprights of 
2X3 scantling were used 
for the corners. For a 
foot or so near the 
ground it was boarded 
around, that the cloth 
wall might not come in 
contact with the earth 
or receive the splash- 
in gs of the rain when 
it would strike the soil. 
Common muslin was 
tacked on the three 
sides, except that in one 
rj'end was a screen-door 
[li which was kept closed 




OF AN Al'IAKV. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



141 



by a coiled spring. A 
piece of tin from an old 
roof was thrown on top 
to keep out the rain 
from above, and also 
to carry off the drij:) 
from the roof of the at- 
tached building. 

This make-shift did 
good service for a num- 
ber of years, as stated. 
But a room was wanted 
that was more secure, 
and where the whole 
extracting-outfit could 
be left during winter. 
This was provided for as 
shown in Fig. 4. It is 
of T. & G. lumber with 
a good floor and roof, 
the latter being one of 
those tar - paper - and - 
burlap "patents" as 
manufactured near 
where this apiary is lo- 
cated. A coat of hot tar 
is applied to this roof 
every two years, and it 
is as good to-day as it 
was the year it was laid. 
Two sliding windows 
admit light and provide ventilation. 

Having thus improved this part of the as- 
pect of the apiary, the owner wanted to 
soften some of the other ugly features there- 
of. He took a crowbar and jammed two 
holes into the ground and inserted a tall eu- 
calyptus pole in each. These holes were 
about eight feet apart. A piece of wood 
was nailed across at the bottom or near the 
ground, and another piece was likewise 
fastened well toward the top. Then a piece 
of poultry-netting was stretched upon the 





FIG. 4. — NEW EXTRACTING-SHED AND VINES PLANTED. 



frame thus made. Virginia creepers were 
set out and soon covered the wire, as shown 
in Fig. 5. In this way this little apiary has 
been made to look quite presentable. To 
the left of theextracting-room is an English 
walnut which completely shades the greater 
part of the building during summer. On 
the opposite side of the building, and some 
twenty feet away, is a big fig-tree which 
extends some of its branches over a por- 
tion of the adjoining as well as the detach- 
ed outhouses. 

At one end of this 
apiary are a few orange- 
trees, and at the other 
are cherry-trees, while 
in front are some apri- 
cots. Thus the apiary 
is nicely located, and 
more or less shade is 
provided. 

Here I should like to 
state that the Virginia 
creeper is an excellent 
vine to use for shade 
and ornament about 
the apiary. I like it bet- 
ter than grapevines, al- 
though the latter is also 
very good. The former 
is more beautiful, espe- 
cially in the fall. In 
Fig. 2 the vines have 
lost about all their 
leaves, while in Fig. 5 
they are in dense leaf- 
age. 
Oakland, Cal. 



FIG. 5. — THE RESULT, AX AKJls.TI( V|EN\, 



142 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 




Fig. VI.— A view in the apiary of Mr. Shoemaker, Cuerna Vaca, Max., incidentally showing one of his 
Mexican helpers with a swarm he had just brought down from the tree-tops. 



BEE-KEEPING IN THE HIGHLANDS OF 
MEXICO. 



BY O. B. METCALFE. 
Continued from last issue, page 105. 

In our last article we had reached Mexico 
City. Now we drop down further south to 
the Cuerna Vaca region and take up the 
consideration of a most interesting apiary 
owned by a Mr. Shoemaker, who has had it 
for some six years. He once intended to 
make a big business of it, and might have 
done so except for lack of skilled labor. He 
complains that he has much trouble to get 
good help for the business. This apiary is 
the old original Carl Ludloff & Co. apiary 
which was moved over from Mexico City, 
and Fig. VII. shows a hive which was a 
transitional hive between the old hive he 
made at the city and the one he is now us- 
ing at Irapuato, and which will be shown 
in a later article. This Cuerna Vaca apiary 
has been the scene of many trials and many 




Fig. 1.— Smith's foundation-cutter, with movable guides that may be set 
for any size of starter desired. 



experiments. In some way Mr. Ludloff 
finally dropped out of the company, and 
another member took the wheel and tried to 
make a go of the business. At last he sold 
to Mr. Shoemaker, who increased the yard 
to some 500 colonies, and decreased the size 
of most of the old Ludloff hives to about 
half the length. Among other experiments, 
Mr. Shoemaker bought twenty standard 
ten-frame American hives with shallow- 
frame extracting-supers. He says that, so 
far as he can see, bees do as well in the 
American hive as in any other; but he rais- 
ed two objections to them. First, duty, 
freight, and all, they cost too much; second, 
the bees glue them up so badly with propo- 
lis that they are harder to work. However, 
I could not see that they gathered more 
propolis than they do in New Mexico; and 
I think that, if he had been well versed on 
the use of the standard American hive in 
his locality of Mexico he would have found 
it ahead of the Ludlofif type to which he 
has gone back. 

During the swarming 
season Mr. Shoemaker 
keeps two men to hive 
swarms. This is usually 
during June, and the 
bees swarm fast and fu- 
riously then. He claims 
that he could make a 
lot more honey if he 
could con trol?swarming, 
for some of the strong 
colonies that do not 
swarm produce as much 
asJ285 lbs., while his av- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



143 




Fig. VII. — One of the transitional hives which Mr, LudlofI made and used between the first he made 
and the perfected Simplex hive he is now putting out. 



erage is about 35 lbs. Right there is the 
point where I think he would do much bet- 
ter with the American hive if he had ever 
had experience with it and would use foun- 
dation; for since he does not produce comb 
honey he ought to be able to control swarm- 
ing with his ten-frame American hives. 

At Cuerna Vaca the bees store a little 
honey in March; but the main flow comes 
in October and November. Mr. Shoemaker 
thinks that the honey is made mostly from 
fruit-bloom, and colored a bright amber 
from a small yellow weed which comes up 
thick in the stubble. He was kind enough 
to let me taste the honey, and to give me a 
small sample to bring home. The honey 
was excellent, and should create a demand; 
but one of the strange 
facts that I learned 
from him was that from 
this one apiary he sup- 
plied the city, and all 
the towns up the old 
Mexican Central as far 
as Aguas Calientes; 
and after quoting it all 
up the Mexican Na- 
tional also to all points 
as far as Monterey, he 
still has to export to 
Germany the better 
part of his crop. The 
exported honey nets 
him about 10 cts. Par- 
ties come right to his 
house and beg for the 
wax at a dollar (50 cts. ) 
a pound. 



On south of Cuerna Vaca it seems that 
the natives keep quite a few bees; but the 
honey is mostly from the casachuate-tree, 
and is not edible. It is a clear white honey, 
but causes severe headaches. Bees also col- 
lect syrup from sugar-cane in this region. 

Still further south and east, in the state 
of Oaxaca, the natives also keep a good 
many bees, and they use the honey a good 
deal. Perhaps considerable of the honey is 
made from alfalfa, for there is a good deal 
of it in cultivation in that section, and it is 
said to do exceptionally well there. While 
in Mexico City I had the good fortune to 
meet an Oaxaca Indian lady who had had 
some experience with bees in the Oaxaca 
Valley. She was the wife of an American; 




Fig. 2.— The guides thrown back so the foundation can be removed, 
next page. 



See 



144 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 







DRONE, QUEEN, AND WORKER. 



and, while she did not speak English, she 
had many of the English ways of looking 
at a proposition, and I had a very interest- 
ing talk with her in Spanish. According 
to her the bees make a dark honey at Oaxa- 
ca, but it can be eaten, and the bees are 
kept for honey as well as wax. The bees 
were kept mostly in box hives without the 
extra box as a super, and she thought that 
an average yield would not be over fifty or 
sixty pounds. She spoke of two kinds of 
bees — the common honey-bee and a native 
bee which stings very little, and which lives 
in the ground, but stores quite a quantity 
of honey which is about like that of the 
common bee in that locality. 
Mesilla Park, New Mexico. 



AN ADJUSTABLE FOUNDATION-CUTTER. 



BY JAY SMITH. 



Ever since I went into the bee business I 
have been looking for a satisfactory device 
for cutting foundation. When one has a 
lot to cut, time is an important factor: then, 
may be, there is a sudden rush of nectar 
when it is necessary for all hands to rush 
accordingly. A miter-box has been usual- 
ly recommended. This does very well, but 
has its disadvantages. In the first place, 
each miter-box will cut only one size of 
foundation, and it is, therefore, necessary 
to make a box for each size wanted. Then 
no doubt there are many bee-keepers, like 
myself, who are not handy with carpenter 
tools, and make a bad job of it. My father- 
in-law, Mr. Frey, made a miter-box for me; 
and when I wanted another he suggested 



— Photographed by Dr. Bruennich. 

that he could make a machine that would 
be adjustable. He went to work on it, and 
the accompanying cuts show the result. 
We have used this a good deal, and find it 
all that one could wish. The arms may be 
changed in an instant to any shape de- 
sired. 

I prefer a bottom starter and full sheets 
of foundation; but the principal objection 
to full sheets in the 4X5 section is, if they 
are cut square they are apt to touch the 
side; and when the bees fasten this to the 
side it will swing around and become fast- 
ened to the fence, thereby spoiling a good 
section. The remedy is to cut them slight- 
ly tapering. The arms of the cutter are set 
in that shape in the cut. 

Any number of sheets can be cut at a 
time. When cutting a number it is neces- 
sary to place washers on the bolts that hold 
the arms so as to raise them up the thick- 
ness of the foundation to be cut. 

Vincennes, Ind. 



BEE-KEEPING AS A HOBBY. 



The Bee People. 



BY F. DUNDAS TODD. 



Chapter IV. 

When Pope wrote that "The proper study 
of mankind is man " we can not suppose he 
meant mankind should learn the ways of 
individual men, for, taken severally, they 
are usually most uninteresting, their ways 
and thoughts being pretty much like those 
of their associates. He doubtless meant 
that the proper study of individual men is 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



145 



the form of society of which they are a 
part, and this is fascinating. It is the same 
with bees. Collectively they are a wonder- 
land of delight; but individually they are 
much like men; nevertheless we must de- 
vote a little time to the various kinds to be 
found in a hive. 

THE WORKERS. 

Any clear bright day when the thermom- 
eter registers 48° or above, and on dull days 
in warm weather, we can see myriads pop- 

ging out of the hive entrance, or dropping 
eavily as if laden and tired on the bottom- 
board, then scurrying hastily into the little 
doorway as if there was much to do and very 
little time in which to do it. On a fine day 
we may watch them for hours at a time, 
but never once will there seem to be any 
pause in their flight until the evening 
shades set in; and so it has been since the 
earliest dawn. In warm AjDril days one 
may be able to time them with a watch, 
say thirty a minute; but toward the 
end of the month they will be nearer the 
century mark, and from May until fall it 
will be utterly impossible even to approx- 
imate the rate at which they come. Truly 
they are hustlers, the very spirit of indus- 
try without any play. Seemingly in the 
bee world competition is not necessary as an 
incentive to work. Cooperation is apparent- 
ly sufficient. 

Through the livelong day it would seem 
as if all the bees we saw were exact dupli- 
cates of each other, absolutely indistinguish- 
able together or apart; but as our eyes be- 
come familiar with them we see that many 
are of a lighter color, and more downy than 
others — have the bloom of youth upon 
them, while others are faded, dark, and al- 
most greasy looking. Yes, it is youth and 
old age — youth with alert ways and fresh 
looks; age with sedate step and haggard ap- 
pearance, worn out in a few weeks of rush- 
ing toil. One and all they are the workers 
of the social organism, the producers, the 
creators of its wealth, and, let it be said, 
equal sharers of the bounty. 

THE DRONES. 

In the merry month of May and all 
through the joyous summer time we may 
see some big sturdy fellows emerge from the 
hive at more leisurely pace, flying upward 
with a louder noise — a regular drone, in fact 
— and, after soaring around our head a few 
times, start ofT as if on most important bus- 
iness. The timid novice who has just gain- 
ed courage enough to stand near a hive is 
apt to be startled when this noisy blusterer 
appears; but there is no need to worry in 
the least, as this kind of bee is harmless so 
far as stinging is concerned. He is the 
drone, the possible father of a new genera- 
tion of bees; utterly useless in production, 
he is a necessity in reproduction, at least of 
workers; but he is of no value in the defense 
of the precious food supply. He is a poor 
male creature, and nothing more. He is 
tolerated by the workers as a necessity 
while the possible need exists. The repro- 



ductive season past, he is driven from the 
hive without mercy and without hope. His 
life may be a merry and care-free one; but 
the end is always a tragedy. 

THE QUEEN. 

Once the novice attains the dignity of ex- 
amining the interior of a hive and holding 
ujD frames for inspection he will be greatly 
astonished at the immensity of its popu- 
lation — thousands upon thousands of bees 
on every frame, seemingly all in active 
commotion — workers, every one. But, no! 
there's a drone, and there, and there. 
Then if one is lucky he may catch a 
glimpse of another kind — one with the 
pointed abdomen of a worker but ever so 
much bigger. Yes, that's the queen — no, 
not the ruler of the hive, though she was 
long supposed to be such; in fact, so far as 
we know there is no ruler of any kind in a 
bee-hive. She is the mother of the colony, 
a wonderful egg-laying device, said to be 
able to lay from two thousand to four thou- 
sand eggs in twenty-four hours, and, when 
necessary, in May, keep up this gait for 
days at a time. It is computed she can lay 
twice her own weight in eggs every day 
when at her full laying capacity. She gath- 
ers no honey, she nurses no babies, she su- 
pervises nothing. Her sole business is to 
lay eggs when and where the worker bees 
want them. They determine the family de- 
velopments, she obeys their behests. All 
problems of sex seem to be within their con- 
trol, so they decide the relative proportions 
of males and females in the next generation, 
and the mother comports herself according- 
ly. Queens are fertile females; worker bees 
are of the same sex, but sterile, being inca- 
pable of sex relations with the males; but 
the worker bees control, from the moment 
the egg is laid, the development of the re- 
productive organs of the females. 

AN ALL-INCLUSIVE GENERALIZATION. 

In the preceding chapter we saw that the 
general structure of bee society is remarka- 
bly like that of human beings. We learned 
that property is the bond of union, and that 
it is held in common. We have now learn- 
ed that the administration of the hive is 
controlled by all the workers, the owners in 
common. We are now in position to con- 
clude our comparison of the social organiza- 
tion of bees and men by one sweeping gen- 
eralization that may be startling to some. 
Government is a function of capital. It 
would appear to be a natural law on this 
earth that the formation of society is due to 
the necessity of protecting property — that 
is, something on which labor has been ex- 
pended, and, no matter what the form of so- 
ciety, whether communistic or competitive, 
the actual administration of affairs will be 
conducted by the owners of the capital. 
The nominal form of government among 
men is of little moment. The difference 
between an absolute monarchy and a repub- 
lic consists chiefly in this: the one persists 
where land is the preponderating source of 
wealth; the other, where conatuerce is raore 



146 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 1 



important. In the one the big land-owners 
are the actual rulers; in the other, the big 
capitalists. 

THE LIFE HISTORY OP THE BEE. 

Since bees are insects, their life history is 
the same as that of other members of that 
great division of the animal kingdom. 
First, tliere is the egg, from which emerges 
the larva or grub, which, after a period of 
voracious feeding, i)asses into the chrysalis 
stage. In due time it develops into the per- 
fect insect, making its entry into the bee 
world in full size, and in almost complete 
possession of its ultimate capabilities. The 
worker bees take part in the routine work 
of the hive in about twenty-four hours; but 
the queen and drones need several days be- 
fore they are sufficiently developed for their 
special mission. 

The rate of development from egg to in- 
sect is not the same for worker, queen, and 
drone. In the case of the worker the neces- 
sary period is twenty-one days; for the 
drone, twenty-four days; but the queen 
hastens through the change in from fifteen 
to seventeen days. When but a few days 
old she mates with a drone in the air during 
what is known as the nuptial flight, after 
which she never leaves the hive excepting 
with a swarm, when she accompanies the 
bees to their new home, where she resumes 
her duty of egg-laying. One impregnation 
from the drone is sufficient for her life, 
which may continue for several years. 

The most remarkable feature in the life 
history of the bee is the control the queen 
apparently has over the sex of her i^rogeny. 
As the egg passes to the exit she may or 
may not permit a sperm to join it. The 
eggs that are fertilized develop into females; 
those not impregnated produce males, so 
that drones have no male parent. The 
progeny of a queen bee that has not been 
mated will consist of drones only. 

The worker bees determine the develop- 
ment of the fertilized eggs. After the larvae 
hatch out, all are fed alike for three days, 
then those intended for workers are given 
less nourishing food, thus hindering the 
growth of the sex organs. The larvae des- 
tined to be mother bees are lavishly fed 
throughout with highly nourishing food. 
Some day human beings will come to know 
as much as bees do now, and then they will 
not expect fine children from underfed par- 
ents. The family may be the crowning 
glory of our civilization; but as a means of 
producing well-nourished children it falls 
far behind a bee-hive. 

It is at present held as a pious opinion, 
but not proven, that the queen has direct 
control over the sex of her progeny. We 
have seen that the administration of the 
hive is in the control of the workers, since 
ownership is vested in them in common; 
that their power includes determining the 
sex qualifications of the females. Is it not 
possible that the decision of sex is also with- 
in their province? We have seen that gov- 
ernment in society is fixed by a natural la>jv, 
that it is apparently all-inclusive, therefore 



one may be pardoned for doubting that sex 
distinction is beyond their control when the 
degree of qualification of one sex is within 
it. 

All eggs are laid in cells in the combs. 
Worker-cells are the smallest, usually num- 
bering twenty-five to the square inch: 
drone-cells are considerably larger, averag- 
ing sixteen to the square inch. Both kinds 
are horizontal. Queen-cells are unique in 
shape and position, being decidedly large, 
and are hung perpendicularly on the combs. 
Both worker and drone cells are also used as 
storage combs for honey and pollen when 
occasion demands. 

Victoria, B. C. 



A NATIONAL HONEY-ADVERTISING CAM- 
PAIGN. 



A Proposed Plan for Increasing the Consumption 

and Uplifting the Prices of Honey; the 

Value of Systematic Advertising. 



BY F. B. CAVANAGH. 



Indiana bee-keepers have proven them- 
selves up to date by appointing at their 
State convention a committee to i^romote a 
system for a national advertising campaign. 
The committee has not reported as yet, but 
will confer with the several associations for 
advice, approval, and support. 

Advertising has become an essential factor 
in our great nation's welfare — so much so 
that it is impossible to achieve success in 
the sale of any product without it in some 
form or other. It is a safe and sane method 
of telling the public what we have to sell; 
where it is, and how good it is. The house- 
to-house canvass is good education for the 
few, but it will never reach the millions, 
much less convince them of the merits of 
honey, nor persuade them to order by mail 
as would national advertising. The world 
is alert to the possibilities of advertising, 
and the door of success is open to the judi- 
cious advertiser. It is the modern business 
method. 

Notice, for instance, the different lumber 
associations that are spending hundreds of 
thousands of dollars in display advertising. 
They are certainly securing results or they 
would not continue in the enterprise. 

Honey is produced from one end of this 
broad land to the other, both in quantity 
and quality. It should be an article of uni- 
versal diet; and the only thing lacking to 
make it such is sufficient forceful display 
advertising, properly followed up with a 
uniform grade of choice honey. Bees and 
honey ofTer rare opportunities to excite hu- 
man interest. Notice the effect of the cag- 
ed-bee demonstrator at the fair. Think of 
the talking qualities of the delicate honey- 
comb, delicious nectar gathered by the busy 
worker from the fragrant flowers. "How 
doth the busy little bee? "and so forth. 
And then it is all strictly true; and how the 
world loves an advertisement which rings 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



147 



true! Science has augmented the word pic- 
ture with that of the camera wherewith we 
are able to stand at work handUng bee-*, ex- 
tracting and packing our honey in the full 
gaze of the astonished and admiring public 
should we but choose to enter the field of 
national advertising. The leading maga- 
zines offer possibilities not found elsewhere 
in reaching the right class of people; and 
when bee-keepers once awake to their possi- 
bilities of advertising and act, the glucose 
trust will have received the hardest blow of 
its history. 

A few bee-keepers and honey-dealers have 
openly contended that honey could not be 
sokl at an advance over the present prices. 
"The people would not eat it,"' they say, 
"because it is con'^idered a luxury," which 
statement alone is sufhcient proof that an 
advertising campaign is necessary to edu- 
cate people in demanding honey as a daily 
ration and a luxury as well. On the other 
hand, we need not increase the price to the 
consumer. They are paying now in the 
cities an average of 20 to 25 cts. per pound for 
extracted honey, and we can market it for 
less by direct means. Some are complain- 
ing because the honey jobber buys low-priced 
honey and sells low-priced bottled goods. 
Bee-keepers often produce a high-grade ar- 
ticle, which, through lack of a knowledge 
of advertising, they are unable to market at 
any thing but a low price. If a man fails 
in the quantity of production he has done 
no injury to his neighbor; but if he fails to 
make a proper sale he has injured the mar- 
ket to a certain extent for his brother bee- 
keeper. The question is, will it not pay us 
to employ the assistance of an expert to 
help the producer out in the work with 
which he is entirely unfamiliar? If we get 
this class of beekeepers into the association, 
thereby controlling the supply, and at the 
same time creating a greater demand, we 
shall force both wholesale and retail prices 
to a proper level with other commodities. 

Did you ever stop to think that the Ameri- 
can people have shown by their actions dur- 
ing the past years that they are more than 
widing to pay for the increased cost due to 
advertising if the advertiser will only give 
them reliable quality, purity, and service? 
Practically every manufacturer under the 
sun has taken advantage of the plan, and 
is growing rich thereby — excepting the bee- 
keeper — and he hasn't waked up yet. 

The plan I have in mind is a broad one, 
requiring the support of and benefiting the 
bee-keepers all over the United States. A 
central office should be located in one or two 
of the largest cities in the country for the 
purpose of getting out advertising matter 
and pulling orders from the inquiries receiv- 
ed. The central office should be under the 
control of an expert advertising man, and 
an expert bee and honey man for reasons 
obvious to all. Sales would be made from 
the office, and orders shipped direct from 
the member's apiary, treating all members 
in equity. A schedule of prices should be 
in force for retail grocer, jobbing and whole- 



sale trade, and for manufacturers' grades of 
honey for the various locations. 

A SYSTEM TO SECURE UNIFORM QUALITY. 

One necessity is that we offer only a uni- 
formly high grade of honey. Without this 
requirement we should only waste our money 
in advertising. I would suggest that we use 
our registered trademark of quality, and 
that each member be required to furnish the 
association with a large sample of each 
grade; also that every member be held le- 
gally responsible to furnish honey which is 
equal to the sample in every respect. No 
doubt there would be better ways which 
others will think of to accomplish the end 
sought, without objection on the part of the 
member. 

Quality in honey is characterized, as all 
are aware, by many other factors than the 
source from which it was gathered. The new 
system should demand an article of proper 
body or specific gravity — one which is well 
strained, and with flavor, color, and cleanli- 
ness all taken into consideration. Lastly, 
the cases would have to be nailed properly 
before shipping, and a uniform system of 
straining and settling adopted. I believe 
that extensive producers are already realiz- 
ing as never before the utility of having 
large storage-tanks for use in extracting 
time; for not only can a more uniform and 
cleaner grade of honey be produced, but a 
material saving of labor be effected by their 
use. 

As different localities have acquired dif- 
ferent tastes for honeys it would be neces- 
sary for the central offices to be intimately 
acquainted with these conditions through- 
out the country, so that white honey would 
be offered to those accustomed to the taste 
of such, and the stronger amber honey plac- 
ed where it is preferred. 

The association would have to be reim- 
bursed by some definite system — perhaps 
by levying a certain percentage on the sell- 
ing price, which would be the approximate 
increase over the ordinary net wholesale 
price, and which would be the appropriation 
for advertising and managing expenses. 

As all advertising of this nature depends 
on long continuance for the fullness of its 
results, it is reasonable to suppose that the 
first year would not be as profitable as the 
succeeding years. A provision would be 
necessary that the members aid the associ- 
ation by making private sale of any balance 
which the association failed to dispose of in 
due time. Bee-keepers who are capable of 
intelligent marketing should also be encour- 
aged in assisting the association by making 
independent sales whenever possible to do 
so at the association jorices. There should 
also be a provision to return to the members 
in annual dividends all excess of the appro- 
priation above selling expenses. The ob- 
ject should be, not so much to appropriate 
enough advertising to sell all of the honey 
in the country as to take care of the honey 
which is now sold at a sacrifice, and also to 
build up an enormous demand for our prod- 
uct at an advance of the present prices. If 



148 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 1 



the quality of our product could be assured 
to the public, our honey would not only sell 
for more to the consumer, but it would ac- 
tually be worth more. 

This problem is one involving a great 
many obstacles, perhaps the greatest of 
which is the question of getting the bee- 
keepers organized; but the profits are sure 
if we can once get a proper organization. 
How do I know this? Simply because the 
history of every successful institution has 
proven it. We are a fraternity of specialists 
who are thinly scattered, and who, I believe, 
are representative of more than the ordinary 
amount of intelligence. An organization of 
farmers would be impossible and impracti- 
cal, but not so with bee-keepers. . We have 
already proven the practicability of organi- 
zation for selling, in several of our States. 
If we will now give the matter national 
prominence 1 am confident that bee-keep- 
ing can be put on a much more profitable 
basis in a short time. We know that the 
world is in ignorance as to our profession, 
and it is time that we blow our own horn 
and let every one know what kind of people 
we are, for it is certain that the glucose trust 
is not going to tell the world any thing to 
our benefit in their advertisements. 

In writing the above I realize my limited 
knowledge of advertising. I do not claim 
to be an advertising man, but a bee-keeper; 
and I am trying to put forth this idea from 
a bee-keeper's standpoint. One thing we 
can all do; and that is, to look and see all 
around us the wonderful institutions which 
have been built up through persistent ad- 
vertising alone. The advertising of a su- 
perior article will build up an enormous 
business. The question is, what are we go- 
ing to do about it? and are we willing and 
ready to take advertising on its merits, judg- 
ing from what it has done for other lines of 
business? If we commence advertising we 
must continue it on an extensive scale, for 
there is no use in shooting elephants with a 
pop-gun. Such an association is going to 
require some money and backing; but the 
final results will much more than justify 
the outlay, and will increase the demand for 
the association article and raise the price 
far in excess of the initial cost of such an 
advertising campaign. 

As I am one of the committee to look in- 
to this matter I feel the need of suggestions 
from practical bee-keepers everywhere. 
Write your ideas to me personally or to 
your association, with which I shall eventu- 
ally confer. Will you do at least this much 
for the present promotion of a national ad- 
vertising campaign? Will you give your 
hearty support to the movement when the 
time comes that bee-keepers will see and 
embrace this opportunity to enlighten the 
world as to our product, as to its purity, 
heathfulness, the facility with which they 
can be served — to sell our honey everywhere 
to everybody, and to place our industry 
deservedly high in the estimation of the 
American people? 

Hebron, Ind. 



INSTINCT ALWAYS THE SAME. 



BY J. E. HAND. 



Considerable space in bee-journals is be- 
ing devoted to the subject of eliminating 
the swarming instinct of bees by careful se- 
lection and judicious breeding. While ex- 
amples are not wanting to prove the wonder- 
ful possibilities along the line of selection 
and breeding, there is a limit to man's pow- 
ei in this direction. He may, by careful se- 
lection and judicious breeding, establish a 
strain of bees that will unerringly transmit 
to their posterity characteristics of a highly 
desirable nature, such as gentleness, hardi- 
ness, industry, etc., but he can not take one 
iota from the nature of one of God's crea- 
tures. Every female that is born into the 
world in a normal state is endowed from on 
high with the mother instinct; that is a part 
of her nature, and no amount of selection 
and breeding can rob her of it. We hear a 
great deal about Leghorn fowls having been 
bred for egg production for centuries, until 
finally a non-sitting strain has been propa- 
gated. 

The writer has been interested in poultry 
all his life, and especially in Leghorns for 
commercial egg production. He has not al- 
lowed hens to incubate their eggs, and from 
their roaming disposition and their wonder- 
ful power for egg-production they are not as 
prolific breeders as some other kinds; yet 
the mother instinct is as highly developed 
in Ijeghorns as in any other breed of fowls. 
Let no man delude himself with the idea 
that he can propagate a non-sitting strain 
of fowls or a non-swarming strain of bees. 

In this connection I wish to quote the 
words of Moses Quinby, a man of wonderful 
intellectual powers, and an authority on api- 
cultural subjects: "Let us fully understand 
that the nature of the bee, when viewed un- 
der any condition, climate, or circumstance, 
is the same. Instincts first implanted by 
the hand of the Creator have passed through 
millions of generations unimpaired, to the 
present day, and will continue unchanged 
through all future time till the last bee passes 
from the earth. We may, we have, to grat- 
ify acquisitiveness, forced them to labor un- 
der every disadvantage; yes, we have com- 
pelled them to sacrifice their industry, pros- 
perity, and even their lives have been yield- 
ed, but never their instincts. We may de- 
stroy life, but can not improve or take from 
their nature. The laws that govern them 
are fixed and immutable as the universe." 

Birmingham, Ohio. 



Information Wanted in Regard to Conditions in 
Virginia. 

I have read considerable about different bee lo- 
calities, but I have never read any thing about the 
possibilities of bee culture in Virginia. I should 
like to hear from some of the bee-keepers from that 
State. What part of the State is considered the 
best locality lor bees? Will sweet clover grow 
there? and what is used mostly for honey produc- 
tion? Wm. Fitterling. 

Palisade, Colo., Feb. 6. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



149 



Heads of Grain 

from Different Fields 



fair surplus: but the bees from this queen are not 
hardy. Now, I hope our good queen-breeders will 
continue their good work with due respect to any 
Burbank follower who can give us red clover with 
corollas short enough for honey-bees with ordinary 
tongues to work on. 
Deerfield, Minn. J. F. Bkady. 



The Condensation of Moisture in a Hive in the 
Winter. 

If a pan of water is boiling on a stove in the win- 
ter time when the outside temperature is about 
zero, water will soon be running in drops down the 
windows; but there will be none on the walls of the 
room, as they are double, and therefore warm. The 
glass, on the other hand, being thin, is cold, and 
the moisture in the air is quickly condensed. This 
Is just the principle made use of in Jay Smith's win- 
ter cases as illustrated on page o99, Oct. 1, 1909. The 
sides and bottom of the hive not being protected, 
they are kept cold; and the top, protected by the 
cork cushion, is warm. Instead of cork I use cush- 
ions made of rabbit fur directly over the super cov- 
ers. Over this I put a sack of clover chaff from the 
clover-huller, as this is very fine and compact. This 
latter cushion is B in. thick. Over all this I put a 
Smith winter case 14 in. deep, covered with galvan- 
ized steel. A weight in the shape of a stone on the 
top of the telescoping cover makes the packing 
still more compact. My entrances for strong colo- 
nies are 3 x ft, in., and still smaller for weaker colo- 
nies. 

The colder the sides and bottom of the hive when 
the inside air is warm, the less moisture there is in 
this air: therefore the bees are warmer and more 
active, for they do not feel the cold .so much If the 
air is dry. The smaller the entrance the better, 
just so the bees have pure air. 

I run for extracted honey, and do not use exclud- 
ers. With Jumbo brood-chambers, would a queen 
under these conditions lay eggs in the four outside 
frames of a twelve-frame hive? or w<nild she go up 
into the center frames of the super, allowing the 
four outside frames to be filled with pollen and 
honey? 

How many frames of brood would an average 
frame of pollen enable the bees to rear? 

Jonesboro, Ind. C. A. Neal. 

[Your philosophy regarding the condensation of 
moisture is correct: but we advise you not to go too 
far in making the entrances too small, else you may 
rue it in the spring. 

"With regard to the queen and how she would 
scatter her brood when usnig a Jumbo brood-cham- 
ber, much would depenrl upon the queen and the 
time of year as well as the honey-flow that may be 
on. We can hardly tell you whether she would go 
above or below: but we think she would give the 
preference to the brood-nest, as a queen is inclined 
to spread out laternUy rather than go above a bee- 
space into another set of frames. 

As to your last question, we can give you only a 
very poor guess. One frame of pollen may be suffi- 
cient to furnish a colony all the nitrogenous ele- 
ment it would need for brood-rearing, if none were 
being gathered, for two or three weeks, or perhaps 
for even a longer period. — Ed.] 



Red-clover Bees do Work on Red Clover. 

There has been some discussion in regard to long- 
tongued bees, and it seems to me .some of our 
queen-breeders have been criticised more than 
they deserve. Although not a queen-breeder I rear 
a few queens for my own use, and I have also 
bought queens from different breeders. What I 
have to say has not been solicited by any one. 

I have bought the so-called red-clover queens, 
and they have given perfect satisfaction. Do they 
work on red clover? Last year was very dry, and 
there was scarcely any white clover in blossom 
here; but the bees were fairly wild on the red clo- 
ver, and it was the first crop too. When it was cut 
for hay a day afterward, I went out to see if it was 
ready to put in the barn: and, to my surprise, I 
could see bees still tumbling around over those 
heads of red clover that had already been mown a 
day. and were nearly leady to be put in the barn. 
Bees not of the so-called red-clover strain were 
nearly idle, with the exception of one colony whose 
queen, a yellow one I bought of Swarthmore. This 
colony also worked well on red clover and stored a 



The Proper Location of an Apiary in a Pasture Lot 
Next to a Wheatfield. 

I am in trouble about my bees. I live in a small 
town, and last year rented two adjoining lots for 
my chickens and bees. These have now been sold, 
so I must move the bees to a new place. I have the 
use of three lots across the alley from the rectory as 
a pasture for my horse: but the bees seem cross, and 
I am afraid they will injure my horse. This pasture 
is about 180 feet square, and on the southwest side 
(where 1 had thought of putting them) is a neigh- 
bor's wheatfield. I do not want to be a nuisance to 
my neighbors either. Would it be safe to move my 
bees there (ten hive.s) if I fasten crash sacks along 
that side and in front, .so as to compel them to rise 
above the height of a horse immediately after leav- 
ing the hives. 

How close could I put the fence in front of the 
hives? 

What is the " sweet clover " spoken of In Glean- 
ings? Is it the sweet white clover? Can it be sown 
on land already in a fairly good sod? 

Adamstown. Md., Feb. 13. G. W. Thomas. 

l.We would not advise you to put the bees in the 
pasture lot up next against the wheatfield. There 
is always danger, when bees are so placed, that they 
will attack a team of horses when they go by draw- 
ing the mower and reaper. Your better way Is to 
put the bees in the center of the lot, then put a 
fence around them to keep the horse from getting 
up close to the hives. Make the little yard large 
enough .so that the animal can not get any nearer 
than 25 or 30 feet of the entrances of the hives. A 
still better plan would be to locate your apiary in 
your lot back of the rectory. If you place the en- 
trances of the hives so that no one encounters the 
flight of the bees while the.\ are at work in the 
fields you would probably have no trouble from 
their stinging any one. Of course, you would ob- 
.serve the usual precaution of using smoke and 
avoiding all robbing. 

The sweet clover usually spoken of in Gleanings 
is the white. There are two other (yellow) varie- 
ties, one known as Melilotiis Indica, which is an 
annual, and Melilotiis officinalis, which is a bienni- 
al. Both are good for honey, and bloom a little 
earlier than the ordinary white sweet clover. 

In our judgment you could not grow any .sweet 
clover on well-sodded land. It seems to thrive best 
on embankment.s. side hills, and where almost 
nothing else will grow.— Ed.] 



W. S. Pouder's Method of Liquefying and Bottling 
Honey. 

Does Mr. Ponder always leave the top of his fill- 
ing-tank uncovered? and will the effect be damag- 
ing to the honey if closed? 

Whitestone, N. Y. Adolph Loehr. 

[Mr. Ponder replies:] 

We leave off the cover of our filling-tank while in 
use, because some vapor from the heated honey 
would condense on the under side of the lid: but I 
would not consider the matter of very much im- 
portance, as not enough moisture would accumu- 
late to injure the honey. After the lid is removed 
from my filling-tank I still have in place a remov- 
able strainer made of finest wire gauze which pro- 
tects the honey from dust or insects. I have an 
improved and rapid method of liquefying honey 
which is all strained into my filling-tank, and the 
tank is then used to bring honey to the proper 
temperature for bottling, which it does rapidly and 
uniformly. 

Indianapolis, Oct. 16. Walter S. Pouder. 



A Sour Smell around the Hives that did Not Come 
from Goldenrod. 

There was a big crop of aster here this fall, and 
some of my hives were filled up to the outside 
frames, so I have but little fear for the winter, I 
winter outdoors without any packing, simply con- 
tracting entrances to Ji x 8, and I never have any 
trouble as long as there Is a good fall flow. 



150 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar, 1 



There has been much discussion about the sour 
smell around the hives in the fall, and somebody 
said it came from goldenrod. There is but very 
little goldenrod in this locality, the fall flow being 
almost entirely from aster; yet the sour smell was 
very strong in and around my yard. 
Louisville, Ky., Dec. 16, J, B, Chrisleb, 

[It has been reported that certain fall sources of 
honey would give off a sour odor. We have never 
noticed any thing of that kind in our locality. We 
are not so sure but asters have been mentioned in 
this connection. Perhaps some of our readers can 
throw some more light on this subject, — Ed,] 



Some of the Alexander Plans Not Suitable for Av- 
erage Localities. 

Will you please answer the following questions? 

1. Would It pay to run a few colonies for extract- 
ed honey, and extract it often, and feed it during 
the honey-flow to colonies run for comb honey, so 
as to get a greater svirplus of comb honey as Alex- 
ander advocates? 

2 Which feeder for brood-rearing do you con- 
sider best for spring use— the Alexander or the Doo- 
little? 

3. What is your opinion about extracting the 
honey from the hives in spring to make room for 
brood-rearing, and then feeding a little warm syrup 
daily as Alexander did? Would they not rear 
brood as fast froni their capped honey in the hive 
if given some water and kept warm? 

4. Will two or more mated queens in the same 
hive lay eggs during the honey season without mo- 
lesting each other, as Alexander's experience indi- 
cates? What is your experience in regard to this? 

5. Do you know why a plurality of queens in a 
hive tends to prevent swarming? 

6. Would you advise me to rear my own queens? 
I need about three dozen this spring, and I have 
never reared any, 

7. Do you know whether extracting the honey 
from extractine-supers every week will cause the 
bees to store more honey than if the extracting- 
supers were tiered up on the hive, and all left to be 
extracted at the close of the season? 

Swea City, la, Albert Swanson. 

[1. Under some circumstances this may be prac- 
ticable. Ordinarily we would say, however, that It 
involves too much expense and trouble; but some- 
times the seasons are so peculiar, and stop off so 
suddenly, that it is necessary to feed back extracted 
honey In order to get a large number of unfinished 
sections properly tilled for market, 

2. The Alexander and Doolittle are both good 
feeders for brood-rearing. The Alexander is a lit- 
tle handier when it Is once applied. The Doolittle 
feeder, however, is easier to put into the hive, be- 
cause it involves no change of the hive-stand. If 
the brood-nest is full of frames, then the Alexander 
feeder is the belter. 

3. We would not advise it. Alexander lived in a 
peculiar locality; and what was possible and prac- 
tical for him to do, very often was not feasible for 
others under different environments. Bees will 
not raise brood as fast from capped honey as when 
fed daily a thin syrup, 

4. Usually it is not practicable to run more than 
one laying queen in a brood-nest at a time. Some- 
times during the height of a honey-flow two laying 
queens will work together side by side; and, under 
some peculiar conditions, as many as a dozen or 
more may be so worked; but the average beginner 
(and we would say most veterans) would have all 
kinds of trouble in trying to work the scheme. Our 
experience Is that It Is not practical, as a general 
plan, for the production of honey. 

5. No, we do not; and you will remember that Mr, 
Alexander said he could not explain the reason. 
We would somewhat question whether a plurality 
of queens would keep down swarming. It may 
have happened to do so In Mr. Alexander's case for 
the one season; but for year in and year out it is 
our opinion that, even if it were practical to work 
more than two queens to a brood-nest, it would 
have rather the opposite tendency — namely, to 
force swarming. A crowded brood-nest (or, rather, 
a lack of room for brood with a large force of bees) 
Is one of the conditions for inducing swarming — not 
checking it. 

6. We would advise e\ery bee-keeper to learn 
.something of the art of rearing queens. Where one 
does not require more than two or three dozen In a 
season it is probably cheaper and better for him to 



buy them in dozen lots. If, however, he requires 
anywhere from two to three hundred, he would do 
well to learn the art of queen-rearing and rear the 
bulk of his own queens. To change or renew stock 
he should buy some breeders. 

7. We do not believe there would be much differ- 
ence in the amount of honey stored. The differ- 
ence, if any, would be in favor of the colony whose 
combs were constantly extracted; but there would 
be a greater difference so far as the work is con- 
cerned, and that difference would be in favor of 
tiering up and not extracting until the end of the 
season. The honey would be riper and richer in 
every way. Where one can afford to have a large 
number of combs we would advise him to tier up 
and extract toward the close of the season or after 
it, as it Is more convenient. — Ed.] 



Black Chickens Stung to Death, and the White 
Ones Escaped. 

Last spring a stray swarm came into my yard and 
clustered on a pile of supers. I was away from 
home at the time and could not attend to them, 
and they became very cross. We had a hen with a 
flock of twelve chickens running In the bee-yard. 
Seven of them were black and five were light. The 
bees stung every one of the black ones to death; 
but all of the light ones escaped. W^as it just a 
"happen so "? I think not. 

I hived the swarm on my return home the next 
day, and they made nearly 100 lbs. of surplus hon 
ey, so I was well paid for the chickens they killed, 

J. RlDLKT. 

[The fact has been noted over and over, that bees 
are more inclined to sting black clothing than 
light. Numerous reports have shown how bees 
will sting black dogs and black chickens when they 
will not attack white ones. As a general thing, 
bee-keepers when among their bees should wear 
light-colored clothing; and while we go among our 
bees with various kinds of hats, wearing light and 
dark colored suits, yet when one expects to work 
among bees day in and day out he had better adopt 
the light or white colored suits and hat, not only 
because they are less objectionable to the bees, but 
because they are more comfortable to the wearer. 

As indicative of how bees will sting a black spot 
on a dog, the following, from Mr. H. C. Driver, will 
be found to be a case In point. — Ed.] 



Bees Sting a Black Spot on a Dog. 

A few years ago we had a pup that had one black 
ear and a black spot on the rump — the furthest 
from the "bark," and part of his tail. Whenever 
he went near the bees so as to cause them to sting 
him they would be sure to attack him on these 
black spots, and, as nearly as I can remember, I do 
not know of a single instance when they stung 
him elsewhere, although they may have done so. 
It seems to me I can see him yet, sliding along, 
trying to scrape the bees off, and rubbing the one 
side of his face and black ear over the grass as he 
came down through the yard. 

Another reason why I think bees are more In- 
clined to sting dark clothing than light Is this: I 
very frequently wear a black shirt among the 
bees; and, to prevent being stung so badly. I wear 
a white jacket over this. For a while this jacket 
was ripped near the shoulder, and the bees would 
sting me furiously here, where the black shirt was 
exposed, and would line all around the sleeves 
where they extended out from underneath the 
jacket, and sting. 

Beech Creek, Pa., Dec. 20. H. C. Driver. 

Feeding Granulated Honey at the Entrance of In- 
door Colonies. 

I put my bees in very light this fall. The cellar 
keeps about 42° all the time, and I have been feed- 
ing them candied honey at the entrance. They 
seem to be doing very well; but I should like to 
know if I am doing right. I have 80 colonies, and 
wish to bring them through if I can. 

Harper's Ferry, la. T. Kernan. 

[You can use granulated honey in the way you 
describe; but rock candy made of pure granulated 
sugar would be a better feed, and there will be less 
waste. The bees will utilize the free honey or liq- 
uid portion among the granules of granulated hon- 
ey, and the dry granules themselves will be left un- 
touched, probably much of it falling on the cellar 
floor.— Ed.] 



1911 



GLEANINGS EST BEE CULTURE 



151 



Comb-honey Separators of Perforated Galvanized 
Iron. 

Instead of wire-cloth separators in comb-honey 
supers, why not use separators made of galvanized 
Iron, the spaces punched out, for which an Inex- 
pensive machine could be used? I should think 
they could be made cheaper than of wire cloth, and 
be easier to clean when necessary. 

Fredericktown, Mo., Jan. 18. J. Backler. 

[A few years ago perforated metal separators were 
discussed to a considerable extent in these pages, 
and many thousands of them were sold, and used 
by bee-keepers, especially in Great Britain; but in 
late years, on account of their coldness, wooden 
separators or fence separators have very largely ta- 
ken their place. A wire-cloth separator does not 
have the same body of metal for the surface that a 
perforated metal separator has, and, consequently, 
it is not as objectionable from the standpoint of 
cold. From our general observation of the use of 
the two kinds of separators it is our opinion that 
the wire-cloth separators are so -far ahead of the 
perforated metal ones that the latter ought not to 
be considered at all. — Ed.] 



The Shaken-swarm Plan Without Increase. 

Here is a plan for preventing increase on which I 
should like your opinion: Having all hives set in 
pairs during fruit-bloom, place a super of sections 
on each one, allowing the bees to draw out the 
foundation. At the beginning of the clover flow 
place a third hive between each two, putting the 
two supers on it. Then shake the bees and queen 
from hive No. 1 before the entrance of this third 
hive, as well as all the bees from No. 2 except one 
frame, with the adhering bees and queen. Place 
this frame of bees and queen from No, 2 back in its 
own hive, and set this hive away, putting a queen- 
excluder over it, and then hive No. 1, with all its 
brood, on top, all unsealed brood to be placed be- 
low the excluder, and the sealed above, the object 
of this being to get the upper hive ready for remov- 
al as soon as possible. 

Would not this last colony build up very quickly? 
and should there not be enough bees to take care of 
the brood? A double hive of brood should make a 
rousing colony. 

The shaken swarm, having practically all the 
bees from two hives, ought to do well. If I am 
wrong, please let me know; but the plan appears 
very simple to me, and one that promises much. I 
use Danzenbaker hives. 

Frankfort, N. Y. W. E. Bennett. 

[The plan you propose is feasible, except that 
there will be danger that the brood in No. 1, moved 
to a new location, would become chilled on account 
of the lack of sufficient bees to take care of it. If, 
however, when the flow opens up, the nights are 
hot the young hatching bees will take care of the 
unsealed brood in the lower story. It would be far 
better for you to put In No. 1 more bees if you wish 
to carry out the plan. 

Yes, colony No. 1 will build up very rapidly after 
the young bees begin to hatch, and the hive on the 
old stand ought to do well also. As a general thing, 
however, you would do better to follow some one 
of the plans for shaking laid down in our text-books, 
or, better, try your plan and one of these others, and 
compare results. — Ed.] 



Bees Clustering Below the Frames in Outdoor 
Wintering. 

On page 32, Jan. 15, Dr. Miller says the colonies 
which look "goodest" to him in his cellar are those 
which cluster below the bottom-bars, etc. The edi- 
tor answers this by saying that in outdoor winter- 
ing if the entrance is of the usual size the bees would 
hug up against the top of the hive. My experience 
with some of my colonies this winter convinces me 
that there are exceptions to this rule. Every fort- 
night or so I take a stove-hook and push it into the 
entrances of my colonies to rake out the dead bees. 
I have 20 colonies, 18 packed in leaves with tar-pa- 
per covering, and 2 which I bought later are news- 
paper wrapped with a grocery box telescoped over 
them. Each time when I did this cleaning, in 3 of 
these 20 colonies I pulled out iire bees with the dead 
ones. I can't see the cluster in those covered with 
tar-paper, becau-se of the air-space between the same 
and the entrance further in; but the one packed in- 



dependently, with an entrance % x 4 (which I think 
is a usual one) has the cluster directly in front over 
the entrance clear down to the bottom-board. It was 
there when I purchased them early in December, 
and has remained there until now. This is a 1910 
swarm, in fine shape when I bought them in a ten- 
frame hive filled full of honey. I conclude that the 
two packed under the tar paper have the cluster in 
the sajne position. The entrances there are about 
^ x3 inches. 

Ashton, 111., Jan. 23. Rev. Geo. A. Waltek. 

[A good deal wlil depend on the temperature out- 
side when you rake the dead bees out of the en- 
trance. The average position for a cluster of bees 
for outdoor-wintered colonies is in the front part of 
the hive and directly over the entrance. As the 
weather warms up, the cluster will naturally ex- 
pand, reaching down to and possibly coming in con- 
tact with the bottom-board. It is presumable that 
you would not attempt to rake out the dead bees 
on the coldest days, but only during moderate 
weather. If so, it is not at all surprising that you 
would rake out some live bees. We would not sup- 
pose that you would care to disturb the bees in zero 
weather, and hence we assume that the time for 
raking out the bees would be when the weather had 
moderated. — Ed.] 



Number of Bees in a Quart; When to sow Buck- 
wheat. 

I have had quite a curiosity to know how many 
bees there are in a full-sized swarm. A day after 
some very cold weather it was warm enough for the 
bees to clean house, and from one hive abovit half a 
pint of dead bees were carried out; and on making 
a count I found there were 737, which would be 
nearly 1500 bees to the pint, or about 3000 to the 
quart. When I examined the dead bees I found 
that not many of them were bloated. 

What kind of meal is best to use for artificial pol- 
len? We never have enough natural pollen; and 
when should this artificial pollen be supplied? 

How late can buckwheat be sown for honey? I 
care nothing for the grain. It is the blossoms I 
want. 

By looking at the map I find that our location 
here is a little south of Medina, so the weather con- 
ditions must be very nearly the same so far as tem- 
perature is concerned. 
Goodland, Ind. Dr. M. L. Humston. 

[Your count of the number of bees in a pint or 
quart is about right according to the count made 
by our Mr. A. I. Root many years ago. A quart of 
bees weighs ahout Ji of a pound. We figure in 
round numbers that 5000 bees make a pound. 

Theoretically the best meal to feed for artificial 
pollen is a pea or bean meal, because both are rich 
in nitrogen; but for all practical purposes a coarse- 
ly ground rye flovir answers very well. Usually 
this will have to be fed outdoors from trays where 
the sun strikes it. As a general thing it is not prac- 
ticable to give a nitrogenous food in the hive ex- 
cept by giving the bees a candy made of meal and 
granulated sugar. Rye meal in trays should be 
given if the weather warms up suddenly and there 
are no natural sources of pollen. When bees need 
pollen they will be found frequenting stables and 
chicken-houses, or a place where mixed chop feed 
is given; but as a general thing nature supplies 
pollen about as soon as the bees can use it to ad- 
vantage. Ordinarily we do not fuss to give artificial 
pollen. 

We have sown buckwheat as late as Aug. 15, and 
secured a good crop of seed. If one does not care 
for the seed, and is willing to risk an early frost, he 
can sow as late as Sept. 1. or possibly as late as the 
15th. Much will depend on the locality. Buck- 
wheat is a rapid grower; but if it should be touched 
by a frost it would be well to plo v it under imme- 
diately; for the wilted stalks do not do very much 
good to the soil.— Ed.] 



Reo Runabout for the Apiary. 

On reading your article about the Rears automo- 
bile I decided to drop you a line. I have a smgle- 
cylinder Reo Runabout that I find very handy for 
bee-work. I can put on 400 lbs. behind the seat and 
make 25 miles an hour. I have made 175 miles In a 
day. „ 

La SaUe.LCoL. Jan. 25. W. T. Brand. 



152 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



Poultry Department 



By A. I. Root 



THE CHICKEN BUSINESS IN FLORIDA; ITS 
POSSIBILITIES, ETC. 

On page 27, Jan. 1, I made the following 
remark: "The explorer in nature's domains 
meets with many disappointments, and as 
a rule follows many false scents, etc.," and 
I want to give you an illustration right here. 
On the next page (after the above) I men- 
tioned a buttercup hen that laid a very long 
peculiar egg every other day. Well, as she 
kept this up for several weeks I began to 
think she might make a pretty good record 
after all, say close to 200 eggs in a year; 
and as these long eggs contain almost a 
half more than a common-sized egg, and as 
she has never yet offered to sit, she might 
be quite an acquisition after all. Accord- 
ingly I began putting her eggs under hens 
and in the incubators; but — what do you 
think? Not one long egg hatched a chick- 
en. It is true there was a large well-devel- 
oped chick in almost every ege; but the 
shell was too thick or something else, for 
none of them seemed to get out. Let me 
digress a little. 

For some time back I had noticed the ad- 
vertisement of an incubator that was war- 
ranted to hatch every fertile egg into a good 
strong healthy chicken, or something like 
it. In fact, I believe I remonstrated with 
the makers, telling them that the best in- 
cubators in the world gave more or less 
chicks "dead in the shell." Their answer 
was that they wnuld be exceedingly well 
pleased to have me try one of them; and if 
it did not do all they claimed, they would 
expect me to report the full truth, either for 
or against them, in my well-known frank 
and honest way. They said they would be 
quite willing to take their chances. Ac- 
cordingly I paid them $7.00 for a Buckeye 
incubator, they agreeing to pay the freight, 
as it was so far away. Now, the Buckeye is 
a very pretty little incubator for the mon- 
ey, even if it is not as well finished as the 
new Cyphers; and, to be frank, it does not 
regulate as easily and hold the temperature 
exactly on the spot as does the Cyphers; 
but, much to my surprise, it actually did 
hatch every fertile egg but one; and this 
one was the one long Buttercup egg I put 
in to try them just once more. I then de- 
cided, rather sadly, I would give up trying 
to start a new strain of Buttercups laying 
extra long large eggs. But there were some 
more of these long eggs under some sitting 
hens; and it occurred to me they (my new 
breed of fowls) might, like ducks and geese, 
require more than the orthodox 21 days: and, 
therefore, after a hen had hatched all the 
chicks except from the long eggs I moved 
several of these to the incubator, and, sure 
enough, in from 22 to 24 days I had several 
nice strong Buttercup chicks. 

Now, if you please, let us go back to that 



little Buckeye incubator that did, virtually, 
hatch every fertile egg. One swallow does 
not make a summer, and there are also 
quite a few "holes in a skimmer." The j 
Buckeye holds just 50 eggs. I was some- 1 
what surprised and disappointed to find, on ■ 
testing out after 5 days, that 17 out of the 
50 eggs were infertile. Let me say here be- 
fore I forget it that the 32 chicks I took 
from the incubator were about the strongest 
and finest chicks I ever hatched, even under 
hens. They had big legs and great lusty 
wings, and were such a mass of down that I 
took them right from the incubator and set 
them loose in the Florida sunshine, and the 
whole 32 are alive now (two weeks old) , and 
they never had a bit of artificial heat nor a 
hen to cover them. They just had the bas- 
ket brooder I described about a year ago, 
with two cheap feather dusters hung to the 
handle (see page 806, Dec. 15) . The basket 
(chicks and all) was carried into the incu- 
bator cellar every night for about a week. 
Now, why were there so many infertile eggs? 
Hens that stole their nests gave strong fer- 
tility. One found in the palmettos had 19 
eggs, and 18 of them were fertile. I know 
that makes a big difiFerence. This hen prob- 
ably laid the whole 19 eggs, and very likely 
made it her business in life to see that every 
egg was a fertile one. 

Once more, in testing eggs almost daily I 
have found that one particular hen lays a 
rough egg (that is, among the infertiles) 
every time. I really ought to spot her, and 
get her out of the M'ay. Yes, I have tried 
swapping the roosters, and that may help 
the matter. Now you will have to let me 
digress just once more in telling my long 
chicken story. 

Both of the two new poultry books put 
out by the Farm Journal people (The Mil- 
lion-egg Farm and the Curtis Poultry-book) 
recommend placing the eggs in the incuba- 
tor with the small end down. Well, our 
apiarist, Mr. Mell Pritehard, told me over a 
year ago that a friend of his, when first fill- 
ing his incubator, stood all the eggs on the 
small end until they were tested. Now, by 
so placing the eggs I got 81 eggs in the Cy- 
phers tray (that was made for 70), and had 
70 eggs strongly fertile (a trayful) at the 
end of five days. Of course, I could not turn 
the eggs for five days instead of three, ac- 
cording to the directions; but so far it seems 
(in two trials) to have made no difference 
to be noticed. One of our experiment sta- 
tions has called attention to the fact that a 
sitting hen will always give a larger percent- 
age of fertile eggs than any incubator. 
.Just one thing more: After the chicks were 
out of that Buckeye I sold it to a neighbor, 
and sold her 50 eggs (from the same yard) 
to go with it. She has just sent word that 
only 22 of the 50 eggs proved fertile. Oh 
dear me! both lots of eggs that were so poor- 
ly fertile were fathered by my Buttercup 
rooster that I called worth $25.00. 

YOUR MONEY BACK IF YOU ARE NOT SAT- 
ISFIED. 

It is getting to be quite the fashion now- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



153 



days to sell goods with the above under- 
standing or agreemeat, and there is certain- 
ly an element of good in it. It has been 
suggested that the average country mer- 
chant can not stand such competition; but 
my opinion is that many, at least, of our 
country merchants will soon be obliged to 
step up a little higher. It is the Christian- 
like way of doing business. As a rule I 
have never been very favorably impressed 
with medicines and "tonics" for chickens; 
but recently our enterprising "chicken doc- 
tor," Dr. Conkey, of Cleveland, O., sent out 
one of his circulars about his "tonic" to 
make chickens lay, with the agreement, 
"money back," etc., with such extravagant 
claims that I ordered a 25-cent trial pack- 
age of his agents in Tampa. Let me ex- 
plain that our laying hens had not been do- 
ing very satisfactory work at any time 
since we came down here last November. 
Mrs. Root declared that many of them were 
too old, and advised selling ihem off; but it 
is, as a rule, bad policy to sell hens in the 
spring time, even if they are old. Well, 
they did start to lay better within two or 
three days after getting the tonic; but be- 
fore rushing to conclusions we had better 
consider that it is just now spring time 
down here, and we have just been having an 
unusually warm and pleasant J-anuary. 
Besides, neighbor Rood has ju-«t commenced 
culling out his broken-headed cabbages and 
lettuce that will never make a head, and 
this thing alone should account largely for 
the increased egg yield; but there is one 
thing more about this egg tonic, and this is 
the very thing that has induced me to 
write it up. When I opened the package it 
set me to coughing and sneezing at such a 
rate I had to carry my wheat shoris and 
medicine out into the open air, and then I 
was obliged to turn my head to avoid the 
strong fumes of cayenne pepper and some 
other stuff I failed to recognize. Of course, 
I have known for years that poultry are 
fond of pepper, mustard, and other pungent 
herbs; but it was one of my "happy sur- 
prises " to see my whole dozen yards of over 
300 chickens get into a panic just as soon as 
they had fairly sampled the new concoc- 
tion. Let me stop right here to say Mrs. 
Root has been advising me to get rid of the 
Leghorns just because they persist in think- 
ing they are going to be killed every time a 
stranger or any thing unusual comes into 
the yards. Why, a few" days ago, when I 
had more eggs than I could carry in all my 
pockets, I took off my fur caji to hold the 
contents of a big nest. Just as soon as I 
came in sight bareheaded, the whole tribe 
(hens and roosters) including a hen and 
chickens, ran and yelled "bloody murder," 
and when a customer wanted a dozen White 
Leghorn hens I was obliged to go out in the 
night with a lantern to get them. Well, 
with a pailful of middlings or shorts with a 
few" tablespoonfuls of this tonic well stirred 
in. and wet up with water, I think I could 
pick up every wild chicken on the ranch, 
they are so crazy for it. May be it contains 



something fowls don't get down here in 
Florida; at any rate, it is worth all it cost 
to me to get my chickens tame, to say noth- 
ing about bringing in the eggs. 

Now,. lest I give friend Conkey a bigger 
testimonial than he deserves, let me remark 
that I recall that my brother last summer 
used to make a sort of "stew" of every 
thing the chickens liked, such as cheap fish 
boiled up and mixed with bran or shorts; 
and, as nearly as I can remember, he used 
the same old pail and long-handled spoon 
that I used. But how- about the chickens I 
have hatched and reared since he left and 
went up to his Michigan home? Again, 
why did not Dr. Conkey, in his "flaming 
poster," say that chickens would be crazy 
for it after they once got a taste? After giv- 
ing Dr. Ccnkey all this free advertising for 
his tonic, I want to say to him (and all the 
other venders of me iicines for chickens) , is 
it not time to stop charging half a dollar for 
a little box of salve that could be afforded 
for a dime and perhaps for a nickel?* 

The great mass of poultry-keepers are 
poor people and do not have dollars to in- 
vest in things that may be needful. Are 
not small profits and lar^ie sales the better 
way to build up a big business? 



FEEDING SULPHUR TO CHICKENS AS A PREVENTIVE 
OF VERMIN. 

This in answer to query, page 806, Dec. loth issue, 
" Does sulphur taken internally with the food get 
into the circulation so as to show its presence on 
the surface of the body?" 1 know as a matter of 
fact, and by my own experience and that of others, 
tliat if you use, say, half a teaspoonful or over of 
sulphur daily for a few days, say a week, then take 
your woolen undershirt and shake or brush the in- 
side of it over a hot stove you will receive a decided- 
ly affirmative reply to the query: and if with the 
human, why not with the hen, she retaining it un- 
der her feathers, where the heat of her body would 
generate sulphuric-acid gas — death to insects, etc. 

FEATHERS FOR BROODING CHICKS. 

I have been using a "* hover" in a fireless brood- 
er for about five years. It is made of mosquito- 
netting, hanging loosely, filled with loose feathers, 
with a thin cover tucked over feathers tacked to 
frame of hover. It gives plenty of ventilation, and 
is good for the chicks. 

Ehvood, Ind. D. Xeilson. 



SOREHEAD; POND'S EXTRACT A REMEDY. 

I have just read your letter in Gleanings for 
Sept. 1. Try dipping your chickens" heads in Pond's 
extract two or three times. It will, I think, cure 
sorehead every time. 

redbugs; wet salt a remedy. 

As to redbugs, I have found that rubbing thor- 
oughly with wet salt will knock them. I hope you 
will find these things satisfactory. 

When you spoke of the cornfields of Southwestern 
Ohio you made me homesick. 

Greenville, Texas, Sept. 7. T. P. Flaig. 



SULPHUR FOR VERMIN; STILL MORE ABOUT IT. 

Bro. A. 1. Root:— In regard to sulphur ridding 
poultry of insects, I will say it might be all true. 
Years ago 1 used to handle Texas range horses, 
and many of them would be so full of ticks that it 

* After paying 50 cts. for a box of salve for " stick- 
tight fleas " I afterward got a nice little bottle of 
carbolated vaseline (at the drugstore) for 5 ct.s., and 
the latter was even better, for it did not take the 
feathers off the chicks. I am glad to add that this 
winter we have so far no fleas at all, nor any thing 
else on the chicks, little or big. 



154 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 1 



did not look as though another tick could find a 
place to get hold. I would give all such horses a 
big dose of sulphur, and blanket well tor two nights. 
The ticks would then disappear. 
Caldwell, Ida. J. E. Miller. 

"stick-tight fleas," "sand flies," etc. 

I note your attack on so-called " sticktight fleas." 
We have a few here on our young biddies, but I 
raise about 200 every year, and all I do is to grease 
the old hen well under the wings, and the biddies 
will get grease on their heads, and that will run 
them off. We crackers call them "jiggers," or 
" chicken fleas," and the old crackers say th« Yan- 
kees brought them here from the North. 

But speaking of gnats as a biting insect caps the 
climate, ^^'e have gnats here, but I never heard of 
their biting even a Yankee. You are mistaken. 
Your so-called gnat is a "sand-fly" that breeds in 
the sand along the coast. Oh! but they do bite, and 
will go through any cheese-cloth and in your hair; 
but we have none in the Lake region. Gnats are 
troublesome at certain times of the year. They are 
particularly fond of your eyes, ears, and nose, but 
will not bite. Well, friend R., I have a formula 
that will drive away all gnats and sand-flies, but I 
scarcely know whether or not to give it to you, as 
you might form a liad habit. I never tried it, but 
have seen it tried by the old crackers further south. 
Take a stick, say three inches long. If your mus- 
tach is not too long, put a small piece of well-dried 
cow-chip on one end; set fire to it, and go about 
your daily avocation. Hold the stick in your 
mouth. 

Winter Haven, Fla. A. B. Keetder. 



Health Notes 

By A. I. Root 



CONTROIiLING THE SEX. 

Here is still another testimonial, and it 
comes from a State entomologist and from 
an exjieriment station of national celebrity. 
You will notice at the close the author says 
he prefers not to have his name published. 

State of Minnesota," 
Entomologist's Office, 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Mr. A. 1. Root:— I note in your October 15th issue 
an experience that both you and a Mr. Blair had 
with certain matlngs of fowls. It may interest you 
to know that, several years ago, in Oregon, I had a 
large Barred Plymouth Kock hen, very heavy, and 
a prolific layer. I mated her with a Silver-lace Wy- 
andotte rooster, carefully preserving the eggs. 
From these eggs I obtained a goodly proportion of 
hens, as I remember it, and every hen was a jet 
black with a metallic luster and blackish legs, fair- 
ly heavy, and an excellent layer. The roosters from 
these eggs were all marked like Plymouth Rocks — 
that is, like their mother. 

If you make use of this information, kindly do 
not make use of my name. 

St. Anthony Park, Oct. 2(5. 

You will see from the above that both pul- 
lets and roosters all take after the mother. 
I confess this whole thing is a puzzle to me. 
Suppose we have a Barred Plymouth Rock 
male with Wyandotte pullets. In that 
case would the chicks, pullets, and roosters 
all take after their mother? Will those 
among our readers who have had experience 
in this line tell us about it? 



A GOOD WORD FOR BURBANK AND THE WONDER- 
BERRY. 

Mr. Root:— In Dec. 15th Gleanings the wonder- 
berry is referred to again in not very complimen- 
tary terms, therefore I take up my pen in its de- 
fense. We raised quite a patch this season, and 
canned some twenty quarts when they got ripe, 
and yesterday we had wonderberry pie for Sunday 
dinner, and the whole family pronounced it deli- 
cious; and 1 think future generations will rise up 
and bless the name of Luther Burbank. You are 
right in regard to the size of the garden huckleber- 
ry; but if it were as large again I would call it 
worthless. 

Greenfield, 111., Dec. 19. W. G. Secor. 



curing our troubles with drugs and 
medicines; how much credit be- 
longs TO THE MEDICINE? 

For a long time I have felt that I have 
had something to say on this subject; and 
my good friend Keck, at the close of his ar- 
ticle (see page 709, Nov. 1, 1910) , seems to 
call forth just now what I have long had 
in mind. I am sure you will excuse me for 
intruding some of my personal afflictions, 
especially if you have patience to follow me 
through. 

Twenty years ago or more I noticed a 
queer spot on my back. At first I thought 
it was a form of eczema; but it grew so slow- 
ly, and resembled a wart so much, that I let 
it pass until I discovered of late that it was 
increasing in size and had got to be abo:H 
as large as a silver half-dollar. Noticing 
what the Cuticura people say about their 
salve for eczema I commenced using it ev- 
ery time I took a bath, say once a week or 
oftener. This was about two years ago. I 
used it faithfully for about a year, but it 
seemed to do no good. In fact, I felt that 
the spot kept getting larger; but in noticing 
on their circulars that some things of that 
kind need an application every day, I com- 
menced putting on Cuticura daily. After 
about a month of this treatment 1 was sat- 
isfied that the trouble was disappearing. 
By another three months it was almost en- 
tirely gone, and at the end of the year there 
was hardly a scar to show where it had been. 

Now, the above, if I were to stop here, 
would make a splendid testimonial for the 
Cuticura people who charge 50 cts. for a lit- 
tle tin box of their salve containing scarcely 
more than a teaspoonful. While this was 
going on I was also fighting stick-tight fleas 
on our own chickens. I greased their heads 
with a salve that cost 25 cts. a box, and a 
very small box at that. Somebody suggest- 
ed in a poultry-journal that vaseline is just 
as good as the high-priced salves; and car- 
bolized vaseline, that costs only five cents a 
box, is still better; and my brother, a drug- 
gist, ventured the suggestion that any kind 
of grease, say chicken oil, would be just as 
good as the high-priced salves. And then 
it occurred to me that simply greasing the 
spot on my back every day with any kind 
of oil or grease might have accomplished 
the same result. Now, friends, who is right 
and who is wrong about it? With my busy 
life I can not well make tests that should 
settle the matter. Our experiment stations, 
equipped by our different States, or hospi- 
tals, perhaps, should make the test and in- 
form people. When I protest against the 
enormous price, 50 cts., for a little bit of box 
of Cuticura, I am told by friends that the 
manufacturers must have an enormous prof- 
it to pay for advertising, and that without 
this enormous and expensive advertising 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



155 



they could not catch the millions of people, 
and cure them as thev have cured me. Not- 
withstanding, I do think they might make 
a smaller price and still get rich. Let me 
say to their credit, however, that the volu- 
minous circular or pamphlet they send free 
on application, telling all about our skin dis- 
eases, is certainly worth something. In this 
respect they are doing missionary work. 

Now, while I am about it, I want to speak 
of poultry remedies. In one of the journals 
right at hand, about twenty different mala- 
dies among chickens are inentioned, and a 
medicine is prescribed for each. The price 
is 50 cts. a box. There is quite a lot of 
salves, and diflferent kinds of salve for each 
malady. 

Now for the last paragraph in friend 
Keek's letter. Some months. ago I got a 
box of the remedy he mentions — Yougart. 
I have been taking two tablets every day, 
and my digestion has been excellent; but at 
the same time I have been taking a daily 
bath, massage, and going without my sup- 
pers. Was it the Yougart that made me 
feel so well or these otlier things? As Dr. 
Miller often says, "I don't know." I have 
been praying that the heavenly Father 
would give me wisdom in all these matters. 
I do not know that I should have mention- 
tioned Yougart at all; but about two weeks 
ago I finished the little box, and my diges- 
tion has not been so good since then. Was 
the Yougart so beneficial or was it some- 
thing else? T. B. Terry has recently declar- 
ed quite vehemently against charging a 
dollar for this little box of tablets contain- 
ing concentrated buttermilk or something 
of the sort. Yes, a great lot of other people 
think as friend Keck does, that they have 
been greatly benefited by Yougart. But, 
listen. Since I have spoken about Oxydo- 
nor and Oxygenator, a lot of circulars have 
been sent me. I will mention briefly one of 
the testimonials. A little girl had fits. Her 
mother paid doctor after doctor big sums of 
money, but her affliction became worse in- 
stead of better. Then she paid $14.00, or 
perhaiis $40.00 (I can not remember which), 
for that silly trap about as big as a nest egg, 
and hitched it to the girl's ankle by means 
of a wire. She never had any more fits aft- 
erward, so the mother said, and was getting 
strong and well. How do I explain it? Well, 
the most probable explanation to me is that 
no such mother or little girl ever existed. 
Some mother may have been hired to fur- 
nish the above. The Duffy whisky people 
are accused of doing this kind of work; but 
if there is such a mother and little girl, na- 
ture might have got ready just then to help 
the little girl outgrow her malady. 

Let me repeat an incident of some little 
time ago. I got a severe "crick" in my 
back by lifting. Ernest said an osteopathic 
doctor could fix me out immediately, so I 
would be all right in the morning. I said 
I would give five dollars to have the thing 
done. I was interested in it from a scientif- 
ic point of view. Ernest telephoned the 
doctor to come right down; but he was away 



from home, and could not come till the fol- 
lowing morning. But the experiment was 
never made, because, after I got a good sound 
sleep, I was entirely well. In the morning 
no symptoms remained of the distressing 
trouble of the night before. Now, in the 
above I am not saying any thing against 
the science of osteopathy. I am only re- 
minding you of what everybody ought to 
keep in mind — that we get over things of 
this sort, many times, without doing any 
thing at all. Had the doctor come down 
and treated me, I do not suppose anybody 
could have persuaded me that his treatment 
had nothing to do with my recovery. 

Now, when you are tempted to buy ex- 
pensive remedies at the drugstore, think of 
what I have been telling you. Most of the 
liniments, witch hazel, etc., direct tliat they 
be applied with much rubbing, and the rub- 
bing does the business, not the medicine. 
The State of Ohio saw fit to send a repre- 
sentative recently to talk with me about 
Electropoise, Oxydonor, etc. In speaking 
of the testimonials from those who have 
used them, I said to the doctor: "The di- 
rections for using Electropoise are, after 
hitching it on the ankle, to lie down on 
the bed, and remain so for an hour or 
more — well, does not common sense teach, 
as well as past experience, that if the aver- 
age tired nervous woman will go off by her- 
self in the middle of the day, and take a 
good rest, after an hour or two she will be 
greatly benefited?" He assented, and later 
I submitted the matter to Mrs. Root, and 
she said she had tested it a thousand times, 
and found it true; and she did not have any 
Electropoise hitched to her ankle either, 
thank God. 

Heigh-ho! Riaht liere comes a testimo- 
nial in favor of Electropoise. Read it: 

Mv. Root: — In your issue for Oct. 1, p. 642, in your 
reply to Otto Saurer, you speak of the Oxydonor 
and Electropoise as worthless, with Mr. Colling- 
wood, of the Rural Xew -Yorker. I think it is fair to 
hear both sides, I have no financial interest in ei- 
ther of these machines: but we have both of them, 
and either of them will cure (or perhaps I should 
say relieve) a case of frosted feet quicker than any 
other remedy I have ever known, and I have had 
the advice of one of the best physicians in the coun- 
try too, When, a few winters ago, I used the Elec- 
tropoise for another ailment at a time when my 
feet were so swollen and sore that 1 could hardly 
walk, the feet suddenly got well. I had made a dis- 
covery, and that without the exercise of any faith 
in the matter. I have, since that, tested this truth, 
and twice on cases where the men could not walk, 
and in every case the feet have got well as fast as 
possible, and without regard to their faith. Since 
my discovery I have wanted a chance to make it 
public. You have made the chance for me. You 
who have genuine Electropoises or Oxydonors, do 
not throw them away. Your neighbor may have 
trouble with his feet this winter. 

Alanson E. Rittenhouse. 

State Road, Del., Oct. 7. 

My good brother, you say in the above 
your feet "suddenly got well." I believe 
vou, and I am glad they did get well; but 
how can you prove that Electropoise had 
any thing to do with it? See wliat I said 
about the crick in my back that disappear- 
ed so quickly that it seemed almost mirac- 
ulous. 



156 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 1 



Let us now submit the matter to the good 
hard common sense of the readers of Glean- 
ings. This Electropoise that you think 
cured you is much like the nickel-plated 
handle to a bicycle. Inside is some sulphur 
and a little sal-ammoniac. A wire is put 
through this mixture, and the other end of 
the wire is hiti-hed to your ankle. The 
Electropoise is dropped into a bowl of ice 
water. No electricity passes through that 
wire. This can be proven by any battery- 
tester or volt-meter, and there is no science 
about it, as any scientific man can tell you, 
and I claim there is neither sense nor science 
about it. Hitching the wire to a horse-shoe 
would do the work just the same; or nail- 
ing the horse-shoe over the door to cure 
frosted feet would have just as much effect. 
I suppose the sulphur and sal-ammoniac 
are put in to make people believe it is some- 
thing like a dry battery. The ice water is 
to make people believe that it works some- 
thing like a thermo-electric battery, where 
the current is produced by keeping one part 
hot and the other part cold. You call it a 
machine. I submit to the readers of Glean- 
ings whether it should be dignified by call- 
ing it a machine or a toy. It is exactly like 
the wire that was twisted about a nail in 
that $50 clock arrangement for curing va- 
rious diseases — see page 642, Oct. 1st issue. 

In your closing sentence you unintention- 
ally inform us that a lot of people have paid 
out their money for Electropoises which 
have been thrown away, or probably tucked 
away up in the garret. In talking with a 
lady who insisted it is a good thing, as you 
do, she admitted she h id not used it for 
several years. When I asked why she did 
not continue using it if it was such a "val- 
uable instrument," she evidently found her- 
self in a pretty close corner. Finally she 
got out of it by saying that even great in- 
ventions are usually forgotten after they 
have had their run. I reminded her that 
sucQ inventions as clothes-wringers, sewing- 
machines, coal-oil lamps, telephones, etc., 
were none of them put away in the garret 
after they have had their run. 

Now let us have another glimpse of pat- 
ent medicines before closing. In my hand 
is a bulletin from the Ohio Food Depart- 
ment, presented by R. W. Dunlap, State 
Food Commissioner. In it is a list of all 
medicines found in our drugstores, giving 
the percentage of alcohol, cocaine, and 
. other habit - forming drugs. How many 
different medicines are there in the drug- 
stores? Well, this book contains over bO 
pages, and there are about 50 medicines 
mentioned on a page. Something like 4000 
different medicines are manufactured and 
kept on sale to cure our infirmities! How 
many of these medicines do you suppose T. 
B. Terry uses in his family and among his 
grandchildren? Not one; and, may God be 
praised, there are a good many more fami- 
lies who use no medicine at all. Well, if I 
am right, people are beginning to learn that 
a large part of these medicines have no 
more to do with the recovery of the patient 



than Electropoise that our good brother tells 
us about. Of course, such things as corn- 
plasters, courtplaster, etc., have their uses, 
and it may be well enough to keep them in 
the house; but I begin to discover that, if 
we live and take care of our feet as God 
meant we should, there would be no need of 
corn-plasters. 

This bulletin suggests that a large part of 
these medicines owe their virtue to the al- 
cohol they contain. After taking the stuff 
the patient feels better as a matter of course; 
but a day of reckoning comes sooner or 
later, and sometimes it is a terrible reckon- 
ing. I was told of a lady a few days ago — a 
Christian who stands well in community, 
who had been taking Peruna until she 
could not live without it. Her family phy- 
sician finally found out what she was do- 
ing, and told her it would be very much 
cheaper, and better for her health, to buy 
good whisky, and drink it every day, than 
to use what she was using. The represen- 
tative of our Ohio Food Commission men- 
tioned above informed me that Peruna had 
been taken in hand, and that hereafter ail . 
the Peruna put on the market would con- 
tain a sufficient amount of a laxative to 
prevent its being used as an alcoholic bev- 
erage. May God be praised for Ohio's Food 
Commission. Have you something like it 
in your own Sta'e? 

SPOILING SHOES WALKING IN WET GRASS; SEE PAGE 
569, SEPT. 1. 

If you will obtain from the A Ibert H. Rlemer Shoe 
Co., Milwaukee, Wis., a pair of wooden-soled shoes 
or boots, and have some one tack an extra sole of 
leather on them, then learn to walk flat footed, I 
think you will find conditions materially benefited. 
I am nowusine the pair I bought last October: have 
used them continually in all kinds of weather, and. 
not had wet or cold feet. They come in whole sizes, 
6, 7, 8, no half-sizes. They retail in Baltimore, shoes, 
81.50: 83.00 for 16-in. boots. 

Lake Roland, Md., Sept. 0. ■ Benj. B. Jones. 

Friend .1., there is another point in tavor 
of wooden-soled shoes or something equiva- 
lent. Almost everv fall when it begins to 
be cold and wet, if I do not look out and 
keep ray feet dry and warm I have an at- 
tack of sore throat, catarrh, stoppage of the 
nostrils, etc. For some little time I did not 
catch on to the fact that these troubles were 
the result of going about with cold wet feet; * 
and almost every fall I forget once or more 
times my former experience. Well, drying 
and warming the feet thoroughly, putting 
on dry stockings, and, if necessary, good 
warm overshoes, causes the sore throat to 
let up almost at once. I suppose it is most- 
ly elderly people who have troubles of this 
sort. Now, there is something about it I do 
not quite understand. Wading about in 
the wet grass barefooted in the morning 
does not bring on sore throat nor any thing 
of that sort. Perhaps one reason is that, 
after this wading in the grass, the feet are 
wiped dry, and you put on good warm dry 
shoes and stockings. Sitting down, say, to 
read, with damp or wet shoes and stockings, 
seems to be what brings on the trouble. Al- 
though I have never seen the wooden-soled 
shoes, I have before had excellent reports 
from them. 



O^l^anwgs tn Tin ffiultur^ 

Published by The A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

H H. ROOT, Assistant Editor E. R, Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A.' I. Root, Editor Home Department J- T. Calvekt, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postoffice. Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XXXIX 



MARCH 15, 1911 



NO. 6 



Editorial 



THE HONEY-COOKING RECIPES. 

In response to our two requests for cook- 
ing recipes, using honey, a large number 
were sent us. After having thrown out du- 
phcates, also all which were practically the 
same as those given in back numbers of 
Gleanings or in the ABC and X Y Z of 
Bee Culture, we still have a list of nearly 
100 which appear to us most excellent. The 
list includes cake, cookies, bread, biscuits, 
gems, doughnuts, jelly and preserves, candy, 
popcorn balls, salad dressing, pancakes, ce- 
real coffee, puddings, vegetables, pie, baked 
apples, custard, junket, layer-cake filling, 
mince meat, etc. We have been very glad 
to issue the proper credits that we promised. 
So far as possible, in the case of duplicates, 
credits were issued for those received first; 
but there were many that were practically 
the same as the ones in the ABC and X Y 
Z of Bee Culture, and for these, of course, 
we could allow nothing. 

We believe that a book or booklet giving 
a large number of practical ways of using 
honey in cooking will help considerably in 
educating the public as to its value as a food; 
and honey is not expensive when the qual- 
ity of the product is compared with that 
made with cheap molasses and glucose. 



the question of a winter nest and its 
relation to locality. 

In the general discussion that has appear- 
ed between Mr. J. L. Byer and ourselves it 
might appear that there was a vital differ- 
ence between us as to our practice and be- 
lief; but a more careful reading of the articles 
and the footnotes on pages 19 to 21, .Ian. 1, 
and 65 to 67, Feb. 1, as well as pages 184 and 
135, March 1, show that we are nearly if not 
entirely of the same mind when we take in- 
to account the difference in the localities 
south of the lakes and that portion north of 
the lakes where Mr. Byer lives. 

Our correspondent has sent in another ar- 
ticle, and this ought properly to appear in 
this (March 15th) issue before the reader 
loses all connection or is ready to turn his 
attention to matters relating to spring rath- 
er than winter management. But. by the 
time this article was sent to us in Florida 
(where we are temporarily residing) it was 
too late for it to get back in time for that 



issue, and hence the only alternative is to 
use a portion of it in the editorial depart- 
ment, which is printed on the last form. 
The articles in our March 1st issue, together 
with the general footnote, which our cor- 
respondent had not seen, very largely antic- 
ipate some things that he has to say, so we 
will omit that portion. Apparently labor- 
ing under the impression that we are still 
wide apart he says: 

In the footnote to my article the editor refers to 
my admission that, in the cold spell, I found the 
bees for the most part below the honey, and says 
that on this point there is no diflference between 
us. Please remember that this was in January 
when the examination was made, and that over the 
bees there was " at least four or five inches of seal- 
ed honey '" at that time — indeed, in many of the col- 
onies there would be six inches. How much honey 
would there be in the top of combs at that date, if 
in the fall there had been but two or three inches 
of honey? Here in Ontario by the first of February, 
or along that date, there would be none, and, just as 
sure as fate, in this present winter, colonies that 
were in that condition in the fall will be dead, ei- 
ther of starvation or dysentery, before spring. Now, 
while I was not advocating xolid combs of honey in 
the center of the brood-nest, I wish to remove a 
wrong impression given in regard to Mr. McEvoy's 
practice of wintering outdoors on that system. It 
will be noted that I specified that I would want 
the combs in the center of the brood-nest filled at 
least halfway down. One of friend McEvfiy's strong- 
est arguments in defense of his system is that it 
prevents the colony starting a lot of brood early 
in January, when we generally have a week or so 
of comparatively warm weather — not often mild 
enough to allow a flight, yet enough so to start a 
lot of brood in colonies ha\ ing a lot of empty comb 
in the center of the brood-nest. 

Notice he says he is not recommending 
"solid combs of honey;" that he has advo- 
cated that he would "want the combs in 
the center of the brood-nest filled at least 
half way down." For a locality much cold- 
er than ours we say amen to every word of 
this. We based our original statements on 
pages 19 to 21 on conditions as they exist in 
the average locality where bees are wintered 
outdoors. In a locality as cold as that in 
which Mr. Byer lives, the great majority of 
bee-keepers winter indoors. Mr. Byer's lo- 
cality represents unusual conditions, or, 
rather, we should say, conditions in respect 
to cold not found in localities where bees 
are wintered outdoors. As editor of a bee- 
paper we try to fit the average locality in 
any directions that M-e may give. When a 
locality has a condition that is out of the 
ordinary for the practice recommended, due 
allowance must be made. We therefore 
cheerfully accept Mr. Byer's recommenda- 
tion or correction, if you please, for a locali- 
ty as far north or as cold as he has. That 
bees need more honey above the cluster for 
colder regions is but natural. 



158 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 15 



As to the reason for shutting out brood- 
rearing, Mr. McEvoy has already explained 
himself in our March 1st issue, page 135. 



E. B. BOOT IN FLOBIDA. 

Fob two or three years back I have cher- 
ished the thought that I would visit the 
one State in the Union into which I had 
never set foot. One thing and another have 
delayed that visit until this winter. Our 
youngest, a little six-year-old (A. I. Root 
second) , came down with whooping-cough. 
As he was having it very hard, the doctor 
said that we had better take him to Florida 
at once. How to get him there without ex- 
posing other children was a problem. We 
decided to secure a drawing-room, or state- 
room, on a Pullman where wife, boy, and I 
could travel by ourselves to Baltimore. 
Thence we took a state-room on a boat to 
Jacksonville, and from Jacksonville we 
took another Pullman drawing-room direct 
to Bradentown. We arrived on Saturday, 
the 25th of February, in the land of sun- 
shine and flowers. What a contrast! It 
was cold and rainy at Medina when we left, 
and at Bradentown it is hot and dry. It 
was excessively wet at Medina, and excess- 
ively dry here. But, notwithstanding, I 
find just the country I have pictured in my 
mind's eye — a beautiful climate, tropical 
vegetation, and a bracing air. While the 
A. I. R. second still "whoops" he is much 
stronger, although we have been here but 
four days. Now, you will wish to know 
what I think of A. I. R.'s Florida home. 
Say, it would do you good to see him play 
with his chickens, his posies, and his plants. 
He has his place nicely fixed up; and as he 
takes you over his grounds you can't help 
sharing his enthusiasm. How he delights 
in showing the visitor his latest acquisition, 
this new plant, his ducks, his Buttercups, 
his coops, his waterfall, his creek back of 
the lot! and Mrs. A. I. R. too — what a world 
of good it is doing her ! Say, you needn't 
tell my wife; but mother's cooking does 
taste so good! 

Many people have been ordered by their 
physician to go to Florida, little dreaming 
that their poor health is really a blessing in 
disguise. I have met many persons who, 
before they came here, were verging on the 
brink of the grave; but after a few weeks or 
months of this climate they have found the 
" fountain of eternal youth." 

But what about Bradentown in particu- 
lar? I don't know much about other spots 
in Florida; but I see tropical vegetation in 
all its glory. The freeze that visited many 
parts of Florida within the past week has 
done no damage here; indeed, Bradentown, 
by reason of its peculiar location on the bay, 
is protected in a way that most towns in 
this part of the State are not. Orange- 
groves are being set out everywhere around 
here, and old trees show that the climate 
here has been kind to them. The people 
are of the best from all parts of the United 
States; indeed, I don't know of any com- 



munity where one will find better company 
than here. Many bee-keepers who have 
read Gleanings have located here, not nec- 
essarily to keep bees, but to raise fruit, keep 
poultry, or raise garden truck. If it keeps 
like this we shall have a Gleanings fam- 
ily here. 

There ! some of you will think I am try- 
ing to boom Bradentown. Neither my 
father nor myself have any land to sell. 
We are not interested in any scheme. A. I. 
R. came here to get health and rest, and 
has found both. E. R. Root. 



new edition of advanced bee cultube. 

About twenty-five years ago W. Z. Hutch- 
inson, editor of The Bee-keepers^ Review, 
was producing comb honey by hiving 
swarms on frames without foundation. In 
many respects this was similar to the Sim- 
mins non swarming plan; but Mr. Hutchin- 
son, apparently, did not have so much in 
mind the idea of preventing swarming as 
the production of fancy comb honey, and at 
the same time save the cost of foundation. 
His experiments at the time were written up 
fully in Gleanings. These articles aroused 
so much interest that A. I. Root prevailed 
upon him to write a booklet describing his 
system. This appeared in due time, and was 
entitled " The Production of Comb Honey." 

In the meantime, Mr. Hutchinson start- 
ed The Bee-keepers^ Review. After this 
had been running a few years, during which 
time he took up special topics, the edition 
of his little book was exhausted, and he was 
prevailed upon again to write a much larger 
work, taking in not only his system for the 
production of comb honey but all these oth- 
er special-topic subjects as well. The new 
work, entitled "Advanced Bee Culture," 
appearing in 1905, was printed and illustrat- 
ed on the finest enameled book paper. The 
illustrations were all original, for the author 
had taken up photography. Some of his 
photographs are veritable works of art. 

While the work was designed for only a 
very limited class of bee-keepers, the edition 
was exhausted some months ago. Having 
a good, many calls for it I wrote to Mr. 
Hutchinson, inquiring why he could not 
get out a new edition. I received back word 
from his wife that Mr. Hutchinson was sick 
in the hospital, and had been there some 
months. After our friend had partially re- 
covered, the thought occurred to me that 
possibly I myself might be able to revise the 
book by inserting in their proper places re- 
cent editorials that had appeared in The 
Bee-keepers'' Review. As there seemed no 
immediate prospect of his early recovery, I 
wrote him suggesting that I undertake the 
work for him, saying that my somewhat ex- 
tended experience in revising and revising 
and revising again the various editions of 
the A B C and X Y Z of Bee Culture might 
qualify me for a similar work on "Advanc- 
ed Bee Culture." 

After some correspondence this was agreed 
to. The task then devolved upon me of go- 
ing over old volumes of The Bee-keepers'' 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



159 



Review since the last edition of " Advanced 
Bee Culture " had been published, selecting 
such of the editorial writings as would be 
suitable to incorporate in the new work, and 
crossing out old matter that might be in 
conflict with it. After a few evenings' work 
(for I had no other time to devote to it) I 
finally got the matter all together and turn- 
ed it over into the hands of the linotypers — 
not until, however, I had submitted to Mr. 
Hutchinson all the changes that I proposed 
making and the manner of incorporating 
the same into the work, I received a postal 
from the sick man, reading something like 
this: "I marvel at the skill of your selec- 
tion, and also your manner of joining new 
matter on to old; in fact, you have made just 
about such changes as I would have made 
had I the strength and the health to do it." 

During the years since the first edition of 
"Advanced Bee Culture" was published, 
Mr. Hutchinson has had a large experience 
in the field, especially in out-apiary work. 
He and his brother Elmer have tested many 
new devices, as well as having discovered 
some new kinks in the trade. The result of 
all these experiences was written up from 
time to time in the pages of The Bee-keep- 
ers' Review, and the task that devolved up- 
on me was to select this matter from the 
pages of The Bee-keepers' Review, and sign- 
ed articles of his that appeared in the col- 
umns of Gleanings. All these were woven 
into the main body of the work. 

Some minor changes are made all through 
the work; but we will speak of only the prin- 
cipal changes. For example, in the chapter 
entitled "Producing Good Extracted Hon- 
ey " I have incorporated editorials from The 
Bee-keepers' Review, and a portion of a 
series of articles by Mr. Hutchinson on the 
subject of " Producing Extracted Honey," 
that appeared some time ago in these pages. 
This new matter has been added to the old 
in such a way that the whole reads like one 
continuous story. The new matter deals 
with the question of extracting the honey, 
of tiering up and extracting after the har- 
vest is over, securing workers for the har- 
vest, warming up the honey, uncapping- 
barrels and tanks, with quite an extended 
description of E. D. Townsend's uncapping- 
box. The steam-heated uncapping-knives 
and power-driven extractors received their 
fair share of attention, for, in fact, the 
Hutchinson brothers tested them quite thor- 
oughly during the last three or four years 
in their northern apiaries. In fact, this 
whole chapter fairly bristles with the ex- 
perience of actual _^e^d work. 

Then we find, a little further on, an en- 
tirely new chapter on the subject of "Devel- 
oping a Mail-order Trade for Honey." This 
is nothing more nor less than a reproduc- 
tion of an article or articles that appeared 
in Gleanings over a year ago. It takes up 
the all-important question of how to sell ex- 
tracted honey, how to advertise, how to se- 
cure two or three cents above the market 
for honey in original packages. 

On page 145, under the head of "Foul 



Brood" appears a discussion of the subject 
of European foul brood and its treatment, 
especially how to cure without destroying 
either the brood or the combs. On pages 
154 and 155 is quite a little new matter un- 
der "Apiarian Exhibits at Fairs." 

The chapter on "The Rendering of Bees- 
wax " is quite extensively revised. A recent 
editorial by Mr. Hutchinson describes the 
W. J. Manley method of rendering wax. 
As this method is clear up to date in every 
particular, nearly all the old matter was 
stricken out, and the new substituted. 

Some new matter was added to the chap- 
ter of " Outdoor Wintering of Bees," and on 
page 164 we find another new chapter en- 
titled "Automatic Transferring." 

In the chapter on " The Influence of Tem- 
perature in Wintering Bees" we find some 
quite extensive revisions, taking up the spe- 
cial question of how to build bee-cellars at 
moderate cost. Here again we find the au- 
thor drawing quite extensively from his ex- 
perience in building bee-cellars in Northern 
Michigan. This one chapter, to the one 
contemplating a bee-cellar, is worth the 
price of the book many times over. 

The chapters "Fertilization of Queens in 
Confinement," "Commercial Queen-rear- 
ing," and "Ventilation of Bee-cellars" are 
omitted from the new edition, either because 
they were out of date or because they con- 
flicted with some of the author's recent ut- 
terances in The Bee-keepers' Review. 

Taking it all in all, the new edition is en- 
tirely the work of Mr. W. Z. Hutchinson. 
While I have acted in the capacity of revis- 
er I have added no word of my own except 
here and there to put in a connecting link 
in order that the old matter might join on 
smoothly to new. Taking it all in all, there 
have been added between thirty and forty 
pages of entirely new matter, and something 
like an equal number have been stricken 
out, so that the new edition will be about 
the same size as the old one; but instead of 
being sold at a price of $1.20 it will be sold 
for an even dollar, postpaid. 

As a writer on bees Mr. Hutchinson has 
few equals. For clearness of style and ac- 
curacy of judgment he is second to none. 
His enthusiasm shines forth on every page. 
His selection of the new and the useful from 
an extended discussion is intuitive. The 
last edition of "Advanced Bee Culture," as 
well as the new edition before, is made up 
of the best ideas of our best experts, proper- 
ly classified and condensed by a master of 
the art of boiling down discussions. 

I do not hesitate to say that this is one of 
the most valuable books on bees that was 
ever put out; and while its title would indi- 
cate that it is designed only for the advanc- 
ed bee-keeper, yet I am sure that a large 
number of beginners in the business will 
find it exceedingly helpful and interesting, 
especially if they will take it in connection 
with some other work like the ABC and 
X Y Z of Bee Culture, or any text-book de- 
signed especially for the beginner class. 

E. R. Root. 



160 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



Stray Straws 

By Dr. C. C. Miller, Marengo, 111. 



Mr. Editor, your idea of the bees' get-to- 
gether-in-a-ball idea, p. 136, is O. K. 

Instead of nailing up bees in the hive, 
as suggested, p. 123, it might cause less wor- 
ry to take them in the cellar. 

"May God hasten the day when good 
women shall do at least some of the voting, ' ' 
p. 117. Make it "vote same as men," Bro. 
Root, and I'm with you. 

Do BEES gnaw down entire old combs and 
rebuild, p. 88? Possibly; but if so it seems 
as if I ought to have seen some indication 
of it after keeping so many old combs all 
these yf ars. 

Friend Cavanagh, you suppose, p. 109, 
my foul brood was "treated the same sea- 
son as discovered!" If you promise not to 
tell, I'll own up to you that I discovered it 
in one hive two or three years before treat- 
ment, but thought it was poison. 

That weighing-device, p. 114. Sup- 
pose one side of a hive heavier than the 
other. Place it on the weigher with the 
heavy side toward the scales, and let it 
weigh 50 pounds. Now turn the hive with 
the light side toward the scales, and it will 
weigh more than 50 pounds. In general, 
the closer to the scales an object is placed, 
the lighter it will weigh. 

Quite right you are, Mr. Editor, in tell- 
ing C. A. Neal, p. 149, that his queen will 
spread out rather than go above; but taking 
the question just as he puts it: "Will a 
queen in a twelve-frame .Jumbo lay in the 
four outside frames, or will she go up in the 
super?" my answer would be tbat she will 
do neither. Generally the central eight 
Jumbo frames will be enough for her. 

"What's in a name? " says thic editor of 
the Irish Bee Journal ; but he seriously ob- 
jects to the long names that are now given 
to foul brood and black brood, My sym- 
pathies are with you, Bro. Digges. But I 
am told there is a kind of necessity in the 
case. Our State laws are against foul brood, 
and black brood would not come under that 
head; but American foul brood and Europe- 
an foul brood do. Well, there's no law 
against contractions; and we can say A. f. 
b. and E. f. b. 

Alin Caillas, Ij' Apicufteur, p. 464, esti- 
mates that a bee carrying .0007 oz. of honey 
at a load will make 12,632 trips to fill a sec- 
tion 4 inches square and 1 inch t lick. If it 
average 1^ of a mile to the trip, it will travel 
as much as a third of the way i round the 
world. In a colony of 120,000 be*s, if 80,000 
are fielders, and each one makes 10 trips of 
^ of a mile daily, the total travel for the 
day will be more than twice the distance to 
the moon. As flyers, the Wright brothers 
are not in it with the bees. [If a bee car- 



ried .0007 oz. of weetor it would have to make 
nearly twice 12,000 trips in order to make 
enough honey to fill a section 4 inches square 
and 1 inch thick. — Ed.] 

It's a tough job for me to make out the 
meaning of things in French journals, but 
it's a comfort to know that Frenchmen 
sometimes get things twisted that are said 
in English. In a Straw, Dec. 15, 1 spoke of 
the size of worker-cells, and then, changing 
the subject, said: " If your foundation hangs 
within yi inch of the bottom-bar, I guaran- 
tee your bees, if they are like mine, will in- 
crease that % to >4." In L'Apiculteur, p. 
75, it appears in this fashion: "Dr. Miller 
says to Mr. Root, that, if the foundation be 
enlarged by yi of an inch, he guarantees 
that his bees, like his own, will increase 
from >^ to H"! 

"If THE MAJORITY in any community 
want saloons, they can have them, as things 
are at present," page 120. That's true; but 
let's not have things continue as at present. 
A community ought to be allowed to vote 
out a thing that's wrong; but no community 
has a right to vote in a thing that's in and 
of itself wrong. In that respect the saloon 
stands solitary and alone as the only thing 
inherently wrong that people are allowed to 
vote in. Ever think of it? If a community 
were to vote in polygamy — and some com- 
munities might want to — it wouldn't be al- 
lowed for a minute. Why should it be al- 
lowed to " vote in " saloons any more than 
polygamy or stealing? 

F. B. Cavanagh, you're harping on the 
right string, page 146. AVhat we want is a 
campaign of advertising — not local, but 
national. No thirty-cent business, but 
thousands of dollars. With the right kind 
of advertising, honey should become a staple 
instead of a luxury, and should take its old 
place alongside of butter in price. If one- 
fourth as much honey were consumed as 
butter at 10 cents a pound it would total 
more than $180,000,000. If we could reach 
that amount by advertising, don't you be- 
lieve it would be a good stroke of business 
to spend one per cent of it in advertising? 
Even if we spent only one-tenth of one per 
cent it would give us the neat little sum of 
$180,000. But without speculating on fu- 
ture increase, what bee-keeper can not af- 
ford to spend for the right kind of advertis- 
ing $1.00 for every $loO his crop brings? 
Let's see what that would amount to with 
present conditions. I think Dr. Phillips 
estimates the present output at $20,000,000. 
At $1.00 for every $100 that would give us 
$200,000. We are well able to do that if Cav- 
anagh, Tyrrel, Rauchfuss, and others will 
only get us together. I'd be glad to chip in 
on that scale if it brought us only enough 
more to pay for the advertising. It would 
be worth it to know that all over the land 
every one was eating honey. Health of na- 
tion. But it wouldn't turn out that way. 
I feel sure that every dollar invested in that 
kind of advertising would]| bring back at 
least ten. Let's do it. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



161 



Bee-keeping in the South- 
west 

By LOUIS SCHOLL, New Braunfels, Texas 



ABOUT THOSE HONEY RECIPES. 

We have noticed with much interest the 
matter of honey-cooking recipes, and the 
interest that is being taken in them at the 
present time. We have wanted to mention 
this matter for some time, but we have not 
completed our work on the matter entirely 
as yet. For several years we have been at 
work on a list of real good honey-cooking 
recipes^ such as can be used as per the direc- 
tions given, without getting a lot of unfa- 
vorable results, as has been our experience 
when we tried many of the recipes that have 
been published. The trouble with them 
has been that they are very much out of 
proportion as regards the ingredients used; 
and the result is, that the much-expected 
honey cake or cooky does not come up to 
any thing like the great expectation that 
most persons haveabout a honey cooked ar- 
ticle. This is wrong; and, instead of creat- 
ing a greater demand for honey for cooking 
purposes, the very opposite is likely to take 
place. 

This fact came to our notice very strongly 
since our exhibitions of more than thirty 
different varieties of cakes and cookies at 
the various fairs for several years. Our ex- 
hibits have attracted much attention, and 
the demand for recipes grew, but we were 
not aole to furnish them, as we did not have 
them jorinted. One year we distributed sev- 
eral thousand honey-cooking leaflets at the 
fairs. That was before we exhibited very 
many honey cakes. Later we found that 
the recipes were not reliable, and that it was 
neceahary in almost every case to change 
the quantities given, or something else. 
When we returned to the fairs the next year 
we learned from a large number that they 
had not been able to get the results that we 
had from the recipes received from us, and 
we have not made use of any more of the 
leaflets, just for that reason. 

Now we are making an entirely new list 
of all the various cakes and cookies teste 1. 
Of course, it will be undei stood ihat we are 
not condemning all the recipes; but there 
are so many of them that we have failed 
with that the entire list ought to be revised, 
even if some of them give good results. 
And, again, it must be remembered that 
"many cuoks spoil the pie," and this may 
be one reahon to which some of the failures 
may be attributed. In the meantime let us 
have all the good recipt s in which hone\ is 
used more or less; and if any of them netd 
trying before they are in such shape that 
every good housewife can u>e them without 
getting bad results, why — well, somebody 
will have to try them out. [We agree with 
you; and for this rtason we decided from 
the very start to accept no one's word for 
any thing. The trouble is, that the orig- 



inator of a recipe often fails to mention 
some little important detail, and the result 
is failure. But this is also true with recipes 
of any kind. — Ed.] 

BREEDING LARGER BEES. 

The more we study this question the more 
we wonder if it may not be possible. We 
need only consider for a moment the great 
work done in improving all kinds of ani- 
mals, improving not only certain qualities, 
but increasing the size materially. It takes 
many generations before some of the final 
results are obtained; but we have the proof 
that all this is possible by proper selection 
and breeding, and the proper care and feed- 
ing has something to do with it also. The 
question is, how to proceed with the im- 
provement of the honey-bee to accomplish 
similar results. And then the question 
arises as to what would be the advantages 
of the larger bees. This is work for the ex- 
periment stations. 

Whether an increase in the size of the cell 
in which the bee is reared would have any 
bearing on the matter could, perhaps, be ob- 
served by careful experimentation carried 
on for a number of years and through many 
generations of the bees selected for the test. 
Not only this, but several strains of bees 
should be tried — each under various condi- 
tions, since all these factors may have some 
important influence. 

We have noticed in our observations that 
a great difference in the size of the workers 
of different colonies does exist. The prog- 
eny of a fine queen may show extraordinary 
size, while that of another queen may be re- 
markably small. After investigating more 
closely we have come to the conclusion that 
there are at least two reasons for the smaller 
size of the workers in various colonies: First, 
the naturally small size due to the queen 
alone; second, the decreased size of the 
worker-cells of old combs in which many 
generations of bees have developed. Such 
observations can be made in a neglected or 
" run-down " lot of bees where the old combs 
have been left undisturbed for years, the 
brood-nest being confined to the same area. 
In this case the size of the cells should make 
a difference. On the other hand, the de- 
terioration in the quality of the queens in 
such a neglected condition is the main 
cause of the smaller- sizetl workers. 

We have, therefore, two factors which ac- 
count for a decrease in the size of the work- 
ers, so why may not other factors have 
some infiuence toward an increase in the 
size of the worker bees? 

We grant that the use of larger worker 
cells in a haphazard way will not bring any 
certain results. Neither can we expect that 
the size of the worker bees can be increased 
by the most careful breeding by selectioii or 
otherwise without resorting to somethiiig 
larger than the regular-sized woiker-cells in 
which to rear them. But we have some 
faith in breeding tor larger size by careful 
selection in connection with a gradual in- 
crease in the size of the worker-cells. 



162 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 15 



Sittings 

By J. E. Crane, Middlebury, Vt. 



The best and most concise statements on 
indoor wintering we have ever found are on 
page 779, Dec. 15. 

The advice of Wesley Foster, page 6, on 
"jumping the price to large buyers," is first 
rate and worthy the attention of those who 
do so. 

On page 4 Dr. Miller again expresses his 
conviction of the value of breeding for a 
non-swarming strain of bees. Footnote 
says, "Good for you! Vf^ gxdkXit something 
can be accomplished." I say, good for you, 
Mr. Editor. 

I don't agree with you, Mr. Editor, when 
you say, p. 772, Dec. 1, that propolis could 
not be furnished for less than $5.00 per lb. 
with which to make varnish. I should 
have been glad to receive ten cents a pound 
for some forty or fifty pounds the past sea- 
son when we were through cleaning sec- 
tions. 

It is interesting to know approximately 
that it takes 37,333 bee loads of honey to 
make a pound of honey. This means more 
than a million flowers visited. It might be 
well to remember this as we complacently 
spread our bread or buckwheat cakes with 
honey these cold mornings, and boast of our 
success as bee-keepers. 
-*- 

I was much interested in M. A. Gill's 
statement, p. 771, Dec. 1, that the average 
yield of sugar from beet as grown in Colo- 
rado is about 16 per cent. It is just one hun- 
dred years since Germany commenced the 
manufacture of sugar from beets, when the 
sugar content was less than 7 per cent. See 
what can be done by careful breeding and 
selection. 

I was much interested in the editorial, p. 
745, Dec. 1, 1910, on the value of corrugated 
paper on the bottom of wooden cases, as 
compared with no-drip cleats. I felt sure of 
its value when I recommended its use four 
years ago, and it is quite right to advise 
those who have cases with drip cleats in 
them to rip them out and substitute corru- 
gated paper. 

4>- 

On p. 46 Mr. Gately tells us of the value 
of foundation in securing surplus section 
honey, estimating the gain at from five to 
twenty-five per cent. If we call it fifteen 
per cent (and my own experience would 
place this estimate as conservative) on a 
crop of fifty pounds per hive, it would make 
lyi pounds, which, at 14 cts., would be $1.05; 
and if we take out 25 cents for the value of 



the full sheets of foundation we still have 
80 cts. per hive as above, where starters are 
used, to say nothing of the improved ap- 
pearance of the sections. 

On page 777, Dec. 15, the editor gives 
some vigorous blows against "our antiquat- 
ed methods of shipping comb honey." 
Good! lay it on till all know the value of 
cushioning every case. I have sometimes 
thought I was saying quite too much in 
praise of corrugated cases where every comb 
was cushioned by two or three thicknesses 
of this paper; but the more we use them the 
better pleased we are. 

Mr. Doolittle's advice on books for begin- 
ners, p. 36, is good, and I believe he is quite 
right when he places the ABC and X Y Z 
at the head of the list. And then he tells 
us how he used and "swore" for thirty-five 
years by the Gallup frame. I am glad he 
doesn't swear by that frame any more, but 
uses a good standard Langstroth instead; 
but for all this we shall always hold that 
little square frame in grateful remembrance 
as we recall the wonderful lessons in the 
principles of bee keeping that father Gallup 
gave us, using that same frame to illustrate 
his ideas. 

I believe the editor is quite right in think- 
ing that the explosion of beeswax was caused 
by steam; and quite right is the advice to 
introduce water before the wax is melted. 
Better still, to my mind, would be to melt 
in a double boiler. If wax or combs are 
melted in water, great care should be taken 
not to let it get too hot, for, as sure as you 
do, it will boil over, when it will at once 
burst into flame as soon as it strikes the hot 
stove. I have twice come near serious loss 
from this cause. When making wax, it is 
never safe, when melting up over a stove, 
to leave the room when the water and wax 
are near the boiling-point. 

"Candied comb honey — what shall we do 
with it? " p. 29. I'll tell you what I do with 
it. Get it all together with any cappings 
with honey in them, and put in a double 
boiler or capping-melter, and heat just hot 
enough to separate the wax from the hon- 
ey; and then if the honey is not good 
enough to sell for table use, keep till I need 
it to feed, which is not, usually, a great 
while. Every pound of such honey fed in 
spring where needed will doubtless result in 
two pounds of new honey more than the 
colony would have produced if it had not 
been fed. Capping-melters are useful for 
this purpose. 

4t' 

Evidently D. M. Macdonald doesn't be- 
lieve in sealed covers, for he says, p. 9, that 
"The nearer you go to hermetically sealing 
up the body under a piess of heavy cov- 
erings, the nearer you go to defeating the 
very end you are striving to attain. The 
body becomes bathed in perspiration, and 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



16» 



discomfort follows. Bees breathe all over 
their bodies; and if their primary and sec- 
ondary organs can not get full play they 
are not wintering under favorable circum- 
stances." Well, he is well north of the fif- 
ty-fifth parallel, and sees the value of sift- 
ing out the moisture and retaining just the 
heat. 

On page 748, Dec. 1, nearly a column is 
taken up in discussing the non-swarming 
race of bees. May I inquire what is meant 
by a non-swarming race of bees? Are we 
sure we understand each other when this 
term is used? Do we mean a race, breed, 
or strain of bees that will, under normal 
conditions, but rarely swarm— say not more 
than from one to four or five per cent annu- 
ally? or do we mean a strain that will never 
swarm under any conditions whatever? If 
the latter is meant, and the same test is ap- 
plied to non-sitting breeds of fowls, can we 
say we have any non-sitting breeds of fowls? 

On page 32 Dr. Miller wonders why Mr. 
Latham's honey should not granulate like 
other folks' honey. I think I can see a 
twinkle in his eye as he reads the editor's 
comments, and saying to himself, "Simple 
enough if you only know how." Mr. La- 
tham teaches science in the schools of Nor- 
wich, and practices it when he is at work 
with his bees, and performs some stunts 
with his bees and honey that would surprise 
some bee-keepers older than himself. For 
instance, he wintered some thirty or forty 
nucleus colonies last winter in an out-build- 
ing, without the loss of a single colony, and 
an average consumption of only \% lbs. of 
honey per colony. 

I do not think Doolittle is wise in advis- 
ing what is practically a hexagonal plan of 
apiary, see page 783, Dec. 15, unless there 
are a good many shrubs and trees. I have 
tried two such, and gave them both up aft- 
er a trial as impractical. The loss of young 
queens and even full colonies was too great. 
No way suits me so well as to have the hives 
in groups of ten, two facing north, three 
east, two south, and three west. Where there 
is much wind, say from the north or west, 
face those on that side the same as on the 
opposite side, when the bees will fly through 
the center of the group. Wind is very bad 
for bees, especially when wintered out of 
doors. 

I suppose nearly or quite three-fourths of 
the honey from Vermont has gone to mar- 
ket this year in paper cases, and there 
would have been a still larger proportion 
had not bee-keepers had on hand a supply 
of wooden cases. While we believe these 
eases are better or safer so far as breakage is 
concerned, yet we find that even they are not 
"fool-proof;" and where honey is shipped 
long distances in small lots, and likely to 
be changed from one car to another, it is de- 
sirable to crate them with a layer of straw 



or excelsior on the bottom, "Now, then, 
will the bee-keepers of this day and age 
wake up and put their honey in more up- 
to-date cases? " as you say, page 778. 

Wesley Foster, p. 750, Dec. 1, says labels 
on cases of comb honey should be six by 
eight inches, and the words "Fragile! Han- 
dle with care, this side up," printed in red 
ink. Now, this is all right; but I like a red 
or yellow paper with print in black quite as 
well. He says, further, that honey in 60- 
Ib. cans should have the cases bound with 
strap iron if the honey is liquid, and he is 
right. I wish some of those Western bee- 
keepers could see some of their cases of 
honey when they reach us here in the East. 
It would do their souls good, or ought to. 
Keep on hammering, my brother. 

On page 782, Mr. Scholl still talks "bulk 
comb honey." I wish he would tell us how 
we are to market, say, 25,000 lbs. of comb 
honey and 10,000 lbs. of extracted, with 
markets from thirty to two hundred miles 
away. The bulk of honey is consumed this 
way in cool weather. If we cut our combs 
into chunks and fill with extracted honey, 
say in September, it will be all solid in a 
month's time. If we wait till later, the ex- 
tracted will get solid before pouring it over 
the combs. If melted and poured on them 
it is likely to get solid again before it reach- 
es the consumer. Besides, honey-consum- 
ers hereabout are somewhat like the board- 
er who found hairs in his butter, and told 
his landlady that he did not object to hairs, 
but preferred to have his hairs and butter 
served on a separate dish. So our honey- 
consumers seem to prefer to have their 
comb and extracted honey served in a sep- 
arate dish. 

At a recent meeting of the Vermont bee- 
keepers, Mr. Terry, president of the Ver- 
mont Horticultural Society, gave us a fine 
address on the value of bees in the apple- 
orchards of Vermont. Among other things 
he said that in Grand Isle Co., where are 
located some of the best orchards of the 
State, the orchards all blossomed profusely 
last spring, while only a part of them pro- 
duced large crops of fruit. He said further, 
that he and another party examined every 
orchard with great care to discover, if possi- 
ble, the cause of failure in some to produce 
as heavily as the others. The results of ex- 
aminations showed in every instance that, 
where there were failures to produce abun- 
dantly, there were no bees, or too few to be 
of much use, and, further, that where a 
good supply of bees was kept, there was in 
every instance a large apple crop. A few 
orchards produced heavily where there were 
no bees kept in the immediate vicinity. 
This puzzled them as to the cause until it 
was discovered that every orchard produc- 
ing heavily where no bees were kept was in 
the immediate vicinity of heavy forests 
where wild bees could do the work. 



164 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



Bee-keeping in Southern 
California 

By Mks. H. G. Acklin, Glendoea, Cal. 



Mr. G. M. Gress, formerly of Minnesota, 
but now of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., who is 
spending the winter in Pasadena, reports a 
very good yield of comb honey from yellow 
sweet clover last season. The seed of this 
clover was sown by a bee-man of Sioux 
Falls. Would it not be a wise move for our 
bee-keepers to do likewise — especially near 
the coast, where moisture is almost sure 
during the entire year? 

I note that Redlands has been selected by 
the manager of a moving-picture company 
as an ideal place to get the "real spirit of 
the west " views. Thirty people are to pose, 
etc., in canyons, preferably Santa Ana and 
San Timoteo. I was wondering if there 
would not be more of the "real spirit of 
moving" than is generally shown in pic- 
tures if that troup were to get banked up 
against some of the big apiaries located in 
those canyons. 

Cooperation! What does it really mean? 
and why is it more difficult to secure it in 
the honey business than in all other indus- 
tries? I live in an orange section — orange- 
groves north, south, east, and west. Now, 
if some of the "little " growers, like myself, 
for instance, should get in a hurry for mon- 
ey, and sell their crops to outside parties for 
less than the association can get, I wonder 
what would happen. That seems to be the 
greatest stumbling-block to organization 
among bee-keepers. Orange-growers work 
on the mutual plan. In fact, the growers 
own the association. At the annual meet- 
ing they elect the men they want to carry 
on the business for them the coming year. 
Expense is shared, and profits divided. The 
grading rules are established on a firm basis. 
The people at the packing-houses attend to 
that. Any stockholder can make investi- 
gation if affairs are not run to suit him. I 
think everybody around here belongs to an 
association. Of course, right here the hon- 
ey business is not as extensive as the orange 
industry; but there are apiaries located all 
along the foot-hills. But there was a time, 
also, when the orange industry was not as 
extensive as at present; but the growers 
were organized just the same. Why can 
not the honey-producers do the same thing? 

In listening to discussions on this subject 
at conventions one is thoroughly convinced 
that cooperation is what bee-keepers now 
most earnestly desire. In union there is 
strength. A demand coming from an asso- 
ciation has more weight than when coming 
from a committee. If banded together like 
some of the other industries, bee-keepers 
could demand certain laws, and eventually 
get something near what they wanted. 



There are many ways in which the 
bee industry could be benefited. We need 
a State foul-brood law; and the office of in- 
spector of apiaries should be given to a man 
fitted for the place instead of a man chosen 
on account of his political affiliations. And 
his deputies should be chosen along the 
same broad lines. We also need an iron- 
clad State law against adulteration of hon- 
ey. And when those laws are enacted, men 
should be elected to office who will see that 
they are enforced. All this could be accom- 
plished if bee-keepers were a unit. 

How can bee keepers become a unit? I 
see no way except through organization and 
cooperation. Drop all minor matttrs and 
work with an earnest determina'ion for the 
one great object — complete organization. 
It matters not if one man gets his foundation 
at one place and another one section boxes 
somewhere else; it i's not necessary for the 
organization to be a supply depot. The one 
great object should be to control the sale of 
honey. If some bee-keeper must have mon- 
ey at once, let the organization buy his hon- 
ey. I know I am getting into troubled wa- 
ters in making the above statement; but 
will some one please propose a better plan? 
Right there seems to be the greatest (ib- 
struction to organization. But how did 
these other mutual associations get started 
that are now on so firm a basis? It is 
more difficult to grade honey than oranges, 
and more opportunity for unfairness exists; 
but we must not be overcome by these ob- 
stacles. Disinterested parties should have 
charge of these matters. Bee-keepers will 
never come into their own till these prob- 
lems are fairly and squarely met and con- 
quered. And, as in all other great reforms, 
agitation is the only way in which to get 
parties most interested to considering and 
planning the best method of procedure. 



Another Colony that Deserted a Hive Full of 
Honey in the Fall. 

A Mrs. Byron, of this place, told me of a swarm 
deserting a hive, the same as Wm. Shields reports, 
p. 51, Jan. 15. The honey-flow stopped about Sept. 
15, and on the last of October the bees were there. 
By the middle of November the bees were all gone. 
She had left the upper hive on, as she had lost bees 
the winter before for lack of food. There was over 
80 lbs. of sealed honey in the hive; no dead bees in 
it. It was a large swarm. They took possession of 
the hive in June, and had done well. I saw them 
in September, and they were above the average. I 
thought she must be mistaken about their leaving, 
but she is positive. 

Ignacio, Col., Jan. 24. A. I. Mills. 



Bee-keeping in Louisiana 

W^hy Is it that we hear so little from Louisiana? 
It is a natural bee country, and bees are now, Jan. 
15, working as though it were summer, bringing in 
any amount of pollen and some honey. White clo- 
ver is coming out fine. It generally blossoms In 
February. I expect to run three small yards this 
season, and shall have about 100 colonies at the 
home yard. 

We can produce the honey here, but we have no 
near market. I am expecting to ship to Chicago, 
but I wish I could sell nearer home. 

There are a good many colonies here in barrels, 
boxes, and hollow logs, and the owners never hear 
any thing about a standard hive or a bee-book. 

Hamburg, La. b\ M. Morgan. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



165 



Conversations with 
Doolittle 



At Borodiuo 



HOW TO TAKE CARE OF COMBS AFTER BEES 
HAVE DIED. 

It looks as if I should lose some of my colonies be- 
fore the honey season opens. As I am anxious to 
keep the same number, and perhaps increase some- 
what, please tell me how to care for the combs and 
hives so that they will be suitable to stock up with 
again, either by hiving swarms or making colonies 
by dividing, etc. 

If these hives and sets of combs are prop- 
erly taken care of they can be used again. 
Many seem to think that, because the combs 
are somewhat mokly or spotted, they should 
be thrown away or melted up, and the hive 
scalded out or destroyed; but years of expe- 
rience shows me that, with the loss of any 
colony during the winter, we have not suf- 
fered so great a loss as the first thought 
would indicate. If we do not lose more 
than one-third of the colonies, the loss is 
little more than the honey that these bees 
have consumed; for, with the remaining 
two-thirds of the colonies left, we can soon 
be back to where we were before, if the combs 
and hives are properly cared for. 

The combs should be attended to in the 
early spring, before the weather becomes 
warm, otherwise they wall become foul. 

Of course, the bees will clean up very of- 
fensive combs; but by a little work on our 
part we can keep them in fairly good condi- 
tion. The best way to store such combs is 
on long racks made of 2x6-inch scantlings, 
12 ft. long, nailed on the under side of the 
roof of the store-room, the right distance 
apart so that the frames can hang on them 
as though they were in hives. By nailing 
these the right distance apart, after the first 
two are up, it takes only one more scantling 
for each row of combs. I formerly used inch 
stuff; but when these 12-foot spaces were 
filled with combs, many of which contained 
considerable honey, the supports w^ere not 
stiff enough to hold rigidly without spring- 
ing out of place under the weight, when the 
ends of the top-bars would slip off. More- 
over, with several rows of combs the top- 
bars of 1 he frames would have to rest one 
on top of another if supports one inch thick 
were used. 

These long supports are much preferable 
to hive-bodies for holding the combs, as the 
air can circulate all through them, and any 
combs may be selected, and those empty or 
containing honey can be seen at a glance. 
Even if we never lose any colonies during 
the winter the idea is a good one, as the 
racks are so handy for storing extracting- 
combs or any combs which, for one reason 
and another, are not in use. However, if 
any one thinks otherwise the hives can be 
used. When any colony is found dead, car- 
ry the hive to the room, open it, take out 
the first comb, and, with a stiff brush-broom, 
sweep off all of the adhering bees and scrape 



o(T all brace and burr combs from the top- 
bar and then it is ready to hang in the rack 
overhead. 

For scraping frames and hives at a time 
when the wax and propolis are hard and 
brittle, I know of nothing better than an 
old chisel, the square corners being just 
right for all flat surfaces, and the cutting 
edge for cleaning out the rabbets on which 
the frames hang. After all the combs in 
the hives have been treated like the first 
one, scrape the empty hive to free it from 
burr and brace combs, knobs of propolis, or 
any thing else that w-ould interfere with the 
easy handling of the frames of combs in the 
future. Especial attention should be given 
to both sides and bottoms of the rabbets. 
In storing away the clean combs they should 
not be pushed together as close as they 
would be in the hive, as the close spacing is 
a great inducement for the wax-moths, while 
the abundance of light furnished by the 
wide spacing keeps them aw^ay. Besides 
this, the wider spacing gives better circula- 
tion of air, and allows the combs to dry out 
at once— thus keeping them sweet and 
clean. 

The hives I would store in an attic, piling 
them criss-cross, so the air may circulate 
through them; then by the time they are 
wanted, there will be no offensive odor, 
dampness, nor any thing of the kind about 
them. 

It is well to make an examination as 
swarming time approaches, especially if the 
weather is very warm; for the wax-moths 
are always on the alert, and if the room 
where the combs are stored is dark, these 
insects may start to work sooner than we 
expect. My storage room has three win- 
dows, which makes it nearly as light as 
though the combs were out in the sun; and 
by keeping each comb an inch or so from 
the other, I have very little trouble. I am 
careful to use those combs first which show 
any indication of the moths, so there is nev- 
er much damage done. 

During a good yield of honey from fruit- 
bloom, any especially dirty combs may be 
cleaned up by removing one or two frames 
of honey from each strong colony and put- 
ting these dirty combs in their places. I 
am referring now to very moldy combs, 
those having dead bees packed in the cells, 
moldy pollen, etc. These should all have 
been kept by themselves. Such combs 
placed in strong colonies during fruit-bloom 
will be cleaned and transformed within 
forty-eight hours so that they can hardly be 
told from the best in the apiary. 



Eight and Ten Frame Hives. 

I have 23 colonies, 14 in eight-frame hives and 9 In 
the ten-frame, and find that the latter are by far the 
best. My strongest colonies are always in the ten- 
frame hives, and they make more honey than those 
in the eight-frame. Besides this, the colonies in the 
ten-frame winter better, and are stronger in the 
spring. After this I shall have ten-frame hives 
only, and the Hofifman frame is good enough for 
me. 

Chickasha, Okla. J, H, Flippo. 



166 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



General Correspondence 



THE ANATOMY OF THE HONEY-BEE, 



Many of the Accepted Facts Shown to be Fallacies. 



BY R. E. SNODGBASS. 



Whafs the use of knowing so much, xvhen so much 
vouknow ain't so?— JosH Billings. 

For more than three centuries the honey- 
bee has been the innocent victim of the 
grossest kind of anatomical misrepresenta- 
tion. No other insect has suffered so at the 
hands of unskilled dissectors, no other has 
been so maligned by unscrupulous artists. 
After looking over the great mass of publish- 
ed accounts and drawings purported by their 
authors or copiers to illustrate the structure 
of the honey-bee, and after comparing these 
with the actual parts of the bee itself, the 
writer here takes the occasion of assuring 
the bee-keeping public or any suspecting 
entomologist that the bee is not nearly so 
bad as it has been painted. The detailed 
results of this investigation have been 
published as a bulletin from the office of 
apiculture, of the Bureau of Entomology, of 
the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture (Technical Series No. 18) . While full 
credit must be given to those authors of con- 
scientious work who have described and fig- 
ured what they saw, even though they did 
not see rightly, we can not condone the 
practice common among many writers on 
bees of making full descriptions, and espe- 
cially complete pictures of things they saw 
only in part. While, perhaps, few writers 
have actually put into words descriptions 
of organs and structures they had not seen, 
few, on the other hand, have hesitated at 
publishing pictures of things they never 
saw clearly, or at filling in elaborate details 
from their imaginations. This attitude is 
hard to explain; for why is it not just as rep- 
rehensible to publish a drawing that de- 
picts for facts things that were never seen 
as it is to describe for truth what one never 
saw? 

When Swammerdam wrote about bees, 
away back in the seventeenth century, and 
drew pictures of their anatomy, he probably 
did the best he knew how to do or could do 
in his time and circumstances. But we can 
not see any excuse for some of the gross in- 
accuracies made by writers during the last 
fifty years, some of whose productions are 
so far from the truth that a mere mistake of 
observation could never account for them. 
For example, Samuelson and Hicks (The 
Honey-bee, 1860) represent the mandible of 
the worker as having a row of seven teeth 
on its cutting edge! Girdwoyn (Anatomic 
et physiologic de I'abeille, 1876) and Girard 
(Les abeilles, 1878) are responsible for some 
of the worst, and, at the same time, some of 
the most widely spread examples of ana- 



tomical absurdities in pictures. The former 
wrote a pretentious memoir on the anatomy 
and physiology of the bee, accompanied by 
twelve large plates which received two med- J 
als at the time in Austria. This is the source I 
of the much copied illustration of the res- 
piratory system (see The Honey-bee, 1904, 
Fig. 27). Some of Girard 's drawings are « 
probably the crudest ever published in in- 
sect anatomy. In his book we find the orig- 
inal of that common picture of the bee's 
heart, which represents the latter as p pale 
band extending through the middle of a 
black field supposed to have the outlines of 
a bee's body (see The Honey-bee, Fig. 28) . 
This is too ridiculous to deserve comment. 
It is safe to assume that the artist never saw 
the dorsal vessel of a bee. Girard's illustra- 
tion of the sting is a design with absolutely 
no anatomical meaning, and is physiologi- 
cally impossible. His pictures of the male 
and female reproductive organs, while crude, 
are better than some of the others, and are 
evidently taken from Clerici (L'Ape sua 
anatomia — suoi nemici, 1875) . 

To Leuckart we are indebted for several 
very instructive pictures of the interior of 
the bee. His combination drawing of the 
alimentary canal, the respiratory system, 
and the nervous system has been very wide- 
ly copied. (See Lang's Text-book of Com- 
parative Anatomy, Fig. 320; Packard's Text- 
book of Entomology, Fig. 426; Root's A B 
C and X Y Z of Bee Culture, page 11; Cow- 
an, The Honey-bee, frontispiece; Cook, Bees 
and Bee-keeping, Fig. 27. Cowan copies a 
modification of the drawings from Witzgall, 
while Cook makes a modification from 
Cowan.) The picture, as just stated, is in- 
structive in a general way; but the shape of 
the air-sacs and the disposition of the tra- 
cheal tubes are nothing like these organs in 
the bee itself. 

The popularizing of any subject in science 
has always been a difficult task because the 
public wants something interesting to read, 
and the bare facts in most cases can not be 
made into entertaining literature; while, on 
the other hand, an embellishment of these 
facts by additions from the writer's fancy is 
not science. Of all the books written on the 
bee, there is no doubt that the first volume 
of Cheshire's Bees and Bee-keeping (1886) 
has done more than any other to popularize 
the subject of bee anatomy. But there is 
also no doubt that Cheshire was careless in 
his observation of details, and that he did 
not appreciate the true value of evidence. 
Therefore he was prone to build up theories 
on altogether too small a basis of fact. His 
work, however, is probably the most readable 
and the most read of all descriptions of in- 
sect anatomy. His pictures are good from 
an artistic standpoint, are intelligible, and 
have been widely copied even into purely 
scientific texts. Yet it will be evident to 
any one who carefully examines the internal 
organs of the bee in nature that Cheshire 
made little effort to reproduce faithfully the 
exact shapes of the organs and their parts. 
A scientific picture depends for effect upon 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



167 



detail. This, Cheshire's illustrations have, 
but in far too many cases it is an artificial 
detail. 

When a practical bee-keeper writes a book 
about bees, dealing principally with the 
methods of manipulation, he can not be ex- 
pected to include any thing original on the 
subject of anatomy, and he would make a 
great mistake in attempting it. Hence we 
pass over the host of such writers who have 
taken their anatomical information from 
those who have pretended to make a special 
study of this subject, and who have credited 
their illustrations to the proper sources. 
But we can not understand how a professed 
scientist can write a book on the struc- 
ture of the bee, and illustrate it with so 
many ridiculous drawings as occur to-day 
in one of the most popular works on the 
subject. It would not be so bad if the au- 
thor did not pretend to have made a per- 
sonal study of anatomy; but since we have 
reason to suppose that the author had at 
least looked inside of a bee, how then are 
we to explain his use of many drawings 
that give no conception of what the parts 
look like? 

Let us examine a few of the figures found 
in this book. First is Witzgall's modifica- 
tion of Leuckart's combination drawing of 
the alimentary canal and the tracheal and 
nervous systems, on a black background. 
It may be enough to show two cylindrical 
air-sacs on each side and a number of tubes 
going off from these in the abdomen through 
the thorax and into the legs, and call it the 
tracheal system; but any one who has ever 
looked into a bee knows that the air-sacs do 
not have any thing like the shape shown in 
this picture, while a careful examination 
shows that the tracheal tubes are altogether 
different. Again we find an original drawing 
to illustrate the mouth-parts. The idea prob- 
ably was to simplify the facts for the sake 
of "the student," for there are several draw- 
ings extant that might have been used 
showing these organs pretty much as they 
are in the bee. On another page we find Gird- 
woyn's illustration of the "aerating system." 
The artist maybe credited with having seen 
two air-sacs in the abdomen, but he certain- 
ly did not see any thing else that he drew. 
However, the original author may not have 
known better; but we wonder how "the 
students" are reconciled to the absolute 
nonconformity between this picture of the 
tracheal system and that shown else- 
where. In another place we come to that 
masterpiece by Girard which shows the 
heart of the bee as a tube running straight 
through the body, and having swellings in 
the abdomen, thorax, and head. As a rep- 
resentation of the dorsal vessel of the bee 
this is an absurdity; but it is evident that it 
is intended for such by the black silhouette 
of a bee's body in which it lies. Now, how 
can an entomologist use a picture that rep- 
resents the heart of any insect as widest in 
the thorax, and that depicts it as having 
two chambers in this region and one in the 
head? The statement in the text, that 



"there are five ventricles," adds nothing 
that conteracts the falseness of the drawing. 
There is shown an original drawing of the 
sting and its larger poison-gland. Here, 
again, details are very greatly simplified, 
and things are shown as they do not appear 
in nature. Further along, we find Girard 's 
picture of the male reproductive organs, 
probably taken from Clerici. There may be 
something present in this figure to represent 
most of the parts present in nature, but 
they certainly have no such appearance in 
the natural condition. 

The wording of a text may be such that, 
while it gives little or no information, it at 
the same time avoids saying any thing that 
is untrue. On the other hand, in a picture 
every line drawn says something; and in a 
book purporting to give scientific informa- 
tion the drawings should tell the truth or 
else not be used. 

The writer hopes that, after this brief re- 
view, the reader may be impressed with 
some doubt of the value of many publishsd 
works on bee anatomy. On the other hand, 
many very excellent contributions to the 
subject have been made by scientific work- 
ers; but these do not come so often to the 
knowledge of bee-keepers. Such works are 
discussed and given full credit in the bulle- 
tin above referred to. 

A secondary object of this investigation 
is to point out the limits of our actual knowl- 
edge concerning many of the common func- 
tions of the bee. In almost all cases the 
evidence is insufficient to warrant the ac- 
ceptance of any particular theory or preva- 
lent opinion. For example, nothing is yet 
really known about the process of digestion. 
Honey and pollen, which constitute the 
food of adult bees, are ordinarily supposed to 
be digested and even absorbed in the stom- 
ach. Cheshire says, " the chyle stomach is 
lined by an intima, or inner membrane, 
carrying a cell layer, the cells composing 
which appear to be of two kinds, having dis- 
tinct functions, one secreting a digestive 
fluid (gastric juice) from the surrounding 
blood into the stomach, so that the contents 
of the pollen grains may be made fit for as- 
similation by a transformation not unlike 
that liquefying gluten in our own case; the 
other absorbing the nutrition as prepared, 
and giving it up to the blood — these cells 
representing the absorbent vessels of our- 
selves and higher animals generally." It 
scarcely needs to be pointed out that all this 
description is, most evidently, made up out 
of the writer's imagination. No kind of 
evidence is offered as proof, and the state- 
ment is a very fair sample of a great many 
of Cheshire's lucid explanations. They 
sound like descriptions of real facts, just as 
his drawings look like portrayals of real 
things. The present writer has found, from 
the examination of the contents of many 
stomachs, that there is much reason to 
doubt that either digestion or absorption of 
pollen takes place in the stomach. Honey 
and nectar may be absorbed from this organ, 
but the pollen certainly appears to be digest- 



168 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



ed in the small or even also in the large in- 
testine. 

This subject of digestion leads to a discus- 
sion of the origin of brood food, concerning 
which writers on bee physiology are divided 
into two classes — one holding that this sub- 
stance is produced in certain large glands 
situated within the head of the workers, the 
other claiming that it is formed in the stom- 
ach, and is simply regurgitated "chyle." 
On each side there seems to be evidence 
contradictory of the opposite view. In the 
first place, the mouth of the stomach is so 
constructed that regurgitation of its contents 
looks impossible; yet Schonfeld claims to 
have produced regurgitation by artiticial 
stimulation of the stomach. The contents of 
the stomachs of bees examined by the writer, 
however, show no resemblance to the brood 
food or to royal jelly, being a dark brown 
mucilaginous slime containing pollen 
grains. On the other hand, Cowan jjoints 
out that the work of Planta, showing that 
there is a constant difiference in the food of 
the various forms of the brood at different 
stages, indicates that the substance is not 
produced by glands. Cheshire, after ad- 
vancing his arguments in favor of the glan- 
dular origin, ends with the statement that 
"the naturalist will, in delight, realize that 
his bee is more a wonder of wonders than 
he had before imagined." But the days of 
delight in imagination are over, and we need 
some hard investigation of all the facts bear- 
ing on the subject before we can have any 
opinion worth having on the origin of the 
brood food and royal jelly. 

Another of the "w^onders of nature" usu- 
ally pointed out in the bee is the so-called 
stomach-mouth, suppt sed to be for the pur- 
pose of taking the pollen from the nectar 
within the honey-stomach. Again looking 
to Cheshire we get the information that, 
"while the little gatherer is flying from 
flower to flower, her stomach-mouth is busy 
in separating pollen from nectar." This is 
a very pretty sentiment, but the author 
does not give us sufficient evidence as to 
how such hidden secrets were revealed to 
him. It is hardly enough to catch a bee in 
the field, cut it open, and see the stomach- 
mouth working, lor it does this on any oc- 
casion when dissected from a freshly killed 
bee, whether there is pollen in the honey- 
sac or not. To the writer it seems much 
more probable that the stomach-mouth is 
simply an organ for passing any kind of 
food from the honey-stomach to the true 
stomach, comparable with the similar organ 
possessed by other insects, rather than a 
special structure of the bee for separating 
pollen from nectar. 

These are but a few of the problems di- 
rectly suggested by a study of the anatomy 
of the bee. A thorough knowledge of anat- 
omy is, of course, fundamental to a study 
of physiology, and a knowledge of physiol- 
ogy is again most essential in the investi- 
gation of all forms of diseases — a subject of 
vital importance to all bee-keepers. If we 
add to these subjects a study of the senses 



of the bee, its behavior, and its place in na- 
ture, the field for future work enlarges with- 
out limit, and the student realizes that a 
lifetime might be spent in exploiting this 
small insect. Since, however, all of us seem 
to prefer to do several things in a lifetime, 
it is evident that it will require several in- 
vestigators to find out yet all there is to 
know about this already much studied 
creature, the honey-bee. 
Washington, D. C. 



A STANDARD HIVE. 



The Ten-frame Hive Used in New Zealand Ex- 
clusively. 



BY I. HOPKINS. 



I was much pleased, Mr. Editor, in noting 
your remarks on this subject in your issue 
for Nov. 15, and quite agree with you as to 
the great advantages that would result to 
bee-keeping in your country could a stan- 
dard hive be adopted. There has been suf- 
ficient time to test the various forms of frame 
hives that have been in use since Langstroth 
gave us his, and I don't think there would 
be any difficulty, at the present time, in de- 
ciding which is the most convenient and 
best. The advantages of having one form 
of hive in use are so many and so gnat that 
I think it folly not to use every endeavor to 
bring so desirable a condition about. It is _ 
a national and an urgent question, and ■ 
therefore comes, properly within the scope 1 
of your National Bee-keepers' Association, 
which, in my opinion, is the right party to 
deal with it. 

You, Mr. Editor, are not altogether blame- 
less for the present condition of things as I 
see them. It seems to me that you have 
been too ready to publish illustrated articles 
on so-called improvements from inexperi- 
enced contributors which were any thing 
but improvements; and the fact of your pub- 
lishing such articles under big headlines 
has given them such prestige that, no doubt, 
many beginners have accepted the improve- 
ments (?) as the latest thing out. It is usu- 
ally the inexperienced who bring forward 
the doubtful improvements. 

In speaking of the advantages of having 
but the one form of hive, I do so from some 
experience. It was my good fortune, in 
1877 and '8, after experimenting for some 
years with various forms of primitive hives, 
to obtain a copy of Langstroth's " Hive and 
Honey-bee." After some little study I con- 
cluded the ten-frame Langstroth hive was 
just what I needed; and after a season's ex- 
perience I felt quite satisfied with my choice. 
At that time there were no frame hives but 
my own in use in New Zealand. Shortly 
after, I contributed a series of articles on 
modern bee culture to two leading daily pa- 
pers, always advocating the ten-frame Lang- 
stroth; and in 1881 I published the first edi- 
tion of my bee manual in which I gave full 
instructions for making it, and compared 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



169 



by diagrams the Langstroth frame with the 
Quinby, open and closed end; Adair; Amer- 
ican; Gallup, and Abbott's Standard. 

Being, as it were, forced for the time into 
the supply trade, as well as running a bee- 
farm, I made none but the ten-frame hive; 
and in after years, when I was asked by new 
arrivals from England to supply them with 
the British standard hive, I always suggest- 
ed such a prohibitive price that they were 
forced to accept the only hive then made, 
and in mostcases they afterward acknowledg- 
ed they were pleased. I was frequently ask- 
ed to make the Heddon (which I had tried 
myself) ; the Danzenbaker when it was 
boomed, and other hives of different dimen- 
sions; but I always asked too big a price. 
My friend Mr. Brickell, at Dunedin, also 
acted similarly, so that to-day I do not per- 
sonally know of one single hive in use in 
New Zealand other than the Langstroth, 
and, with one exception, they are all of ten 
frames. In the case of this one exception, 
the owner told me that, were he starting 
again, with the knowledge he has gained, 
he would give up the twelve-frame hive for 
the ten. 

I believe that New Zealand is the only 
country in the bee-keeping world in which 
the one frame and the one hive are used 
throughout; but I can assure you, Mr. Edi- 
tor, it took some fighting through the press 
to keep this condition of things, and there 
is no fear now but that it will remain so. 

Manufacturers need keep only one kind of 
hive and frame in stock, with extractors and 
other appliances suitable for it, therefore 
they can be sold cheaper on that account. 
Knowing from experience how great are the 
advantages, I can only hope that you will 
awaken such interest in the matter as to 
bring about, sooner or later, the adoption of 
a standard hive. 

Auckland, New Zealand. 



TEMPERATURE OF BEE-CELLARS. 



Weak Colonies Successfully Wintered in a Cel- 
lar where the Thermometer at Times Stood 
at 33° F. 



BY F. li. POLLOCK. 



It has been frequently stated that a tem- 
perature in a bee-cellar averaging lower than 
40 is almost sure to result in the loss or 
weakening of colonies. With regard to 
this, an experience of my own in the winter 
of 1909 may prove interesting. 

My cellar is about 16x20 feet, under my 
house. It is floored with brick, and the 
walls are merely boarded against a heavy 
clay soil. It has two windows, both bank- 
ed with earth in the winter, and it is enter- 
ed by a short flight of steps from a board 
woodshed where the temperature stands 
about the same as out of doors. 

Nov. 2 I placed nine colonies in this cel- 
lar. All these were weak, none having bees 
enough to cover moie than four combs, and 



all were short of stores. The hives were 
blocked up an inch from the bottom-boards, 
front and rear, and were placed on stands 
about two feet high. The brood-chambers 
were not contracted. Each colony was giv- 
en a cake of hard candy weighing three or 
four pounds. This was laid flat on the top 
of the frames, and warmly packed with pa- 
per and cloths, and a telescope cover placed 
on top of all. Fruit and vegetables were 
kept in the cellar, so that some one entered 
it several times every day with a light, let- 
ting in a rush of cold air, for the door open- 
ed practically out of doors. During Novem- 
ber the thermometer averaged about 40. In 
December it sank to an average of 38, and 
remained so during January. February 
was a cold month, with outside tempera- 
tures falling frequently below zero, and sev- 
eral times as low as 10 below. 

In the cellar the mercury hovered about 
36, and two or three mornings I found it 
down to 33. I tried placing a very large 
lamp on the cellar floor, which brought the 
temperature up two degrees; but I decided 
that this was useless, since not only did the 
light disturb the bees, but as soon as the 
lamp was removed the temperature crept 
back to where it was before. 

I had very little hope of bringing my 
weak colonies through. March, however, 
turned out unusually mild, and the cellar 
rose gradually to 40° again. All the col- 
onies were still alive; but I felt sure that 
they must have dysentery or something, 
though I could see no sign of it, and I set 
them outdoors as early as I dared, April 3. 

Now, every one of those nine colonies 
seemed as strong as when I put them in the 
cellar. The worst sufferer had not more 
than half a pint of dead bees on the bottom- 
board, and most of them had merely a hand- 
ful. They had consumed almost all their 
candy, but not much ot their honey stores, 
showing, I think, that the cluster had been 
unable to move freely, and had fed upon 
what they could most easily get at. No 
queens were lost, and there was no trace of 
dysentery. 

I can attribute this successful wintering 
to only two things: First, the candy stores; 
second, the fact that the cellar door was 
opened so frequently that there was a plen- 
tiful supply of fresh air. The conclusion 
would seem to be that proper stores and 
ventilation are more important than tem- 
perature — at least, within certain degrees. 

It appears that cellar-winterers in Canada 
do not demand as high a temperature as 
seems to be required in Ohio. One of our 
most successful Dee-keepers considers a tem- 
perature of 36 to be about right, claiming 
that the bees remain more dormant, using 
le<;s vitality, and coming out better in the 
spring. 

This winter I have 22 colonies in the cel- 
lar, all of them stronger than the ones I 
have mentioned, and with their combs full 
of sugar-syrup stores. I battened up doors 
and windows, and went south to spend the 
winter. The temperature will be higher, 



170 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



but there will be less ventilation. I am 
quite anxiously awaiting the time when I 
can return to learn the result. 
Stouffville, Ont., Can. 

[A small number of colonies will often 
winter well in a cellar when a large number 
would come out in the spring in very poor 
condition. A cellar 16X20 would ordinarily 
be considered of good size; when, therefore, 
you place only 9 colonies in that cellar you 
have a number so small that they could 
hardly befoul the air, especially when you 
open the cellar frequently. Such a small 
number could stand a much lower tempera- 
ture (because of tbe comparatively good 
air) than a large number with poor air. 

You will probably find that, during this 
winter, the larger number will not come 
through in as fine condition, and we would, 
therefore, be glad to have you report the re- 
sults in the spring. 

No, temperature is not as important as 
ventilation. With good ventilation the 
bees can stand considerable range from a 
high to a low and from a low to a high 
temperature; but when the air is fouled by 
the breath of a large number of bees, too 
warm or too cold an atmosphere is apt to 
cause disastrous results. 

The general verdict of bee-keepers over 
the country is that from 43 to 46 is the best 
temperature for a bee-cellar; and if that 
temperature can be maintained between 40 
and 48 in a reasonably dry cellar supplied 
with fresh air, the bees (other conditions be- 
ing equal) should come out in fine condi- 
tion. — Ed.] 



SOME COMMENTS ON DISCUSSIONS AT RE- 
CENT CONVENTIONS. 



Advertising Honey. 



BY F. GREINER. 



The turning of our product into cash, and 
obtaining the best possible price, is one of 
the things uppermost in bee-keepers' minds. 
Speaking of extracted honey, one of our 
friends at the Geneva convention said: "Be- 
cause we ask so little for our honey, people 
are forced to think it is not worth much. 
An opposite policy followed would produce 
the opposite result." Others entertain the 
idea that the people are not acquainted with 
the article, and therefore do not use it. Ad- 
vertising is recommended. Educating the 
public by advertising, and setting forth the 
high qualities of honey, would undoubted- 
ly have a beneficial effect. Such advertis- 
ing as is done along the line of breakfast 
foods, soaps, etc., is, however, all out of the 
question, because no one bee-keeper can be 
expected to do this, on account of the tre- 
mendous sums it would require. All bee- 
keepers together can not do it, because they 
can not be united. A cheaper way of adver- 
tising must, therefore, be resorted to, which, 
however, will not prove nearly as effective. 
The New York State Bee-keepers' Associa- 



tion has decided to have school-pads made, 
the front pages of which contain matter re- 
lating to bees and honey. I would suggest 
that it be principally honey. We don't care j 
to interest the people so much about bee I 
culture as we do about the product. * 

As a means for making people better ac- 
quainted with honey, it was suggested and 
urged to make more elaborate exhibitions 
at fairs. Instead of occupying a little side 
table in the great exhibition building in 
Syracuse we ought to fill the whole room 
now generally occupied by fruits and vege- 
tables. This could be done, and the im- 
pression created that there is honey without 
end in the State. This would cost the bee- J 
keepers a great deal of money. But few ex- i 
hibitors could obtain a premium, and all 
the reward they might get would be, per- 
haps, the chance to sell their honey. If it 
were noised dbout by advertising that all of 
New York honey was to be on exhibition at 
our State fair, buyers might flock to Syra- 
cuse, and, in course of time, regularly make 
their purchases at this time. We must not 
leave out of calculation that each exhibitor 
has to pay a big entrance fee, which might 
prove more to the advantage of the agricul- 
tural society than to the exhibitors. On 
the whole, the scheme looks doubtful to me. 

A better distribution of our honey, and 
also of many other agricultural products, 
would probably raise the prices; but the 
higher the price is, the less will be consumed 
of those articles which can not be regarded 
as necessities; and when honey goes above J 
a certain proportionate price, other sweets ^ 
are given the preference. All theorizing 
will not alter this fact. I believe in every 
laborer receiving fair pay for his work, and 
it strikes me that the bee-keeper is doing as 
well as laborers employed in other fields. 
There is a decided aversion here to paying 
more for honey because " the bees work for 
nothing and board themselves." (?) 

DISEASE ON THE INCREASE. 

The next subject, and one of gravest im- 
portance, is foul brood. No bee-keepers' 
meeting has been held for the past ten years 
here without this subject taking up a great 
deal of time. When the European disease 
was first discovered in our State it was 
found present in four or five counties. The 
bee-keepers hastened to inaugurate a meas- 
ure to stay the spread of the disease, and 
four inspectors were appointed by the State 
to confine and stamp it out. Year after 
year we anxiously asked the inspectors, 
" What about foul brood? " 

"Oh! we have it under control," we were 
answered; but after ten years of efforts on 
their part, with the help of one of the bee- 
keepers, the disease is now in almost every 
county in New York; and we heard some 
one say at the National meeting in Albany, 
"The time is near at hand when every bee- 
keeper ^^iW have the disease in his yard." 
This is discouraging news; but if this is a 
fact, it will be well for us to prepare for the 
worst. The Seneca Co. bee-keepers are hav- 
ing a taste of the disease just now. They 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



171 



have lost heavily already, and they say the 
shaking plan did not save them, but cost 
them lots of money. 

Mr. J. T. Greene told us at the Ontario 
Co. meeting that he expended $750 a year 
ago on Italian queens.and comb foundation. 
The disease, however, reappeared in the 
shaken swarms, and he is pursuing different 
methods with better results, but finds it ab- 
solutely necessary to use young Italian 
queens in connection with his treatment. 
Only such combs are destroyed as are very 
badly afTected; the rest are placed in upper 
stories over excluders, queens left below. 
After ten days the brood-combs are return- 
ed. By that time the combs have been 
cleaned out. It will generally become nec- 
essary, when foul brood makes its appear- 
ance, to reduce the colonies in numbers, 
uniting two or more till a good force of bees 
is at hand in every hive. Following this 
method of treatment he succeeded this past 
season, so that he could sell $2000 worth of 
honey, with his bees much improved, 
though not entirely cured. Mr. Greene is 
preparing to rear his own queens next sea- 
son, although he says that queens can not 
be reared in colonies aflfected with European 
foul brood; but queens reared in foul-brood- 
afifected vicinities may be better — the theo- 
ry being that the bees become more and 
more immune, only those surviving that 
are most disease-resisting. 

WINTERING IN SINGLE-WALLED HIVES. 

The subject of wintering has also not en- 
tirely lost its interest among the bee-keep- 
ing fraternity. There were several at the 
New York State meeting, as well as at the 
Ontario Co. meeting, who had come to the 
conclusion that chafl hives are not needed 
for outdoor wintering — in fact, they preferred 
the single- walled hive with a good packing 
of forest leaves on top of the brood-chamber, 
and no sealed cover. Mr. H. L. Case went 
so far as to say that he would give more 
for a colony in a single-walled hive thus 
prepared than for one in his large cumber- 
some Quinby hives, other things beiiig 
equal. Dr. Schamu was & second to him. 
However, there was some opposition. Mr. 
Howe came out strongly on the other side, 
claiming that, in his northern clime, bees 
could not be wintered out of doors by any 
method with any degree of safety. Some 
years they might winter, and some they 
would not. 

I once visited Mr. Howe's bee-cellar after 
the bees had been in it several months. It 
was in March, and the bees were very quiet, 
the hives clean. We "poked" around 
among the hives for a half-hour without the 
bees becoming in the least disturbed. We 
even turned some hives up to observe the 
color of the bees, etc. Mr. Howe's bee-cel- 
lar is under his dwelling; has a cement 
floor, ventilation through a tube vipward; 
no special provision is made for the incom- 
ing of fresh air. There were 275 colonies 
stored in it; passageways were left between 
the rows of tiered-up hives. Most hives 
were painted, but some were not. The fact 



that the large stock of new hives was paint- 
ed or being painted shows that he considers 
it best to paint. The bees have usually 
wintered well in this cellar. 

OBTAINING A LARGE NUMBER OF QUEEN- 
CELLS CHEAPLY. 

We seldom hold a bee-keepers' meeting 
when the subject of queen-rearing does not 
receive its share of attention. Mr. Case gave 
his rather novel plan of having quantities of 
fine queen-cells built. It was given a year 
ago as well as this year at the Ontario Co., 
N. Y., meeting. The plan is this: A nice 
clean comb is given to the breeding colony. 
Four days later the comb, then full of eggs 
and larvse, is prepared in a warm room as 
follows: With a knife incisions are made 
with the rows of cells, to the midribs, all 
ov^er the comb. Then with a chisel every 
other strip is removed, leaving the rows of 
cells separated. In every row thus left, ev- 
ery other cell is destroyed with a match. 
Thus prepared, the comb is given to a queen- 
less and broodless colony above the top-bars 
of frames horizontally supported with space 
enough to allow for the queen-cells to be 
built. The bees take very kindly to such 
an arrangement, he says, and build a great 
many fine cells (he has had 75 built on one 
comb at one time) . It beats the larva-trans- 
fer method "all hollow." The writer of 
this believes the above a very good plan 
where one needs many cells at a time. Dr. 
Phillips, of Washington, gave very much 
the same method of producing queen-cells, 
at our State meeting in Geneva, Dec. 12, 
1910. 

A QUICK WAY OF FINDING QUEENS. 

Having so many cells to dispose of, it will 
be necessary to find many queens, and a 
quick systematic method for finding them 
will be welcome, particularly with black 
and brown bees. The Hannemann method 
of running the bees through a sieve recom- 
mends itself. Mr. H. L. Case and the in- 
spectors in our State employ it. They 
shake the bees off their combs into a box 
with a perforated queen-excluding metal 
bottom reaching partly up the sides. The 
box (or sieve) is placed in front of the hive 
entrance. The one I have used stands on 
short wire legs. The bees, when dislodged 
from their combs, climb hastily through the 
perforations and back into their hives. The 
drones with the queen are left behind. Mr. 
Case says he finds a queen every five min- 
utes with this arrangement. I would say I 
have also used an entrance-guard for the 
same purpose, but the bees are then a good 
while longer getting back into their hive 
than they are with this sieve. 

Naples, N. Y., Jan. 13. 



Odor of Tobacco from the Cigar box Killed the 
Bees. 

Referring to the bees in the cigar-box, p. 52, Jan. 
15, surely the odor of tobacco killed the bees. I had 
the same experience. Don't go hunting bees with 
a cigar-box either. 

Rolfe, Pa. J. Wheeler. 



172 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mak. 15 



BEE-KEEPING IN THE HIGHLANDS OF 
MEXICO. 



Carl Ludloff and His Simplex Hive. 



BY O. B. METCALFE. 



Returning now to Mr. Carl Ludloff and 
his Simplex hive, as he is now manufactur- 
ing it for sale and his own use at Irapuato, 
Mex., we have a very good picture of Mr. 
Ludloff together with his home apiary of 
Simplex hives. The man in the background 
is his Mexican helper, who works for the 
small sum of 75 cents per day and boards 
himself. I could plainly see that he was 
nothing but a helper in the real sense of the 
word; but, even as such, when one considers 
that his pay is the equivalent of only 37 >^ 
cents U. S. currency, it certainly is cheap 
labor. Plenty of such labor may be had, 
and even cheaper, in Mexico. 

A glance at Fig. 8 suffices to show that 
this apiary is kept in perfect order. Every 
thing is neat, clean, and orderly, each hive 
being well made and perfect of its kind. 
Seeing this I expected to find the inside of 
the hives well kept, and so it turned out. 
While in the apiary with Mr. Ludloff we 
opened a number of hives, and every one of 
them showed careful manipulation and a 
thrifty condition of the bees. On the hive 
just in front of Mr. Ludloff a little slat can 
be seen, and on the back of this a small 
piece of paper. This is one of his score- 
cards, and each hive has one on which a rec- 
ord is kept of what it did all through the 
season. 

Fig. 9 shows three of these Simplex hives. 
The first and second ones have the shingle 
water-sheds removed in order to show the 
cattail-flag mats in position, while the third 
has this mat removed to show the frames 
serving the double duty of fiames and inner 
hive walls. The two end frames are filled 
with matted bullrush about one inch thick, 
so as to form ends for the hive. Each hive 
has 17 frames and 2 division-boards, which 
are used to contract or expand the space oc- 
cupied by the bees to suit the size of the col- 
ony. Thus if a colony needs one or two 
more frames the division-board is moved 
over a frame or two. In size the frames are 
10X15>^ inches, inside measurement, and 
of a thickness to take one-pound sections. 
Each frame holds eight sections; and when 
the apiarist wishes to run for comb honey 
he places several frames with sections on 
either side of the brood with one frame of 
solid capped honey between the sections and 
the brood. 

In sections Mr. Ludloff uses foundation 
starters, but nothing of the sort in his brood- 
frames. In these he uses what he calls a 
wire starter. This wire starter he makes by 
stretching a single strand of No. 30 tinned 
wire across the top of the frame within }i 
inch of the top-bar. He claims that, with- 
out fail, they will start the comb along this 
wire, and I am inclined to believe that it 
would work in most cases, for I have often 



noticed that the bees draw combs straighter 
in wired frames than in those without wires, 
and that they are fond of starting comb any 
place along horizontal wires. Some will 
wonder what object there is in finding out 
new things about starters when every one 
knows that it pays to use full sheets of foun- 
dation. But I doubt if full sheets would 
pay in most places in Mexico. I certainly 
was surprised to see how little drone brood 
Mr. Ludloff has in his hives. I could not 
understand it until he afterward told me 
that he never kept a queen more than one 
season. 

Fig. 10 shows a Simplex hive opened up, 
with a good covering of bees on the brood 
and honey. It also shows one divisible 
frame, which is used for making increase, or 
for sending a small nucleus by express. 
The entrances, as can be seen in the cuts, 
are very small; but Mr. Ludloff keeps even 
these half stopped most of the time, and 
claims that the lack of ventilation is one of 
the strong points in his hive for his loca- 
tion. 

To describe in detail the operation and 
the many advantages Mr. Ludloff claims 
for his Simplex hive would take much space. 
In a few words I will tell how the hive im- 
pressed me. I feel that it has the good 
points of being warm and of being easy to 
handle or manipulate so far as working in 
the brood-nest is concerned, and that it is 
evidently cheap of construction. But it 
seems to me that it would "fall down " in 
that the place for storing surplus is not 
above the brood-nest; for, if I understand 
the bees' nature, they will store honey above 
thebrood-nest further from itwithout swarm- 
ing than to one side of it, because the heat 
which rises from the brood-nest can be used 
in working the wax. Furthermore, while 
the manipulation of brood in the Simplex 
hive would be very easy I do not think the 
taking-off of honey would be as easily done 
as in our standard American hive with its 
super for surplus. However, because of the 
very high price of lumber in Mexico, and 
because of the high duty and freight charges 
on our American hives, the Simplex hive 
may be the practical one for that country; 
but I feel sure that the merits of the former 
as an ideal hive do not justify Mr. Ludloff 
in the bitter impeachment he is waging in 
Mexico against them. 

Mr. Ludloff claims that his flow often 
shuts off very quickly, and that severe rob- 
bing is the result. For this reason he has 
made a bee- tent of canvas as shown in Fig. 
11. Two men can carry it any place with 
little or no effort, and it looks as though it 
might be pretty handy and comfortable. It 
affords a shade as well as protection from 
the robbers, and has a rack around the walls 
to hold tools while moving from one hive to 
another or when not in use. 

The queer cylindrical hive shown in Fig. 
12 is the kind used by the Mexican bee-keep- 
ers around Irapuato. They are mostly kept 
suspended under the eaves of the houses, 
and the honey is taken from them in the 



1911 



GLEANINGS'TN'BEE CULTURE 



173 




CARL LUDLOFF AND HIS SIMPLEX HIVES. 



174 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



same manner as 
their brother bee- 
keepers take it 
from the yucca- 
tr unk hives 
around Tampico. 
It is made from 
shts of bamboo, 
woven basket 
fashion, and is 
plastered over 
with a coat of 
mud to keep out 
the air. 

CONDITIONS I N 

MEXICO AS A 

WHOLE. 

Summarizing 
my trip of inves- 
tigation through 
Mexico I will say 
that I do not in- 



, ,,l^.- 


^*-.- 




■xs^^^^k^'^l 


f^.^ 


1 


'^m 


ti . 


|:. 



Fig. 17. — Cluster of orange-blossoms and fruit. 



tend at the present time to locate any bees 
in the republic on the strength of any thing 
I saw; but I wish to call attention to the 
fact that I did not visit the low and strict- 
ly tropical regions. I was told that one 
could buy bees in yucca-trunk hives around 
Tampico for a dollar a stand. There might 
be some money made there buying them 
and working exclusively for wax; but I 
would advise any one interested in this sort 
of thing to go and thoroughly investigate 
it before closing out any bee-outfit he al- 
ready has. I had read and had been told 
that living is very cheap in Mexico, but I 
did not find it so. I got double the number 
of dollars when I changed my money at the 
line, but it went about twice as fast; and 
with many of the common articles of food, 
two dollars in Mexican money will not buy 
as much as one dollar will in the United 
States. 
Mesilla Park, N. M. 



BEE-KEEPING IN FLORIDA. 



The Surplus-honey Sources. 



BY B. G. BALDWIN. 



-J^^t^' 









Fig. 27.— Orange-trees produce the finest honey in Florida when taken pure. 
When conditions are right the nectar can be seen shining in the blossoms, 



CQntinued from last issue. 
\\'hile in a general way the northern 
half of Florida (see map) is the land of 
the pine, and the southern half the land of 
the palm, the dotted areas will give in a more 
comprehensive way the sections of the vari- 
ous honey-producing sources. Of the fifteen 
odd sources of possible surplus honey, a 
glance will reveal the truth of the claim 
that the large majority of them are trees, 
not plants. Name any other State of which 
this can be said. 

These, considered singly and in their sea- 
sons, are about as follows: 

1. Wild pennyroyal (of the mint family) ; 
grows in the southern half of the State, 
blossoming in 
.Tanuary and Feb- 
ruary. The hon- 
ey is clear and of 
good llavor and 
body, but the 
yield is slight, as 
a rule, nor does it 
figure very largely 
in the honey put 
on the market. 
Weather is apt to 
be uncertain while 
it is in bloom. 

2. Titi [Cyritla- 
ceae, or titi fam- 
ily). An ever- 
green that grows 
in pine swamps in 
the northern por- 
tion of the State; 
gives surplus only 
in the extreme 
northwest in the 
so-called West 
Florida. It bios- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



175 



•*■ H + + + + 




soms mid-February. The honey is red, and 
strong in flavor; useful more for bakers' 
uses. As the weather is almost sure to be 
inclement, too, while it is in bloom, little 
surplus is usually secured from it. 

3. Black tupelo (dogwood family). Same 
habitat as the titi. Blossoms in early March. 
Honey is clear, white, and good flavor, but 
the body is rather thin. In consistency it 
is about like that from partridge pea or the 
cabbage palmetto. Bad weather, as for the 
titi, makes the surplus from the black tu- 
pelo rather uncertain. 

4. White tupelo {N^ussa, of the dogwood 
family) . Blooms in March in low swamp 
lands. While ft is more or less general all 
over West Florida, it forms a factor in the 
honey crop in only a rather limited dis- 
trict — the so-called "tupelo belt." This 
is confined to the swamps lying along the 
Appalachicola and Chipola rivers, in Cal- 
houn Co. Here it is the main source of sur- 
plus, and from this section all the tupelo 
honey of commerce is shipped. Honey 
from the white tupelo is almost white, with 
just a tinge of lemon hue in the sunlight 
that is very beautiful. The body is thick 
and the flavor is exquisite. It reminds one 
of th e " sm ack " of " bu mble-bee hon ey " of 
boyhood days; and that is a high compli- 
ment too, let me hasten to explain to those 
who have never been so fortunate as to re- 
member how that tastes. Some would pro- 
nounce it even superior to that from the saw 
palmetto or mangrove. Tupelo honey, we 
are glad to say, is now sold under its own 
name. Seven years ago the writer tasted 
some so-called tupelo honey in the office of 
Mr. .1. H. M. Cook, in New York, which he 
now knows was not pure tupelo honey; for 
ihe pure article will not granulate, and that 
was candied hard. By the way, that par- 
ticular honey had been sold to Mr. Cook as 
"orange honey," just because it came from 
Florida and the name was suggestive. Tu- 
pelo honey needs no such recommendation 
now. I am indebted to Messrs. Higgins 
and Hollinger, of W^wp.hitchka, West Fla., 



for a sample of pure white-tupelo honey, 
and I must pronounce it about as fine an 
article as I have ever sampled. 

5. Orange-blossom honey (all of the citrus 
family). The best sectioris of the State for 
this tree are from the north-central portion 
to the southern end of the peninsula. It 
blossoms in late February or early March. 
There is no more beautiful sight nor sound 
nor odor than an orange-grove in full bloom, 
the air redolent of perfume, and the air 
alive with humming, toiling bees amid the 
snowy petals (Fig. 17) that shine like stars 
from out the masses of shiny green leaves. 
See Figs. 27 and 29 for good illustrations; 
but no picture can do justice to the reality. 
The honey is light amber, clear, and almost 
transparent— clearer than that from saw 
palmetto, though the body is not quite so 
heavy. The flavor is delightful; "fruity" 
is about the term for it; the aroma of the 
blossom is in it— a perfume not found in 
any other honey I have ever tasted. I once 



176 



GLEANINGS IN BEK CULTURE 



Mak. 15 




sent a sample of this honey to Mr. Ernest 
R. Root, who replied as follows: "We are 
inclined to think the flavor is a little finer 
than any thing of the kind we have ever 
tasted." Of course, this means pwre orange 
honey. It is not easy to secure it in a pure 
state. Mr. W. S. Hart, of Hawks Park, 
Fla., says in the Irrigator, page 373, Vol. 
II., No. 12, "Pure orange honey is unexcel- 
led in color, body, or flavor; but it is and al- 
ways will be scarce, as it can be got only 



where there are 
extensive groves 
and nothing else 
to bloom at the 
same time, or its 
color is darkened 
and its flavor 
changed by the 
admixture of 
poorer grades 
from other 
sources." For 
example, the wild 
cherry blooms 
profusely in al- 
most all orange- 
growing sections, 
and about simul- 
taneously with 
the orange. 
Again, the or- 
ange-tree yields 
nectar profusely 
only about two years in three. Even when 
it does yield, it is an extremely difficult 
thing to get colonies up to proper super- 
strength in time for the flow. No; pure 
orange honey will never become a glut on 
the market. There is this "additional diffi- 
culty that bee-men in this particular sec- 
tion have to contend with: Our summer 
honey is dark and strong. Unless all this 
honey is taken out of the combs by the time 
orange begins to bloom, some of this dark 




Fig. 29,— OranKe-erove 1» fjajl baarine. De Land, Fla. 
honey. 



The fragrance of the blossoms comes from the 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



177 



honey is sure to be carried up into the su- 
pers, when the queens commence to "spread 
themselves" in egg-laying. It does not 
take much of the dark honey to mar the 
flavor and dull the color of the choice orange 
honey. As a rule, orange honey does not 
candy easily. The past year was a marked 
exception to the rule, however. It is prob- 
ably due to the other honeys mixed in with 
the orange. 

6. Andromeda (a scraggy shrub of the 
heath family) . Blooms in the central and 
northeastern part of the State for about four 
weeks in March and early April; yields but 
little three years out of four. The honey, 
too, is reddish yellow, thick and pungent, 
not very valuable as a surplus-honey plant. 

7. Gallberry or holly; a tree that grows in 
almost all parts of Florida. The northern 
portions, however, are more suited to its 
best growth. Blossoms anywhere from mid- 
March to early May, depending on the sea- 
son and the latitude, but almost always 
along with other honey-bearing sources, so 
that the honey is practically never obtained 
pure. For example, on the east coast, in 
the neighborhood of Daytona, it blooms 
along with the saw palmetto, and the result- 
ing honey is a blend of both. Both happen, 
luckily, to be good in flavor and alike in 
color, so that the result is satisfactory. Were 
it not a fine honey it would ruin many a 
ton of choice palmetto honey. Even where 
it is not sufficient for surplus, it comes at a 
time favorable for breeding up colonies for 
coming harvests of other sources. When 
bees are working freely on the gallberry 
their hum can be heard for many yards in 
all directions. It is my observation that 
the male holly seems to yield even more 
abundantly than the female. 

8. Saw palmetto, commonly dubbed 
"scrub" palmetto {Serenoa serrulata); a 
shrub with creeping trunk, leaves erect and 
fan-shaped, often standing six or seven feet 
high. It thrives on sandy soils, moist pre- 
ferred. Hummock lands are best for its 
growth. It blooms from April, in the south, 
to June in the northern sections 
of its habitat. The blossoms are 
small, greenish-white, arranged 
on a plume-like stem that grows 
out from a central bud in the 
head of the plant, at the base of 
the leaves. They are fragrant, 
though not so large and showy 
nor so aromatic as the blossoms 
of the cabbage palmetto. The 
honey from the saw palmetto is 
lemon-yellow in color, thick and 

waxy, and of pronounced but delicious fla- 
vor. Is not quite so transparent as pure or- 
ange honey, but seldom candies, and makes 
a choice table article. Mr. O. O. Poppleton 
pronounces it the best honey in Florida, 
' ' with possibly the exception of tupelo. " It 
is liked by almost every one at first taste; is 
a trifle milder than even orange. My friend 
Mr. Harold Hornor, Philadelphia's most en- 
ergetic honey-dealer, tells me that he pre- 
fers it to all other honeys from this State. 



He has bought it for years past. Forest 
fires often damage wide tracts of this most 
valuable bee forage, though only for that 
year. This will be referred to later under 
" Difficulties of Florida Bee-keeping." 
De Land, Fla. 

To be continued. 



BEE-KEEPING AS A HOBBY. 



Tools and Dress. 



BY F. DUNDAS TODD. 



Chapter Five. 



The tools essential for the practice of bee- 
keeping in a small way are neither numer- 
ous nor expensive, consisting practically of 
a smoker and a hive-tool. As the latter 
may be dismissed in a few sentences we will 
speak of it first. Its principal use is to force 
apart the frames in the hive which are gen- 
erally glued together by the adhesive men- 
tioned in the previous chapter — its name, 
by the way, being "propolis." As any 




Fig. 1.— Xlckeled-steel hive-tool, 
piece of strong light metal is fit for this sim- 
ple work we find many bee-keepers content 
to use a screwdriver or inch wood chisel. 
But once in a while we need something to 
scrape away the accumulations of wax and 
propolis from the frames, or the deposit of 
dead bees and other waste matter on the 




Fijr. '2. —Hive-tool, one-third actual size. 

bottom-board, and then we need something 
different. Many hive-tools have been in- 
vented; but after trying most of them the 
writer pins his faith emphatically to the 
one illustrated in Fig. 1. All the uses to 
which it can be put he has not yet discover- 
ed, for it is as handy as a bench-tool as for 
the purpose for which it was specially de- 
signed. The lower figure in the cut shows 
it;used for scraping frames; the upper, how 
theiflat end is inserted between two hive- 



178 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



bodies to break propolis connections. The 
rounded shoulder at this end is just the 
thing to get leverage when prying frames 
apart. 

THE SMOKER. 

Any one who has ever indulged in the ex- 
citement of a combat with even a single bee 
would be apt to think that the word "fear " 
did not occur in her vocabulary, and that 
no power on earth could bring her to sub- 
jection. But even the bee has her moments 
of weakness, though the writer can not for 
a second admit they are due to a streak of 
cowardice. It seems to be lather complete 
indifference to immediate surroundings 
while she is making provision for a great 
calamity that is impending. For countless 
ages the natural home of the colony bee has 
been in the hollow trunk of some monarch 
of the forest where the most terrible fate 
that could threaten would be destruction by 
fire. It seems to the writer that, as a con- 
sequence, there would be developed an in- 
stinct in the race that, on the first hint of 
smoke, would make each bee gorge herself 
with honey preparatory to a general flight 
to some safe region where the work of the 
colony could be resumed. When, therefore, 
we wish to enter a hive we force smoke into 
the interior. On opening it we find most of 
the inmates with their heads in the cells 
lapping up honey, and more or less indiffer- 
ent to the monster who is invading their 
home. In times not so very long ago, bee- 
keepers used very crude methods for driving 
smoke into a hive, such as burning rags or 
rotten wood in an open pan, and blowing 
the smoke into the chamber with breath 
from the mouth. By a happy inspiration 
Moses Quinby combined a bellows with the 
holder for the burning material, and paved 
the way for the smokers of to-day, one of 
which is sho'wn in Fig. . Essentially it 
consists of two parts — the bellows and the 
stove. When the former is quickly com- 
pressed it forces air into the stove under the 
grate on which rests the cotton or linen rags 
(never woolen), rotten wood, pieces of old 
discarded hive-quilts coated with propolis, 
oily waste, or short lengths of well-dried 



fruit-tree prunings; in fact, any thing handy 
that will smoulder slowly and give off pun- 
gent smoke. The best substance the writer 
has ever used is greasy waste. Enough of 





Fig. 4. — Two diflferent types of smokers, the hot and 
to be preferred, because it is much more efficient. 



Fig. 3. 

this to last for a whole season may easily be 
had for the asking where a steam-engine is 
used. The current of air drives a volume of 
smoke through the nozzle into the hives or 
across the frames as may be desired. 

COSTUME. 

There is nothing very stylish about the 
raiment recommended to be worn while one 
is working in the bee-yard. Like that of 
many other pastimes it is peculiar to itself, 
consisting essentially of hat, veil, and 
gloves; but, though the head gear is gener- 
ally of ample dimensions as regards the 
brim, it can not be grouped among the 
"merrv widow" type, nor can the veil be 
deemed a variety of the "automobile" 
style. The gloves may or may not be worn. 
Bee-keeping is like golf in this respect, for 
no particular regulation prescribes the prop- 
er dress wear for the hand. The brave baron 
of old worked up quite a reputation for cour- 
age by kill- 
ing off miser- 
able wretch- 
es on foot 
whose sole 
protection 
was a leath- 
jacket, while 
h e himself 
was mount- 
ed on a horse 
which, like 
the rider, 
was encased 
in steel. His 
long lance 
drilled a neat 
hole in the 
skin of the 
foot soldier 
whose short 



the cold blast. The hot blast is 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



179 



spear could 
not reach 
even as far 
as the horse's 
nose. The 
twentieth- 
century suc- 
cessor of the 
warrior bold 
of the Dark 
Ages is ttie 
bee - keeper. 
He wisely 
e n V e 1 o 13 e s 
himself in a 
coat of mail 
i m penetra- 
ble to bee- 
stings, then 
a ttacks the 
horde with a 
smoker. He 
differs from 
I h e baron 
most honor- 
ably in one 
respect — he 
does not give 
donations to 
wandering 
minstrels for 
composing 
lying lays 
about his 
courage. 

HAT. 

Any-old hat with a fairly broad brim is 
good enough for bee-keeping providing 
there are no holes in it. The wide brim 
keeps the veil away from the wearer's face 
and neck. 

VEIL. 

The veil problem is one that most men 
must settle for themselves — at least, that is 
the experience of the writer. He began with 
the ordinary veil shown in Fig. 5, but found 
it very unsafe, as holes were c .ntinually ap- 
pearing in it. Xow many old-lime bee- 
keepers are perfectly satisfied with this form 
of protection, so it must be safe enough for 
careful people; but the writer may belong 
to a different class. Besides being about 
six feet in height, he is continually bump- 
ing his head against such simple things as 




1 iL'. "i. — ijrdinary blaclc net bee- 
veil with rubber cord around top 
and bottom. 



branches, which a shorter man can miss 
without any effort. Men of the modest 
stature of five feet and some inches general- 
ly prune fruit-trees to clear their own height, 
and then wonder why a big fellow can not 
take care. 

The Alexander bee- veil shown in Fig. 6 
looked hopeful when it first appeared, and 
so one was made. It is assuredly a perfect 
protection from bee-stings, but the writer's 
hf ad never seemed to get accustomed to it. 
He felt its presence too much all the time. 
One great merit almost reconciles him to it, 
however, and that is the wonderful .freedom 
from forehead perspiration in hot weather 





;luves with long sleeves to protect the wrists and arm 



Fig. 6. — Alexander bee- veil. 

when it is worn — no mean advantage, as 
will be appreciated by those who must wear 
spectacles. A hat-band is a great producer 
of perspiration, which soon runs down the 
brow and spreads itself over the lenses of 
the spectacles, blurring vision completely. 
Such problems as these rather complicate 
one in the choice of a veil. In the writer's 
case he decided that ready access to his glass- 
es was of 
more utility 
than the al- 
most entire 
absence of 
streaks of 
sweat on 
them. Hence 
he prefers 
the Cogg- 
shall bee- 
veil and suit 
shown in 
Figs. 7 and 
S. This con- 
sists of a 
blouse to 



180 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 




B. D. TOWNSEND'S SPRINGBROOK APIARY, SHOWING EXTRACTING-HOITSE BUI1.T LIKE 

lumberman's SHACK. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



181 



which is attached an upper 
part of netting that is faced 
in front with a square of 
black wire gauze. The sim- 
plest way to make this suit 
is to buy a cottoa night-shirt 
two or three sizes larger than 
is usually worn; cut off a part 
above the shoulders, and an- 
other below the waist. From 
the remnants make exten- 
sions for the sleeves, long 
enough to come down over 
the knuckles, and cut a hole 
in the side for the thumb. 
The lower part of the blouse 
is taken up with a string 
gathered in the edges. It is 
drawn tight, and tied. 

The visor in front of the 
face is made of black wire net- 
ting. Since the larger the 
mesh the easier it is to see, 
the writer uses a piece about 
eight inches square, with a 
mesh of eight wires to the 
inch. To prevent the wire 
cutting the netting it is edged 
with a strip of inch-wide oil- 
cloth doubled all round and 
sown slowly on the sewing- 
machine. 

White netting, such as is 
used for window curtains, is the best mate- 
rial to use for the upper part of the suit, as 
it permits of a free circulation of air. It 
should be quite loose in the back, but not 
so in front, for the closer it is to the face 
the better one sees. The upper part of the 
square of wire netting should reach the 
brim of the hat; if it does not, the sun's 
rays will strike the white curtain and ir- 
ritate the eyes. It is better to sew the wire 
gauze in place before the white netting in 
front of it is cut away. The upper part of 
the white netting has a piece of elastic 
hemmed in to permit of the veil being 
speedily adjusted to the hat or freed from it. 
The pieces that protect the hands are 
made sting-proof by being coated with par- 
affine. This is easily applied by means of 
a dessert-spoon while the melted paraffine 
is hot, running it where it is wanted, and 
spreading with the spoon. 

Fig. 7 shows the veil in use; Fig. 8 how it 
can be lowered from the face for any pur- 
pose, such as mopping the brow, wiping 
spectacles, or to get a drink of water. 

GLOVES. 

When the simple veil is used it is better 
if the gloves have long sleeves, as shown in 
Fig. 9. If the stings reach through the 
cloth the gloves can be made absolutely 
sting-proof by applying a coating of linseed 
oil. This is best put on with a brush, tak- 
ing care to use the least possible quantity. 

With the Coggshall bee-suit, long sleeves 
to the gloves are unnecessary. A good 
glove for this outfit is one made of sheep- 
skin, which, the writer has been told, is 




Figs. 7 and 8.- Showing the Coggshall veil and suit. 



much used by the cowboys of the western 
plains. It is very thin, with a glossy sur- 
face which turns a bee-sting eflectively. 
Such a glove can be slipped on when the oc- 
casion demands protection, and is as easily 
taken off. 

The lower openings of the trowsers legs 
must be closed, either by the application of 
bicycle-clips, pieces of string, or by tucking 
them into the socks. High shoes are pref- 
erable to low. Ladies should wear a divided 
skirt fitting tightly to the ankles, or some 
kind of trousers under an ordinary short 
dress. 

The writer has found the Coggshall suit 
to be perfectly bee-proof, and as handy to 
don and doff as an ordinary veil. When 
he is foolish enough to wear sleeveless un- 
dershirts, once in a while the bees of an ill- 
tempered hive will attack his left forearm 
and inflict a dozen or two of pricks that an- 
noy for the moment, but the pain is gone 
in less than a minute. 

Victoria, B. C. 



BEE-KEEPING 



rOR BEGINNERS, 
TRATED. 



ILLUS- 



Thc Arrangement of the Apiary. 

BY E. D. TOWNSBND. 



A glance at the engravings will show the 
reader that our Charlevoix Co. yards are 
back in the woods, away from planing-mills 
or such conveniences. Under these circum- 
stances we built the honey-house shown in 
Fig. 2 on the plan learned of the wood chop- 



182 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mab. 15 



pers of this locality. After all the timber is 
taken off that is good for logs, etc., the re- 
maining portion is cut into wood for differ- 
ent purposes. A "gang " of perhaps half a 
dozen families will put up shacks in a cer- 
tain location where there is wood to chop, 
and then, after cutting what timber there is 
near, these shacks are taken down and mov- 
ed. The material is rough lumber direct 
from the mill, and the frame and all is put 
up with as little nailing as possible, so that 
it may be e^isily taken down and moved. 
At the destination, each part being intend- 
ed for a certain place, all goes together about 
right. Of course, some boards are spoiled 
in taking the building down and moving, 
and these have to be replaced. Tar paper 
does the rest — that is, it keeps out the cold 
and wet. In case of our building as shown, 
it keeps out robber-bees as well as the rain. 
We want the building cold to kill the moths 
during the winter, but, of course, we pay no 
particular attention to this feature. 

Figs. 3 and 4 show that the location is 
protected, and they also give an idea of the 
wild nature of the surroundings. This par- 
ticular yard is called Springbrook, so nam- 
ed on account of the beautiful spring about 
twenty rods up in the woods, from which a 
brook runs down to the very edge of the api- 
ary, providing water of the finest kind for 
either man or bees. 

The apiary proper is located on a parcel of 
level ground between two hills, with addi- 
tional protection from undergrowth on near- 
ly all sides. The foliage seen at the left of 
Fig. 3 is the wild red raspberry, and on be- 
yond is the pas' ure from which most of the 
surplus honey comes. 

Some of the colonies in this yard are a 
part of a carload bought and shipped in, 
and they are not yet in ten-frame hives, 
but they will be transferred next spring, as 
the frames are all of standard size. 

In Fig. 1 the "push" behind the wagon 
is the writer, and it is a good picture of him 
too. His oldest son, Delbert, between the 
thills, has almost entire charge of the 260 
colonies in this county. It usually happens 
that the ground slopes either toward or from 
the yard, so that a light load can be drawn 
by hand one way or the other. In this case 
the slope is from the yard, and so the load 
is pushed down to where the horse is tied. 
The horse, as shown, is hardly a safe dis- 
tance from the bees, but it was hitched at 
this point while the picture was taken. At 
the last minute, when every thing is in 
readiness for the start, the wagon is drawn 
by hand near the horse, as I mentioned be- 
fore, which is then hitched on and driven 
out of range of the bees. 

If a load is to be drawn toward the yard 
during a part of the day when the bees are 
flying, so that it would not be safe to drive 
clear up to the honey-house, the horse draws 
the wagon as near as is safe, and then is 
quickly unhitched and taken a distance 
away and hitched; then the load is taken 
the rest of the way on a wheelbarrow. 

Remus, Mich. 



SWARMING PREVENTED BY PROPER CARE 
INSTEAD OF BREEDING. 



BY J. E. CHAMBERS. 



Although I am a firm believer in Carnio- 
lans, and have now nearly 800 colonies, I do 
not have over 6 per cent swarming. For 
some years past, the swarming habit has 
been slowly decreasing — I think in exact 
ratio to my better understanding of bee na- 
ture. Another factor, I think, is the use of 
large hives at all seasons of the year, with a 
good supply of honey and drawn combs. I 
think generous ventilation and shade also 
have something to do with the non-swarm- 
ing of these bees — the so-called greatest 
swarmers on earth. But perhaps the most 
important reason why I have so little swarm- 
ing is that I try to get every colony well 
started to gathering honey before the condi- 
tion of the hive becomes crowded with young 
bees. With this object in view I winter all 
colonies with from 75 to 100 pounds of hon- 
ey in the combs; and as soon as extensive 
brood-rearing is begun I extract clean — that 
is, if there is a flow on, or near at hand. 
This gives abundant room at the right time. 
Some foundation can also be provided, and 
fine combs for cutting can be secured. As 
is doubtless known, I produce bulk comb 
honey only. 

For ten years I have been laboring to per- 
fect a method of swarm control, and I think 
I have it at last; but I have awakened to 
find that the colonies that swarm do not 
pay me for the time that I lose in manipu- 
lating to prevent the swarms; yet there are 
some seasons when bees get only enough 
honey and pollen to rush brood-rearing, but 
not enough to store much; and it is then 
that swarming is a real problem, and I like 
to know that I am master of the situation. 

CAE^ -OLANS AHEAD OF ITALIANS. 

The late D. M. Edwards told me that only 
Italians were valuable for honey production 
in this section of the Southwest, and that 
Carniolans reared too much brood and 
swarmed too much. He also told me that 
I would have to amend my practice in re- 
gard to the use of excluders, and that no 
marketable honey could be produced except 
by their use. However, in spite of all this, 
and in spite of the fact, too, that my bees 
were shipped by rail over four hundred miles, 
and hauled by wagon seventy more, coming 
through in damaged condition, and that 
less than 400 colonies were in the field, I se- 
cured 34,000 pounds of comb honey, and it 
was marketable, as evidenced by the fact 
that I sold it in the local market and at top 
prices. 

During the past year, when bees of all 
kinds were in a state of starvation, dying and 
deserting their hives in a wholesale manner, 
I again proved the vigor of the Carniolans 
and the ability of this race to stand up 
against adverse conditions when all others 
diminished or died outright. I secured $3000 
worth of honey and made 20 per cent in- 



A 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



183 



crease, and my apiaries are to-day in better 
condition than I ever had them before. 

SHADE AND EXCLUDERS. 

I certainly believe in shade, and just as 
certainly do I not believe in excluders. In 
this climate one would be blind if he could 
not see how bees suffer without shade, so 
that great numbers are engaged in carrying 
water on hot days. The water-carriers are 
reduced in number when shade is furnished. 

I can not comprehend how any one should 
wish to use an excluder that enforces such 
discomfort on the poor bees. I agree with 
Mr. Scholl that it is a honey-excluder as 
well as a queen and drone excluder. I may 
not be as scientific as some, but I should 
hate to see the day come when I would be 
compelled to use excluders, as I should cer- 
tainly regard them as a handicap of the 
most unpleasant kind. 

Uvalde, Texas- 



pieces if the corners were not bound secure- 
ly- 
Boulder, Col. 



HOW TO KEEP BEES FREE FROM EURO- 
PEAN FOUL BROOD. 



BY D. E. ROBERTS. 



A BOX ROR CARRYING SMOKERS. 



BY WESLEY FOSTER. 



In going from one apiary to another in 
our rounds it is very convenient to have a 
lighted smoker on hand so there need be 
but one lighting of smokers during the day. 
It is not safe to carry the lighted smokers 
close to any material that might be easily 
ignited, as the fire always gets to burning 
briskly before the yard is reached, owing to 
the draft caused by the moving wagon. 
Then the smoke is disagreeable to have con- 
tinually blowing into one's eyes. We fixed 




a box with a hinged door fastened by means 
of bolts to the iinder side of the wagon-box 
at the rear end. The box will hold four 
Jumbo Root smokers standing upright, and 
is made out of a wooden case that holds two 
sixty-pound cans. The box might be lined 
with tin, though we have found this unneces- 
sary so far. The sides are bound with strap 
iron to add to the strength, as the jolting of 
the wagon would soon shake every thing to 



Our problem is not how to cure this dis- 
ease, but how to make our bees stay cured. 
One step toward a permanent cure would be 
to transfer the bees in box hives into the 
"bonnet " of the owner. The constant con- 
tamination from the old box-hive colonies 
is what makes trouble. 

Another thing that all of us can do who 
have bees on movable frames is to keep all 
colonies at all times as strong as possible. 
This is difficult, under the circumstances, 
we know; but colonies which we think are 
well over the disease toward fall can be fed 
abundantly, and thus be carried over the 
sluggish period to a time when we can do 
something with them. 

"Strong colonies " is a term often used, 
but I have never read an explicit definition 
of it. At present I take it that a colony is 
either strong or weak according to the work 
it has to perform. Last summer I formed 
ten nuclei. As a matter of experiment a 
queen-cell was grafted on a comb that was 
not above suspicion — in other words, a comb 
that contained disease. This comb with its 
adhering bees, in addition to those of two 
other brood-combs, was placed between two 
solid frames of honey. This was done with 
all ten; and afterward 
eight of the nuclei 
showed no sign of dis- 
ease. I suppose this 
would substantiate Dr. 
Miller's theory, page 
753, Dec. 1, 19l0. (By 
the way, I am glad the 
doctor has the disease 
among his bees; and, 
although I hate to say 
it, I hope he will not 
run short of material 
until he is through ex- 
perimenting.) But 
these ten nuclei, I think, 
show what a few young 
bees with a young queen 
will do if put to work 
in the right manner. 

All of the so-called 
cures of European foul 
brood seem to have one 
point in common — that is, the arrest of 
brood-rearing. Apparently, nature also 
works this way. I have had colonies that 
became healthy without any help; and the 
conditions when this occurred were about 
as follows: All colonies at the time were not 
overwhelmed by the disease, but had per- 
haps over half of the brood capped. The 
honey-flow was abundant, and the queens 
were in condition to allow themselves to 



184 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



be restricted in their egg-laying. The hon- 
ey, consequently, took the place of the 
dead larvse, instead of more eggs, and the 
brood became more compact and finally 
healthy. 

I came to the conclusion long ago that 
any number of old bees with an old queen 
does not constitute a strong colony. Young 
bees with a young queen abundantly sup- 
plied with stores in the fall, and well pro- 
tected during the winter, are the prime fac- 
tors in the control of this disease. 

Knox, Ind. 



FURTHER PARTICULARS IN REGARD TO 
THE LONG-IDEA HIVE. 



BY GEO. SHIBEB. 



Having received a number of inquiries in 
regard to my artic e, page 421, July 1, 1910, 
about the Long-Idea hive, I wish to give a 
little more information in regard to it as 
used in my locality. 

A subscriber in Cuba wants to know how 
I manage when I have swarms, adding that 
such hives would be too heavy to lug around. 
Yes, they are too heavy to carry around 
very much; but I never have had to move 
any of them on this account, for I do not 
remember ever having a swarm issue from 
any of them. Most of the hives contain 32 
to 34 frames, and this size is nearly swarm- 
proof in New York State. From what I 
have read of conditions in Cuba, I should 
expect more or less swarming, even with the 
Long- Idea hive. 

The entrance of these hives is in the same 
place as usual — that is, in the middle of the 
hive at right angles to the frames. In the 
illustration, page 764, Dee. 1, 1910, the en- 
trance is in the broad side, facing the front. 
I never tried an entrance in the end with 
the side pointing toward me in the picture, 
but I do not believe I should like it. 

Another subscriber, Mr. F. McCann, La 
Gloria, Cuba, wishes to know if it would 
not be a good idea to have an entrance in 
both ends — that is, at the end where I am 
sitting in the picture referred to above, and 
also in the opi^osite end. If I lived in Ja- 
maica or Cuba I think I would try it, pro- 
vided the entrance in the long side at right 
angles to the frames, as we use it, did not 
reduce swarming; but, as I said before, I 
am not bothered very much with swarming. 
The only objection I can think of with the 
two entrances is that I should think the 
queen would scatter the brood too much. 
Mr. McCann, in his letter, said he had built 
a few Long-Idea hives having the double- 
entrance feature. I should be much inter- 
ested to read his report after he has tried 
them. 

I have never tried a cover made in sec- 
tions. Mine are nearly all of ^ hemlock 
boards, cleated at each end, and covered 
with waterproof paper. If I could get gal- 
vanized iron at 4 cts. a square foot in Cuba 
I would use that material; but why would 



it be necessary to have this over a cleated 
wooden cover? Why would not galvanized 
iron do alone to keep out the rain? Plenty 
of quilts could be supplied over the frames. 
Right here I should mention that a number 
have thought a bee-space necessary over 
the top-bars in this hive; but please bear in 
mind that I do not tier up stories. The il- 
lustration referred to shows that there is 
quite a little space between the top of the 
frames and the top of the hive — about two 
inches, in fact, which is plenty of room for 
quilt and packing. The space between the 
bottom-bars and the frames and the floor is 
about one inch. 

I do not have all of my bees in this style 
of hive, as most of them are in eight and 
ten frame hives. I have had only about 15 
or 20 in the Long-Idea hives for a few years 
back. During the harvest the Long-Idea 
hives are all right; and to my northern 
friends who are interested I wish to add a 
word of caution against building a lot of 
them, as it is very difficult to winter colo- 
nies in them successfully. I have tried win- 
tering them outdoors, leaving about ten or 
twelve frames in the middle of the hive, 
and packing at each end and on top of the 
frames. I took special pains to pack about 
a dozen in this way in the fall of 1909, but 
the result in the spring of 1910 was disap- 
pointing, for the colonies, though they 
came through alive, were weak, and only 
about five were really first-class. I have 
never succeeded in wintering out of doors 
with these hives. I wish I could report oth- 
erwise, for I hoped I could use the hives at 
outyards and save the trouble of putting 
them in the cellar; but now I lift the frames 
with the bees into regular bodies and carry 
them in the cellar; and in the spring, when 
they need more room, the Long-Idea hives 
are filled up. 

This w inter I have no bees in these hives 
out of doors, all of them being in the cellar. 
Perhaps in Connecticut the winters might 
be milder; and to any one in that State, so 
inclined, I would by all means recommend 
a trial, but on a small scale at first. My 
cellar has given such excellent results in the 
past that I can hardly expect to find a more 
profitable way of wintering, as the tempera- 
ture is almost constant at about 42 to 43 de- 
grees Fahr. If the outside temperature 
drops to eight or ten degrees below zero I 
usually find the cellar temperature about 41 
degrees. I have never tried this hive for 
comb honey, but I do not think it would 
answer at all. 

Randolph, N. Y. 



Idaho as a Bee State. 

To those bee-keepers of the East and Middle West 
referred to by Mr. Wesley Foster under "Bee-keep- 
ing and llomesteading." paee 750, Dec. 1, 1910. I 
wish to say, if you do not find what you are looking 
for in Colorado come over the Hill to the (^em State. 
There is yet homestead land to be had near good 
bee-pasture. I am not a shark or a real-estate 
agent — just a plain bee-keeper, but will gladly fur- 
nish information to any one interested. 

Caldwell, Idaho, Dec. 26. J. E. Miller. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



185 



Heads of Grain 

from Different Fields 



Getting Rid of Dark Honey in Bait Sections. 

When putting my colonies into the cellar for win- 
ter I removed the supers, intending to put them 
back on in spring. On examination I found the 
sections partly filled with very dark honey, w hich, 
if put on, would spoil the first crop of sections next 
summer. Would these be fit to use again if left to 
the bees In soring to be emptied, and stored in the 
brood-chamber, which would Insure plenty of food? 
Any information will be esteemed a favor. 

Novice. 

[This question was referred to Dr. C. C. Miller, 
who replies:] 

It would be a nice thing if you could put on the 
super in the spring, and count on the bees to empty 
out all the dark honey before tilling the sections 
again. But they will hardly do that unless the 
brood-chamber be emptier of stores than is advisa- 
ble. They seem to think that the super is the prop- 
er place for some extra honey, and will be slow 
about cleaning it out unless hard driven for stores. 

If you set the supers out in the open, the bees will 
rob out the honey; but they will also tear the sec- 
tions — that is, the comb— to pieces. To avoid that, 
you must cover up the supers and allow an en- 
trance for only one bee at a time. If there are 
many supers in the pile, allow such an entrance for 
every three or four supers. Your neighbors' bees, 
however, may get the lion's share. If there is dan- 
ger of that, start the bees at work in the evening. 
Put one or more sections at the entrance of one or 
more hives, and, when covered with bees, remove 
to the pile. That ought to start the work. Then 
after flying has ceased in the evening, or before it 
starts next morning, remove the supers or close up 
tight, and expose again next evening, just before 
fiying stops. Or you may extract most of the hon- 
ey, leaving the bees to do the final cleaning A 
special holder may be made to hold the sections in 
the extractor: or you may get along with merely a 
frame two inches wide to hold the sections. But 
you must handle them carefully so they will not 
tumble out. In any case, there is danger that some 
of the honey is candied, and it is possible that the 
best thing may be to melt the sections, lifting cflf 
the cake of wax when cold. Next time be sure to 
get such sections cleaned out in the fall, before the 
honey candles. C. C. Miller. 

Rearing Good Queens in March in Texas ; Making 
Increase for an April Flow. 

I intend to rear a few queens in March, but I do 
not know whether I can rear good ones so early; 
therefore I have decided to ask you a few questions: 

1. On Jan. 28 my bees began to gather pollen. Do 
you think I can rear good queens in March by put- 
ting one story of sealed brood on a strong colony, 
and, ten days later, removing the queen and giving 
them a comb with young larvae from my best 
queen, as Dr. Miller describes in his "Forty Years 
Among the Bees," and trim the comb as he does? 
In addition to this I wish to feed them half a pint 
of thin syrup every night. 

2. If I begin to teed my bees now, will it be possible 
to make two colonies from one by the Alexander 
plan and have them strong enough for the first 
honey-flow, which comes in April? 

Brenham, Texas. J. R. Kubitza. 

[This was referred to Dr. Miller, who replies:] 
1. You ought to be able to rear fine queens in that 
way, but likely you have set the date rather early. 
No amount of feeding can get you In much ahead 
of the usual time when bees prepare queen-cells for 
swarming. Likely you will find the mo.st difiicult 
part the getting of the right kind of a comb from 
your best queen. If you take an old comb you will 
probably get but few cells started on it — possibly 
none, for the bees will be just as likely to start cells 
on any other comb in the hive. But if you have the 
young and tender comb, as described In my " Forty 
Years," there will be no cells worth minding any- 
where except on that one comb. So you must try 
to get that comb started some time In advance. If 



you have your best queen in a strong colony, and 
give an empty frame with mere starters, you will, 
as likely as not, have the frame filled with drone 
comb. You can avoid that, of course, by giving a 
fiame filled with worker foundation; but you will 
have better results by taking away most of the 
combs from your best colony. If they have only 
three or four frames of brood, and an empty frame 
be put In the midst, you may count on the prompt 
building of just the kind of comb you want. If the 
bees are getting natural stores, the feeding you 
mention will not make any difference. 

2. The probability is that you will find the plan 
for early increase a dead failure with you. It is 
easy, however, (or you to make a trial of it with one 
or two colonies, and then you will know better than 
any one could tell you. C. C. Miller. 



Feeding Molasses and Sugar in North Carolina. 

To prevent bees from robbing each other when 
being fed is a serious matter. I have some colonies 
that must be fed not later than February 15, and 
P'lsslbly before then, and I dread it, because of sud- 
den changes in temperature. After a few warm 
days there may be cold north winds; and If there Is 
no honey-flow it is necessary to keep up feeding aft- 
er it Is once begun. Would it be safe to feed sugar- 
cane syrup or molasses, diluted with sugar (gran- 
ulated) and water to be equal in density to 3 parts 
sugar and 2 water? Would it be less exciting to the 
bees? 

How many pounds of sugar would be required to 
make, say, twenty pounds of sealed stores, such as 
bees need for winter food? 

Honda, N. C. J. R. Bryant. 

[If you have much trouble from robbers while 
feeding, feed toward night or after the bees have 
stopped flying; and do not give any more feed than 
the bees can take up in one night. For your pur- 
pose we would use a Doolittle division-board feed- 
er, or a bread-pan and cheese-cloth, placed In a su- 
per or upper story above the frames. In any event 
we would not use an entrance feeder; and it Is bet- 
ter not to use even an Alexander feeder, because 
the odor of the syrup so near the outside of the 
hive would have a tendency to attract robbers. 

We have had no experience In feeding a combina- 
tion of molasses and a syrup made of granulated 
sugar and water. If your bees can fly during the 
time they are fed we would use the cheaper feed or 
molasses: for we assume that a syrup made of gran- 
ulated sugar would be more expensive than the un- 
refined molasses direct from the sugar-cane. If, 
however, you wish to make a mixture of the two, 
we would prepare the granulated-sugar syrup so 
that Its body or consistency would be the same as 
that of molasses — that is, mix the sugar and 
water, two parts of sugar to one of water; then stir 
the two syrups together. 

As to how many pounds of granulated sugar it 
would take to make 20 lbs. of sealed stores, this de- 
pends, A good deal would depend on how thick 
the syrup was when it was fed. A syrup of two 
parts sugar to one of water, when fed to the bees 
and capped over In the combs, has shown a loss of 
about ten per cent. In other words, for about ev- 
ery 10 lbs. of two-to-one svrup fed, you might expect 
about 9 lbs. of sealed stores; or, again. 6/^ lbs. of 
granulated sugar would make about 9 lbs. of stores 
when sealed. If you fed a syrup of equal parts of 
water and sugar the loss due to the expulsion of 
water would be much greater of course — just how 
much we can not say.— Ed.] 



The Proper Paint for Hives. 

Several articles have appeared relative to paint- 
ing hives; and as I have had twenty-two years of 
experience, sixteen of which was house and ship 
painting, I will offer a few suggestions. 

To get the best results when no color is used, mix 
carefully 80 lbs. of pure white lead and 20 lbs. of the 
best American zinc. Put the Japan (not patent 
drier) in with the lead and zinc, and mix all togeth- 
er with a small portion of oil to make a stiff batter. 
The zinc is light er than the lead, and it will require 
considerable mixing to have the materials blend 
well. For this amount of material, use one quart 
of good Japan, and thin with pure raw linseed oil, 
using about four gallons to the hundred. Boiled 
oil should not be used, as manganese is used 
form the drier, and this is destrvictive to the 
ment. If the painting is done close to salt wate/ 



186 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mak. 15 



little more zinc, say about five pounds, can be add- 
ed safely; but if too much zinc is used it will cause 
cracking. I have used this mixture for many years 
for vessel work and for seashore-cottage painting 
with good success. 

The life of linseed oil when mixed with pure 
white lead is about four years. When zinc is added 
it increases the wearing qualities of the oil from 
two to three years. It is better not to apply the 
paint in one heavy coat, as two coats are prefera- 
ble, sufficient time being allowed between for the 
paint to harden. It is a bad plan to use pure lead 
for a paint where cattle can get to it, as pure lead 
chalks off, and the cattle lick it so much that they 
get the colic. I should think this might prove det- 
rimental to bees also, as the fine particles wash off 
with the rain: and should bees partake of the wa- 
ter it might poison them. 

Philadelphia, Pa. J. T. Moriarty. 



Deaths from Stings Rare. 

Please note the attached clipping, which may be 
of interest to you. However, 1 am skeptical as to 
the poison causing the woman's death. I am more 
inclined to think that the aged woman had a bad 
heart, and that the over-exertion in trying to es- 
cape from the bees caused her death, and not the 
poison. Here is the clipping: 

Mrs. Christian Knouse, of Mt. PleacaDt Mills, Fnyder Co., 
died from blood poisoning caused by bee-stings a few D'Ontbs 
ago. The deceased was over 60 years of age. <.'n the liome- 
stead she and her husband kept bees Two months atiO, while 
working with a Bwarm, both of them were severely stung. 
Mr. Knouse recovered from the poison of the bees, but Mrs. K. 
took to her bed and never recovered. Blood poitoning from 
the stings is believed to have been the d.rect cause of her 
death. 

Have you ever known of a death caused by bee- 
stings? 

Huntingdon, Pa., Jan. 14. S. A. Hamilton. 

[We have known of cases where persons have 
died from the efifects of a severe stinging. Death, 
however, always followed within a comparatively 
few hours. In all such cases the developments 
have shown that the persons who have died have 
had very weak hearts. Cases of fatalities from bee- 
stings are very rare indeed. We can not recall 
more than half a dozen in all our experience of over 
25 years with this journal, where persons have died 
from the effects of one or more bee-.stlngs. 

This particular case, however, is a little peculiar. 
We should naturally think that a case of blood 
poisoning would be of more rapid development 
than that indicated In the clipping. It seems that 
death did not take place until two months after the 
woman was stung. While it Is presumable that the 
bees were the indirect cause, the probabilities are 
that any other shock or injury would have caused 
death in much the same way. The poison of the 
bee-sting is antiseptic, or at least said to be so by 
some scientific men. It is altogether improbable 
that a case of blood poisoning could have devel- 
oped from these stings.— Ed. J 



Settling-tanks Used Five Years with Good Results. 

I have used .settling-tanks some five years, and 
they have proved satisfactory. As 1 am a poor 
man, and thought those steel tanks too expensive, 
I simply got a few sweet and clean whisky-barrels, 
standing them on end high enough from the rtcor 
to allow a 60-lb. can on small scales lo take honey 
from the faucet near the lower head of the barrel. 
Of course, the upper head of the barrel was re- 
moved. I see no need of a float. I simply dump 
the honey from the extractor into the barrel. All 
cappings and bits of comb will take care of them- 
selves, and remain right on top of the honey, where 
they should be. 

GASOLINE VS. ELECTRICITY VS. " ELBOW GREASE." 

What a difference there is among bee-keepers re- 
garding the various ways of extracting hcney! Mr. 
Townsend, I think, believes "elbow grea.se" the 
best way to turn the crank. Say! He bet It's the 
boys who turn the crank. E. D. would rather 
shove the quill at so much per page. Now up 
jumps Mr. Shepard, p. 42 Jan. 15, and says his little 
Vi-M. P. motor beats elbow grease "all hollow." 
Then up jumps old man Smith who says that, with 
his "goes like sixty" gasoline-engine and eight- 
frame automatic he can beat Shepard " all hollow" 
with his electric motor, while E. D. would be so far 
in the rear he would appear like a fly-.speck. 

Birmingham, Mich. A. W. Smith. 



Putting Crates of Sections in the Cellar Before 
Folding, to Prevent Breakage. 

I was just looking over your latest ABC and 
X Y Z of Bee Culture, at "Comb Honey," page 104, 
where you speak of the T super not squaring the 
sections that are inclined to be diamond-shaped, as 
I very often find they are with a great many comb- 
honey producers in a small way. But if the sec- 
tions are made properly I find no such trouble. 
Generally speaking, it is caused by pouring water, 
sometimes hot, in the V grooves, to prevent break- 
ing. This plan is certainly a mistake, as the wood 
takes in too much water, and swells up the end 
grain and spoils an otherwise perfect section. I 
never use any water. I just put the box of sections 
I wish to fold in a cellar a day or two; or if it is a 
rainy day I place them in an open shed for a few 
hours, where the air is good and moist, and the job 
is done to perfection, so that there are no sections 
that are not square. If I had known the trick at 
first I am sure it would have savei me lots of 
trouble. 

Arkona, Ont. I. Langstroth. 



Difficulty in Drowning Bees. 

Suppose the pores in a bee's body become clogged, 
what happens? 

Middleton. Ida. A. S. Bixby. 

I If the spiracles in the body of the bee become 
clogged with honey the bee suffocates. Even if 
the head of the bee should be perfectly dry, suffoca- 
tion will take place after a time just the same, un- 
less the honey is cleaned off. Of course, there is 
considerable oxygen inside the body of the bee In 
the complicated breathing system. You might be 
interested in knowing that, even though you drown 
bees, apparently — that is, keep them underwater 
for hours until they seem to be perfectly lifeless — 
yet under favorable conditions they will revive and 
be all right again. On one occasion when we were 
arranging to photograph a queen we kept her un- 
der water for hours, then dried her carefully and 
arranged her just as we wanted her, on a white 
cardboard, with her legs, wings, etc., in natural po- 
sition. Just as we were about to take the picture, 
however, her legs began twitching, and in a short 
time she crawled off the cardboard, apparently no 
wor.se for her experience. — Ed.] 



Writers should Tell their Main Sources of Honey 

and the Times of Bloom, for the Benefit 

of Those in Other Localities. 

If writers for Gleanings would give the kind of 
flowers their surplus is gathered from, and the usu- 
al time the flow commences and ceases, it would be 
of great value to readers in other localities, for then 
they could at once .see whether the methods de- 
scribed would be suitable for their own localities. 
Some very "bad mistakes have been made by read- 
ers not first consulting a map to see what part of 
the State or country the writer lives in, so he can 
judge about the time of the honey-flow, the kind of 
flowers gathered from, etc. In our own State of 
Ohio there is the northern part with clover and 
some basswood: the central part with the clover 
alone, and the southern part with clover and a fall 
flow as well. 

Mechanicsburg, Ohio. C. E. Leavitt. 



Good Locations in California Scarce. 

I believe the editor's advice In regard to bee- 
keepers going to California to locate is well taken. 
I know of no place where a location could be se- 
cured unless some one else were bought out; and 
an outsider has no way of telling whether he is 
getting a good location or not, for it takes an ex- 
pert to judge. Very few who have good locations 
wish to sell. 

In some parts of the orange belt, blossoms do not 
seem to yield nectar; and in the alfalfa regions the 
hay is often cut before It blooms, so that the bees 
get no honey from it. I have traveled over South- 
ern California a good deal, and I have a pretty fair 
idea in regard to the possibilities there. I have 
three apiaries in different places, and I have al- 
ways gotten along pretty well: for if I miss a crop 
In one place I am likely to make it up in another. 
This year I had 9 tons of honey from 450 colonies. 

Hemet, Cal. J. A. St. John. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



187 



A Modification of the Heddon Plan of Transfer- 
ring; Placing the Old Hive Above the New 
One for 21 Days Instead of at One Side. 

Having to make several traiisferrings I consulted 
my books on bees, and adopted the Heddon plan; 
but even with this I met many difficulties, and at 
last Invented a new plan, or, rather, an improve- 
ment on the Heddon. I work on the Heddon plan 
until the queen has passed to the modern hive; and 
to be sure of this 1 place an entrance-guard on the 
hive. As soon as the queen is safely in her new 
home I change the Heddon plan to mine in this 
wise: 

Instead of placing the old hive two feet away I 
place It on the new hive with a queen-excluder be- 
tween them; and as the old hives in this country are 
smaller than the new, 1 put it inside of empty mod- 
ern hive-bodies tiered up until they are at a height 
when I am able to cover securely with the modern 
hive-cover. 

I leave it so until the 21 days, when, in the even- 
ing, I place a Porter bee-escape board underneath 
the old hive and queen-excluder, and next morning 
all the bees will have gone below, leaving behind 
them the drones, and old crooked combs that can 
be taken care of later. 

The principal advantages to be obtained from my 
plan are as follows: 

1. It avoids the double work at the end of the 21 
days. 

2. It avoids robbing and the bee-moth in the old 
hive which naturally is weak, owing to the separa- 
tion of the bees. 

3. There is no need to worry over a fight, as they 
are practically all in one hive. 

4. It does not matter how many bees pass to the 
new hive with the queen or whether she be the first 
or last to go. 

5. If there is nectar coming in, all you have to do 
is to place a super after the transferring, and it is 
sure to be attended to. 

6. If the Heddon plan is used during wet weather, 
my plan avoids the chilling of the brood owing to 
lack of bees in the old hive. 

Trujillo Alto, P. R., Oct. 24. V, A. Texera. 

[Where you have plenty of empty hive-bodies, 
and no honey is being stored at the time, your plan 
of transferring is an improvement over the Heddon. 
But many times there is no surplus of extra brood- 
chambers; and in that case the bee-keeper would 
have to adopt the Heddon plan pure and simple. 
In any event, if there is a honey-flow on we would 
use the Heddon plan rather than your improve- 
ment. It is desirable, after all the brood has hatch- 
ed out in the brood-nest, to have as little honey in 
the combs as possible. When this brood-nest is on 
a separate stand, and it has only bees that are 
hatching out from brood, there would be no addi- 
tional honey stored in it. — Ed.] 

What Happens when Bees Boil Out over the Sides 

of a Hive that is being Manipulated in a 

House-apiary. 

Some time ago I wrote you for information in re- 
gard to house-apiaries about which I had read in 
the ABC book. I received your reply, and thank 
you much for your kindness in answering so fully. 
I intend to build a small house-apiary next season, 
and there is one thing I should like to ask about. 
As I intend to arrange the hives they will stand 
back from the wall 4 in. and up from the floor 4 in. 
to allow for ample winter protection— the bee-pass- 
age, of course, being covered. Now, in some ma- 
nipulations, as, for instance, destroying queen- 
cells, a strong colony will sometimes "boil" over 
the side of the hive, regaining the inside by way of 
the entrance after the cover is on. Now, the ques- 
tion is, if this occurred in the house-apiary would 
this quart (possibly) of bees leave the hive and the 
building by way of the inch openings you recom- 
mend, and regain the inside by way of the en- 
trance, or, if left to them.selves, cluster on the hive 
and perish? 

TROUBLE WITH CAPPING-MELTERS. 

On page 30, Jan. 15, you invite comment on cap- 
plng-melters. Two years ago I purchased one, cost- 
ing me with freight, duty, etc., added, about 115.00. 
I used it a part of one season, and it is now for sale 
cheap. I found most of the objection that others 
have noted, and in addition one serious objection 
which I have not seen mentioned by any one else, 



and that was, a great deal of the wax would be 
found in the form of loose globules, from the size of 
a pea down to almost Invisible particles. This 
could be saved only by skimming and straining, 
and even then there would be a certain amount of 
loss, and that, as you are aware, of the very best 
kind of wax. 

In regard to that question of W. M. Shields, p. 51, 
Jan. 15, I think that, although these colonies had a 
fair amount of bees when he took off the supers in 
September they must have been queenless since 
the swarming season, and, by two months later, 
dwindled away. 

Wesley, Ont. George Wood. 

[You ask in regard to the bees clustering outside 
of the h.ive in the house-apiary during the various 
manipulations. This will do no harm provided the 
inside of the house-apiary is dark and you have 
openings covered by bee-escapes in one or two 
places. If the room is dark, the bees will always go 
toward tlie light, and, when once outside, they will 
go to their own entrances. 

We believe your trouble with the grantilar wax 
was due to the fact that you evidently did not wrap 
up the can into which the honey and wax flowed, 
thus confining the heat and keeping the wax liquid 
till the work was finished. — Ed.] 



Report of the South Dakota State Convention. 

The South Dakota Stati^Tiee-keepers' Association 
held its annual meeting at Sioux Falls, Jan. 27th. 
The attendance was not large, but great interest 
and enthusiasm were shown. An instructive and 
entertaining paper on "The Bee-hive and its Occu- 
pants " was read by Miss Rhoda Carey, of Ellis. Mr. 
W. P. Southworth gave us a very heliJful talk on 
the handling and marketing of honey. President 
Ginsback told how to manage bees so as to get a 
good crop of honey. 

Secretary Syverud talked on the subject of foul 
brood. 

General discussion followed each topic, and great 
interest was shown by all. The questions and ans- 
wers flew thick and fast. 

The report of the secretary showed the association 
to be in a prosi)erovis condition. It was decided to 
hold a field meet early in July. 

The time of the next regular annual meeting was 
not decided upon. 

Officers elected were— R. A. Morgan, of Vermil- 
lion, President; Mr. C. Pabst, of Dell Rapids, Vice- 
president; L. A. Syverud, of Canton, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

Sioux Falls, S. D. Geo. F. Webster. 



Swarming More Easily Prevented with the Long- 
Idea Hives. 

In the article describing the Long-Idea hive, page 
765, Dec. 1, 1910, Mr. Shlber pays quite a tribute to 
the relic of the past generation. He truthfully tells 
some of the virtues of this hive, even if his frames 
(L. size) were shaped wrong. He forgot to state 
one Important fact, however, and so I will do it for 
him. The swarming in spring can be more easily 
controlled with the Long-Idea hive than with any 
kind of bees, regardless of their nationality; and 
Mr. Hand, of Ohio, has perfected the system for the 
Langstroth hive, which I have used in a much 
cruder way with the Long Idea, without a failure. 
Mr. Hand's system is, to my mind, one of the new- 
est kinks In hive-manipulation to control swarm- 
ing, and is worthy of a fair trial. 

Del Rio, Texas, Dec. 16. G. Koknrum. 



Bumble-bees Not Subdued by Smoke. 

I read with interest Frank C. Pellett's article on 
page 802, Dec. 15, 1910. It reminded me of an experi- 
ence that I had several years ago. I had kept bees 
for several years, and had become comparatively 
immune to the effects of their stings. I was curi- 
ous to know if this immunity extended to bumble- 
bees, and also wished to see what effect smoke 
would have upon them. I did not have as much 
confidence in the smoke as Mr. Pellett had, so I put 
on my veil and gloves before beginning operations. 
I got my smoker to going well, and then tackled a 
nice healthy colony of bumble-bees. I discovered 
in a very shori time that I could not subdue them 
with smoke; and sting? Well, rather. For several 
days I carried reminders that I was not immune to 
to the effects of their stings. 

McNabb, 111. E. O. GUNN, 



188 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



Our Homes 

By A. I. Root 



His leaf also shall not wither.— Psalm l: 3. 

Soiiie friends from the North, who have 
been reading Gleanings for almost forty 
years, were looking over our premises, and 
among other things our neighbor (Mr. Rood) 
called their attention to our six mulberry- 
trees that are now once more loaded with 
fruit, some of it just getting ripe.* It is now 
about six weeks since we had any rain, and 
yet the mulberry-trees didn't seem to know 
there was any drouth, for they were covered 
with a most luxuriant foliage as well as 
fruit, and I called the attention of our vis- 
itors to the fact that the row of trees stood 
close by the tiling that takes the water from 
our incubator cellar; and, in fact, at one 
place a box has been placed, forming a little 
spring where the chickens come from one 
large yard to drink. The spring in the cel- 
lar has never failed, so far, and I said to our 
guests, "You see, friends, these trees are 
like the one spoken of in that beautiful 
Psalm, 'And he shall be like a tree planted 
by the rivers of water that bringetn forth 
his fruit in his season. ' ' 

Now, I do not know that Mrs. Root has 
ever before furnished a text for my Home 
papers; but she did this time, although she 
did not know it. The text she furnished 
was her added remark to what I had just 
said, "His leaf also shall not wither." 
Somebody then added, "And whatsoever 
he doeth shall prosper." Mr. Rood was 
standing near me, and I caught a bright 
twinkle in his eye as I followed with the re- 
mark, " Dear friends, that last is a wonder- 
ful Bible promise; and can it indeed be 
all true?" Since that time I have been 
pondering a good deal on that first Psalm, 
and, in fact, 1 have read it many times over 
and over. 

Our good pastor, Rev. J. E. Henderson, 
has been giving us some startling and won- 
derful sermons of late. In one of them he 
spoke of formal prayers, repeating the same 
thing over and over, for instance, and he 
said something like this: "Suppose you 
were to go to your grocer or to the drygoods 
store and repeat the same lingo over and 
over every day; what would he think of 
you? The Bible again and again enjoins us 
to ask for the things we need, and says to 

* These six mulberry-Jrees were little whips set 
out three years ago. Last April they were so load- 
ed with fruit (large htscions fruit, let me tell you) 
that we and our neighbors could not use them all, 
and at one period they got dead ripe and fell on the 
ground until even the chickens had more than they 
could use: and this year there is a bigger crop than 
ever before, and they are commencing to ripen the 
last of February. It hardly seems a month ago that 
they were destitute of foliage; and I can hardly 
realize that it is possible they are not only now In 
full leaf, but full of fruit. I presume it is largely 
owing to our very mild January and February, at 
least so far. 



US, ' Ask, and ye shall receive.' " Last Sun- 
day eve his subject was about starting in 
the work for the new week, and he most 
earnestly enjoined praying over our plans, 
undertakings, and projects. His text was 
Mark 1: 35: "And in the morning, rising up 
a great while before day, he went out and 
departed into a solitary place and there 
prayed." Then he added, "How many of 
you, friends, are in the habit of following 
the Master so far as to get up before day 
and pray about the work and tasks (often 
disagreeable ones) that lie before you?" 
Then he followed with an astonishing list of 
illustrious men and women whose labors 
have benefited the world, who were very 
much in the habit of rising early, and pre- 
facing every undertaking with most earnest 
and heartfelt prayer. 

His earnest sermon called to my mind an 
incident of my early Christian life. Those 
of our readers who have taken Gleanings 
for thirty or forty years will, perhaps, recall 
the story, and that, when I turned partly 
away from bees, and began studying the 
Holy Scriptures, I was something like the 
man whose "delieht is in the law of the 
Lord, and in his law doth he meditate both 
day and night." Now please, friends, do 
not think I am boasting, for God knows I 
am only telling you this story just as I 
would try to help you about raising mulber- 
ries and chickens. You know how much I 
am still given to hobbies; and when I first 
began testing "the promises of God," is 
it any thing strange that I should become 
not only enthusiastic, but even what the 
world might consider reckless? In my en- 
thusiasm I went into our county jail, read 
the Bible, and prayed with a poor soul who 
was on his way to the penitentiary; and 
when he was honestly converted, as I had 
faith to believe he was, I was permitted to 
take him out of jail and set him to work. 
I was a jeweler at that time; and when one 
of the clerks who slept in the store was sick 
or called away I asked my new-found friend 
to take his place and keep watch of the val- 
uable goods. He assented, but rather so- 
berly, 1 thought; but in the evening, after I 
had closed up and was getting ready to go 
home, he came up and stood by the show- 
case. Pretty soon he began drumming on 
the glass, and finally commenced some- 
thing as follows: 

"Mr. Root, do all these watches and 
things stay right here in this show-case 
over night?" 

At that date safes were not so muca in 
vogue as they are now, and I had little mon- 
ey to buy one, even if they were. After a 
little he commenced again: 

"I suppose some of these watches are 
worth thirty or forty dollars, are they not? " 

"Yes, Fred, more than that. You are 
not afraid of so much responsibility, are 
you? " 

"Mr. Root, do you realize what you are 
doing? You have, in your wonderful kind- 
ness of heart, taken me out of the jail, and 
now you propose to put me, a hardened sin- 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



189 



ner and thief, in charge of all this valuable 
property. Just a few weeks ago I would 
have jumped at the chance to take every 
thing here and go off in the night where 
you could never tind me." 

Then he broke down and cried — cried as I 
have never before nor since seen a strong 
man cry, and, dear friends, I am crying 
now, so I can hardly see the letters on the 
typewriter, as memory brings back again 
that scene. After he had calmed down a 
liitle, I said: 

" Fred, you are not afraid your old temp- 
tations will come back when you are here 
alone in the night time, are you? " 

He replied through his tears, "No, Mr. 
Root, no! God bless you, no. I am only 
too glad of the chance to show you that I 
will give my last drop of blood to protect 
you or yours;^' and he kept his promise 
until the day of his death. 

Just a word right here. In our State of 
Ohio there are toward 20U0 men and boys in 
our penitentiary, and just now the papers tell 
us many of thtm are going insane because 
some foolish (and, I dare say, selfish and 
greedy) legislation has cut off prison labor. 
How many are there among these men and 
boys who might be won over to Christ Je- 
sus if some man or woman who "meditates 
both day and night" could go in loving 
kindness and present the matter to them as 
as I did to poor Fred? 

Yes, people were astonished and surprised 
at the \\ay my new project (as they were 
pleased to term it) was turning out, and, as 
a matter of course, Satan soon began to 
" sit up and take notice." It became noised 
abroad that a desperate fellow just out of 
jail had charge of my premises nights, and, 
furthermore, it was reported thatl had said 
in prayer-meeting I was asking the Lord to 
help me pay my debts. I was just at this 
time putting up the first brick structure 
of what is now a mass of buildings on our 
grounds. The walls were up, but the roof 
was not yet on, and it was coming on win- 
ter. Although I had so far paid all bills as 
agreed, when everybody wanted their mon- 
ey all at once, I found myself in a very un- 
pleasant predicament. 1 well remember 
one afternoon when I went up street and 
down to get a little loan from all who had 
been kind and ready before; but now all, 
seeming with almost one consent, turned 
against me. One good old farmer gave me 
a temporary loan when I told him the con- 
dition of things. Even Mrs. Root was wor- 
ried, thinking maybe I had been too reckless. 
Yes, I was troubled too; but I remembered 
that part of the little hymn, " What a friend 
we have in Jesus!" which we sang so much 
in jail at just about that time; aiso "Take 
it to the Lord in prayer." Our property was 
already mortgaged to finish that new build- 
ing, and my life was insured also for the 
benefit of a friend who had let us have mon- 
ey. We did "take it to the Lord in pray- 
er," and, let me tell you, the prayer was no 
half-hearted repetition." I told God, just 
as Elijah did, what the trouble was, and 



what we wanted; and he not only heard but 
answered. I wish >ou would all read the 
whole verse from which I have taken my 
text. And, while you are about it, read that 
whole short chapter. Is it extravagant in 
what it says about the man "whose leaf 
also shall not wither" ? Listen. Before the 
money was due that I must have, a man 
came from Quebec, Canada, to see my in- 
ventions for bee culture, etc., and he was 
interested too in getting boys out of jail, and 
setting them to work; and before I had told 
him, or before he knew a thing about my 
cramped finances, he sent me $500 in gold, 
and it reached me the very day that the 
money had to be raised. Was our good pas- 
tor extravagant in what he said about pray- 
ing for just what we needed to do the work 
that lay before us? and about the man who 
makes it the practice of his daily life to 
meditate on God's holy law "both day and 
night " ? does it not seem true that " what- 
soever he doeth shall prosper " ? 



Poultry Department 



By A. I. Root 



MY " PROGRESSIVE " CHICKEN - RANCH 
DOWN IN THE FLORIDA SUNSHINE. 

I have for some time past had visions of 
a row of yards, small at first, but gradually 
growing larger as the chicks grow, where 
the lit" le chaps can be moved along, or "pro- 
moted," as fast as they get bigger, and for 
the first time in my life it (the daydream) 
is pretty well realized while I write. The 
row of yards is right along the street, and 
the first one where the chicks are taken 
when first out of the incubator is perhaps 
only two or three rods square; but the ground 
is sown with oats so as to have them just 
coming up when the chicks are first put in. 
We carry them to their yard in the basket 
brooder I have described, and during warm 
sunny weather, such as we have had almost 
all of January, their only covering is the 
feather dusters I have described, except a 
light piece of cloth thrown over the basket 
at night when I carry them to the incubator 
cellar while very young. This feather-dust- 
er brooder right by the street causes quite a 
little attention and remark. For instance, 
some ladies called one evening to look at 
my "wonderful improvements," etc., and 
finally one of them asked if it was true I 
hatched eggs placed under feather dusters, 
just bv the heat of the sun. 

"Why, the boys declar-ed it was so; they 
said they saw the whole apparatus going 
every day as they passed along the road." 

Come to think oi it, I am not so sure this 
will not some time be done. All we want is 
some sort of storage battery that will accu- 
mulate heat during the day and give it out 
during the night. Well, the first shelter is 
the basket-brooder — a piece of enameled 
cloih being provided in case rain should 
come up, and to put o\ er them nights when 



190 



aLEANlNGS IN SEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



they are, say, a week old and can be left out 
all night. Of course our yards are closely 
fenced with inch netting that goes well 
down into the ground to protect the very 
young chicks. The next yard to which they 
are moved when about three weeks old is 
larger, and has a more substantial brooder, 
or brooders with more room. Much venti- 
lation is required here, and so all the small 
house brooders and houses have more or less 
inch netting in their construction. We 
now have five yards in our "progressive" 
series, the largest being about four rods 
square. The brooder houses keep getting 
larger until the last one is almost big enough 
for the attendant to stand up inside. We 
have a 70-egg Cyphers . incubator, so each 
yard contains, say, from 40 to 60 chicks; 
and when a new hatch comes off, we just 
"promote" each family to the next house 
and next yard. As they are all shut in at 
night we just pick up the brooder or little 
house and carry it through the gate into 
the next yard. So far our work this winter 
has been remarkably successful. We have 
scarcely lost a chick; no vermin of any sort, 
big or little, since the possum we caught, 
mentioned in ihe Feb. 15th issue, 1910, and 
we have yet to find a single insect on grown 
fowl or chick. Very likely the "heroic" 
measures my brother took last summer, not 
only to rid but to keep away all vermin, has 
had much to do with it. 

Besides my incubator-hatched chicks we 
had had more or less hens sitting all the 
time. In order to prevent jangles about 
ownership of the chicks we have not more 
than one hen with chicks in each of the 
large yards where the laying hens are. Now 
we keep in stock three sizes of poultry-net- 
ting — one-inch, two-inch, and three-inch 
mesh, all two feet wide. All outside fences 
are, for the lower two feet, one-inch mesh; 
all inside yards for small chicks are also 
inch mesh; while the inside yard for lay- 
ing hens and all adult fowls is two-inch. 
The three inch is used only for the upper 
part of the inside fences and sometimes for 
the lower part also, where we wish to admit 
the good-sized chicks into the growing oats. 
Bear in mind what I have told you about 
the "green pastures "we keep all around 
the ranch by sowing oats and other green 
stuff in the ten-foot-wide lanes. 

Well, while the mothers of the chicks can 
not get into these green lanes and tear things 
up, the chicks have access at all times*; and 
I know of no prettier sight than to see a 
brood of happy chickens pasturing on the 
oats in these green lanes, and I do not know 
of any thing that makes chicks grow" as do 
oats about two inches high. 

MY INDIAN-RUNNEB-DUCK STORY. 

Just as I started on my summer trip to 

* We also have chick feed and water penned off 
by two-inch netting, so the chicks can always get 
food and drink without being tramped on and bul- 
lied by the older fowls. Cosgrove, in the Rural Netv- 
Yorker, calls these places for chicks, when kept in 
yards for larger fowls, " cities of refuge." I am glad 
to be reminded that friend C. Is keeping in touch 
with his Bible. 



Florida on the 26th of July last, a setting 
of duck's eggs was just hatching. I think 
we got about an even dozen from the 15 
eggs; but before I got back (in 25 days) all 
were dead but four. Mrs. Root did every 
thing all right so far as we could discover, 
allowing them to run with the other poultry; 
but after I gave them a yard by themselves 
no more died. We had them expressed 
down here, and they proved to be two ducks 
and two drakes, and one of the ducks began 
to lay about the first of the year, when she 
was a little over five months old. The other 
commenced a little later, and both have 
given us an egg every night with more reg- 
ularity than any Leghorn or any other breed 
of hens I ever owned. Well, the back side 
of our five acres is bounded by a running 
brook that empties into the bay, so we have 
a fine place for ducks; but I failed to induce 
them to go into the water until an accident 
happened. The books and journals tell us 
a two-foot fence will hold ducks. It seemed 
to hold ours until just about the time the 
first one began to lay. As they were getting 
old enough about that time to amuse them- 
selves by chasing my buttercup hens, we 
fenced them off near the creek with the two- 
foot netting; but one morning the laying 
duck was out and at her old pastime. When 
we tried to drive her back she seemed to 
have gotten wind of fehe women 's-suflfrage 
movement (or was she minded to have a 
' ' honeymoon ' ' all by herself?) for she sprang 
up into the air and not only scaled the two- 
foot fence, but went almost as high as the 
tops of the pine-trees. Isn't it funny that 
ducks and chickens, having all the finished 
mechanism for aviation, seldom or never 
use it, while man, after ages of vain endeav- 
or, has only just "got off the ground"? 
Here I have been, leaving my valuable 
ducks all this time away "up in the air." 
Well, when she came down, ducklike she 
alighted in the water, the first time in her 
life to get into water deep enough to swim 
in. I was in a quandary. Her antics in 
the water surpassed any thing I have ever 
witnessed in the way of trained animals; 
and yet when a boy I was an enthusiast in 
witnessing the feats in the animal shows. 
Was she going to turn wild duck, and fly 
away and never come back? I glanced at 
her three companions, and they were evi- 
dently wild to follow her example. Think- 
ing I had better get them all together as 
soon as possible I raised the netting and al- 
lowed the whole four to go out into the pub- 
lic stream, and there they caroused and ca- 
vorted all night and all next day with hard- 
ly a moment's stop so far as I could discov- 
er. They did not seem to get hungry, for 
they made the discovery that the yellow 
moss* floating on the stream was good for 



* This moss that floats on the water is a sort of 
vegetable growth or alga? that often forms on spring 
water where it is exposed to the heat and light of 
the warm sun. The water of this brook or drainage 
canal is probably, a large part of it, from the vari- 
ous artesian wells along Its course, and this ac- 
counts for the abundance of moss the ducks seem 
so fond of. 



1911 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



191 



food; and with the fish and aquatic animals 
they caught where the fresh and salt water 
commingled they seemed to be well supplied 
with food without any expensive grain ra- 
tion. Edgar Briggs, in his book, has a chap- 
ter on keeping poultry in a way that you 
will have "nothing to do but gather the 
eggs;" hadn't I gotten it to a dot? There 
was just one little trouble: Wesley gathered 
the eggs, which were found these times in 
the bottom of the brook; and as he had to 
crawl through a fence made of netting and 
barbed wire, and then walk over the sharp 
stones of some kind of coral rock in the bed 
of the creek, "gathering the eggs" was no 
small "joak" after all. I am glad to tell 
you that we have the ducks at this date 
(Feb. 9) so trained that they lay their two 
eggs every day in a nice nest on dry land 
and they also understand they can't "go in 
swimming "until said eggs are in my hands, 
and that is usually before daylight every 
morning. There have been no more avia- 
tion experiments up to date. They evident- 
ly think aquatics preferable. 

Right here I want to whisper a word to 
my good friends the Wright brothers. A 
year or two ago they made some experiments 
on a craft partly in water, and partly in air. 
Well, my ducks are experts in that trick. 
A few days ago a Leghorn rooster was so 
unlucky as to get over the fence on the edge 
of the water. As soon as the four "duck- 
eys " saw his predicament they remember- 
ed they hadn't had any fun chasing chickens 
for a long while, and they, one and all, shot 
over the water as if they had been fired out 
of a cannon. Their wings and legs both 
flew like buzz-saws, while the water flew in 
rainbow sprays, and the rooster (frightened 
out of his wits) rushed to me for protection. 
Where the soft fresh water pours into the 
bay when the tide is down, there is quite a 
pretty little waterfall; and when we have 
visitors (and there are quite a few bee-friends 
coming from the great North almost every 
day) I am sure to find them all delighted 
with a view of the ducks, especially if they 
happen to be sporting and splashing about 
in the waterfall. And, by the way, I want 
to say the ideal place for ducks is beside run- 
ning water. Lakes and ponds may do; but 
a stagnant muddy pool in clay soil is noth- 
ing to be compared with a running stream 
over a bottom of white sand, such as we 
have here in Florida. 

Just one more thing: Duck eggs that are 
laid in the water, esjiecially if they lie there 
for some time, are not just the thing for in- 
cubators or sitting hens — at least that has 
been my experience. The moss and the 
animal food they found in the water satis- 
fled them for only a time, and it was their 
final hankering for the grains of nice yellow 
corn that enabled me to get them to come 
home just about sundown so I could let 
down the netting and fasten them in. At 
present we are setting every egg, and I am 
looking forward anxiously to the day when 
we shall have a lot of ducklings as well as 
ducks sporting in this beautiful clear run- 



ning water, flowing over a bed of white sand 
thickly sprinkled with little shells that 
make it look for all the world like a spark- 
ling rivulet with a pebbly bottom. And, 
talk about the beauty of swans! to my eyes 
my four ducks with their plump bodies and 
glossy jDlumage are handsomer than any 
swans; and the two eggs every morning, 
like "distance," "lend enchantment to the 
view." Do you wonder that I feel moved 
to say aloud when I go out in the morning, 
after my daily bath just before daylight, 
"praise Uod, from whom all blessings flow "? 

To-day, Feb. 18, both ducks are still lay- 
ing an egg each every morning, without a 
miss. I put the first three or four eggs un- 
der a hen, but as they were all but one drop- 
ped in the water I had only one fertile egg. 
This was started in the incubator, then put 
under a hen, and finally finished in an in- 
cubator. At just about 21 days, by putting 
the egg to my ear I could hear a faint tap- 
ping inside; at 22 days I distinctly heard 
the duck peep in answer to my taps on the 
egg with my finger-nail. At 27 days the 
egg was chipped, and on the 28th day, after 
dark, my duckling was out of the shell. 
Next morning, when the sun was well up, 
he was scampering around outdoors in the 
Florida sunshine. Of course, he was out 
only at intervals, for, like his owner, he at 
present needs frequent periods of rest and 
sleep. All the duck eggs are being put un- 
der hens, so far, and my last two tests of 
ten and twelve esgs respectively showed 
every egg fertile. This is quite a contrast to 
the troubles we have been having with so 
many unfertile Buttercup eggs. 

Lest some should rush to the conclusion 
that this may be a fault of the Buttercup 
males, let me add that hens from other yards 
were almost determined, so it seemed, to 
get in with this gaudily attired Buttercup 
rooster with his lordly and majestic bearing 
— so much so that, about this time, I count- 
ed up one day 25 hens, mostly White Leg- 
horns, following in his wake. Lucky (isn't 
it?) that I am not in the business of selling 
eggs? Well, I have now cut down his "ha- 
rem " to less than a dozen females, and am 
watching for a better report on "fertile eggs. ' ' 



THAT "PRIMING WIRE," ETC., PAGE 119, 
FEB. 15. 

After what I said about getting the Sears 
automobile started was in print I received 
the following from the makers: 

The wire which you find extended through the 
frame of your car and attached to the butterfly 
valve in the air intake of your carburetor Is there 
to enable you to shut off your air when cranking 
the motor. This action will permit of a rich charge 
being drawn in your cylinders, which will be easily 
ignited by the spark-plug. Very few of our carburet- 
ors have a priming-device and also this butterfly 
valve in the air intake; but it does no harm to have 
both. They really are for the same purpose — that 
is, to permit of easy starting of the motor. 

Chicago, Jan. 30, Sears, Roebuck & Co. 

You will notice this implies that this 
"starting wire " is to be pulled back and 
held back while cranking, whereas we, sup- 



192 



GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE 



Mar. 15 



posing it to be to start the gasoline, let it 
spring back in place while cranking. I give 
place to this, for cranking automobiles has 
now become fatiguing task to many peo- 
ple. 



BEDBUGS, JIGGERS, ETC. 

I get away with redbugs with five to ten drops of 
carbolic acid in a tumbler of water — more or less 
acid as you wish. One needn't send a dollar for the 
secret. But such bugs are not peculiar to Florida 
at all. Except six years at school in New England 
I have lived my whole life in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. Though I traveled in nearly all the States. I 
have never yet found a place where they could not 
be found. I am in the real-estate business and 
mortgage loan agent for the Union Central Life Ins. 
Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, and do much inspecting of 
farm and timber lands; and at the right season for 
them, when I go to inspect woodlands I always car- 
ry with me a small bottle of the above, and apply 
it at once the first night after being out, and have 
no more serious trouble from them; whereas with- 
out it they will make life miserable for two to four 
days after being in the woods. The country people 
are seldom bothered with them. The bugs seem to 
like fresh blood just from town. In Florida, no 
doubt, they are worse on account of greater damp- 
ness making more decaying wood, though I have 
no doubt that in Ohio, if you try at proper places 
you wlil find more than you wish to come in con- 
tact with. The timber being so much scarcer there, 
and the rotten parts kept cleaned up for use so much 
closer, I guess is the reason you don't find them at 
all common. Country folks here call them "chig- 
gers." I don't know how the dictionary spells it. 
I consider it a joke on a city fellow to lead him un- 
wittingly around through places infested with them, 
and get him well covered by them. 

Paducah, Ky., Sept. 6. W. M. Janes. 

Friend J., I am glad to know that redbugs 
are not confined particularly to Florida 
("misery loves company," you know), al- 
though 1 can not remember having been 
troubled by them anywhere else. Any thing 
will stop the itching that makes the fever- 
ish eruptions smart; and we have rather set- 
tled down on sal soda moistened just a lit- 
tle. Rub it briskly where you have been 
bitten, and the itching sensation will give 
place to a smarting from the strength of the 
alkali. When the smarting is gone, the 
itching will be over for the present. I have 
not yet found an entomologist who could 
tell me whether these insects penetrate the 
skin. I know they are often called chiggers 
or jiggers, but this is certainly a mistake, 
for the real jiggers are what I have describ- 
ed as the stick-light flea, sometimes found 
in great numbers on the combs and wattles 
of common fowls; and in Florida during a dry 
time they get on people. These produce no 
swelling; but when they crawl down under 
the skin and get to sucking blood they pro- 
duce a very unpleasant sensation. These 
rarely or never trouble when there are steady 
rains. They are large enough to be plainly 
visible; and when they are pulled out of the 
flesh with a pair of watchmaker's tweezers 
the trouble is all ended, and no eruption 
nor itching follows. 



DRUGS FOR BABIES. 

It is"a cruer thing to give poor innocent 
chickens drugs and poisonous medicines, 
especially if we neither know what the trou- 
ble is„nor ,what the medicine is; but it is a 



thousand times more shameful and cruel to 
give to babies these dangerous and baneful 
drugs. Read the following, which we clip 
from the Union Signal: 

BABY-KILLERS. 

It is good to see that the leading daily papers are 
beginning to speak plainly about harmful medi- 
cines. Back of the general awakening is the atten- 
tion chemists are giving to this matter, and the fact 
that the government itself is moving in the right 
direction. Perhaps, after awhile, we will take as 
good care of the health and lives of babies as stock- 
raisers have long taken of calves and lambs. 

Just now Dr. L. B. Kebler, of the Bureau of Chem- 
istry, in the Agricultural Department at Washing- 
ton, D. C, is saying, "Babies doped with soothing- 
syrups containing harmful drugs are particularly 
liable to infantile paralysis and kindred diseases." 
He has made public a list of thirteen soothing-syr- 
ups which he calls "baby-killers," and against 
which he warns the public. 

Dr. Kebler has suggested that druggists enter in- 
to an agreement not to sell these harmful drugs ex- 
cept upon prescription from a physician. He also 
classes Jaynes' carminative balsam as a "killer." 

Some of Dr. Kebler's "baby-killers" have been 
printed on these pages before, but they can not be 
held up to the public eye too frequently, so here 
they are: 

Mrs. Winslow's soothing syrup (morphine sul- 
phate). 

Children's comfort (morphine sulphate). 

Dr. P"'ahey's pepsin anodyne compound (morphine 
sulphate). 

Dr. Fahrney's teething syrup (morphine and chlo- 
roform). 

Dr. Fowler's strawberry and peppermint mixture 
(morphine). 

Dr. Groves' anodyne for infants (morphine sul- 
phate). 

Hooper's anodyne, the infant's friend (morphine 
hydrochloride). 

Jadway's elixir for infants (codeine). 

Dr. James" soothing syrup cordial (heroin). 

Koepp's baby's friend (morphine sulphate). 

Dr. Miller's anodyne for babies (morphine sul- 
phate and choral hydrate). 

Dr. Moffett's teething powders (powdered opium). 

Victor infant relief (chloroform and cannabis in- 
die:/). 

Now, if you have any of the above medi- 
cines in your home we hope you will destroy 
them at once before there is a possibility of 
their harming innocent children. 



My subscription to Gleanings may be extended 
for another year. I feel sure that my boys and I 
shall find "Camping and Woodcraft " very enter- 
taining as well as profitable. My continued sub- 
scription to Gleanings is for the great pleasure I 
find in "Our Homes" department, by grandfather 
Root. May he live yet many years to continue his 
good work. 

Delamar, Idaho, Dec. 10. H. J. Stuart. 



I want Gleanings as long as I live. It's all right, 
and I don't know how it could be improved. I am 
much interested in the "Home" articles and A. I. 
Root. May he long live to give us cheering and 
helpful articles. 

The illustrations are perfect, and I am much pleas- 
ed with the moving-picture department, and. In 
fact, with every thing from the index to the last ad- 
vertisement. 

Abilene, Kan., Dec. 15. Dr. Frank Parker. 



I received Gleanings, which, for the last thirteen 
years, has been a welcome visitor, and has never 
failed a single time that 1 can remember. 

I certainly would have remembered if my friend 
had failed to come. It Is more and more interest- 
ing every year if not every month. I have " The A 
B C of Bee Culture " and some other bee literature. 
I should like to have more; but if any one bee pa- 
per will answer the purpose of all other bee papers, 
I think that Gleanings will. It certainly is a good 
paper from cover to cover, and even the cover is 
interesting. Miss Sarah A. Austin. 

Prowers, Colo., Dec. 13. 



O^kantttgs t« S^^ Culture 

Published by The A. I. Root Co., Medina